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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Implant Survival Rate and Marginal Bone Loss of 6-mm Short Implants: A 2-Year Clinical Report.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate (1) the association between implant diameter and marginal bone loss (MBL) of short (6 mm) implants and (2) the survival rates of short implants.
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Development of 107 SSR markers from whole genome shotgun sequences of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) and their application in seedling identification.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is one of the important subtropical fruit crops native to the South of China and Asian countries. In this study, 107 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies, cultivar identification, and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. M13 tailing for forward primers was applied as a simple method in different situations. In total, 828 alleles across 45 accessions were detected, with an average of 8 alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 10.41 with an average of 4.08. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.13 to 0.89, with an average of 0.63. Moreover, these markers could also be amplified in their related species Myrica cerifera (syn. Morella cerifera) and Myrica adenophora. Seventy-eight SSR markers can be used to produce a genetic map of a cross between 'Biqi' and 'Dongkui'. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to assess the genetic relationships among accessions, and the elite accessions 'Y2010-70', 'Y2012-140', and 'Y2012-145', were characterized as potential new genotypes for cultivation.
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A rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the prostate in an 84-year-old man on a background of high grade, superficially invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate are thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease and a worse prognosis.
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MMP-2 responsive polymeric micelles for cancer-targeted intracellular drug delivery.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Multifunctional Biotin-PEG-b-PLL(Mal)-peptide-DOX polymeric micelles were prepared to selectively eliminate cancer cells. The micelles were able to enhance cancer cell uptake via the receptor-mediated endocytosis and respond to the stimulus of cancer cell excessive secreted protease MMP-2 to release the anticancer drug and induce apoptosis of cancer cells in a targeted manner.
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Cosmetic procedures among youths: a survey of junior college and medical students in Singapore.
Singapore Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Although cosmetic procedures have become increasingly popular among the younger population in recent years, limited research on this subject has been done in the Asian context. We aimed to explore the views and knowledge regarding cosmetic procedures among junior college (JC) and medical students in Singapore.
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[Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350.741, 8 876.115 kg x hm(-2), respectively. The results indicated that ridge tillage and straw mulching conservation tillage significantly improved the carbon sink in the wheat farmland ecosystem.
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A pH-responsive prodrug for real-time drug release monitoring and targeted cancer therapy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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A novel cancer targeting and pH-responsive prodrug was successfully designed and synthesized. This M-prodrug was demonstrated to have real-time drug release monitoring capability based on the concept of contact-mediated quenching between doxorubicin and a coumarin derivative.
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Stepwise-acid-active multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles for tumor-specific nucleus-targeted drug delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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In this paper, a novel stepwise-acid-active multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN-(SA)TAT&(DMA)K11) was developed as a drug carrier. The MSN-(SA)TAT&(DMA)K11 is able to reverse its surface charge from negative to positive in the mildly acidic tumor extracellular environment. Then, the fast endo/lysosomal escape and subsequent nucleus targeting as well as intranuclear drug release can be realized after cellular internalization. Because of the difference in acidity between the tumor extracellular environment and that of endo/lysosomes, this multifunctional MSN-(SA)TAT&(DMA)K11 exhibits a stepwise-acid-active drug delivery with a tumor-specific nucleus-targeted property.
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A Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine Encoding Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Target Antigens: A Phase I Trial in UK Patients with EBV-Positive Cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses.
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Bioelectricity generation in an integrated system combining microbial fuel cell and tubular membrane reactor: effects of operation parameters performing a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for tubular membrane bioreactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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A bio-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) with tubular membrane was integrated to construct a microbial fuel cell-tubular membrane bioreactor (MFC-TMBR) system, in which the bio-cathode MFC was developed as a biosensor for COD real-time monitoring in TMBR and the performance was analyzed in terms of its current variation caused by operation parameters. With a constant anode potential, the effect of HRT demonstrated that higher rate of mass transport increased the response of the system. The system was further explored an inverse relationship between TMP and current peak by using EPS concentration under the different MLSS concentration. The sensor output had a linear relationship with COD up to 1000mg/L (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.97) and MLSS (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.94). The simple and compact bio-cathode MFC biosensor for TMBR using MFC-TMBR integrated system showed promising potential for direct and economical COD online monitoring, and provided an opportunity to widen the application of MFC-based biosensor.
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Carbon nanoparticles trapped in vivo-similar to carbon nanotubes in time-dependent biodistribution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Carbon nanoparticles are in all of the carbon nanomaterials that are presently widely pursued for potential bioapplications, but their in vivo biodistribution-related properties are largely unknown. In this work, highly (13)C-enriched carbon nanoparticles were prepared to allow their quantification in biological samples by using isotope-ratio mass spectroscopy. The in vivo biodistribution results are presented and discussed, and also compared with those of the aqueous suspended carbon nanotubes reported previously. The distribution profile and time dependencies are largely similar between the nanoparticles and nanotubes, with results on both suggesting meaningful accumulation in some major organs over an extended period of time. Therefore, the surface modification of carbon nanoparticles, preferably the chemical functionalization of the nanoparticles with biocompatible molecules or species, is desirable or necessary in the pursuit of these nanomaterials for various bioapplications.
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A randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the sandwich bone augmentation technique in increasing buccal bone thickness during implant placement. II. Tomographic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and RNA analyses.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the biologic and structural phenotypes of the bone regenerated via the sandwich bone augmentation (SBA) technique, on buccal implant dehiscence defects.
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Des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or ?-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to ?-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-?-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.
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Intratympanic steroids as a salvage treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss? A meta-analysis.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is typically treated with systemic steroids. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of salvage intratympanic steroid treatment in patients who have initial treatment failure with systemic steroids. A MEDLINE literature search was performed, supported by searches of Web of Science, Biosis, and Science Direct. Articles of all languages were included. Selection of relevant publications was conducted independently by three authors. Only randomized controlled trials were considered. In one arm of the studies, the patients received salvage intratympanic steroids. In the other arm, patients did not receive further treatment. The standard difference in mean (SDM) amount of improvement in hearing threshold between patients who did and did not receive salvage intratympanic steroids was calculated. From an initial 184 studies found via the search strategy, 5 studies met inclusion criteria and were included. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in hearing threshold on pure-tone audiometry in patients who received salvage intratympanic steroids than in those who did not (SDM = -0.401, p = 0.005). Subgroup analysis showed that administration by intratympanic injection (SDM = -0.375, p = 0.013) rather than a round window catheter (SDM = -0.629, p = 0.160) yielded significant improvement in outcome. The usage of dexamethasone yielded better outcomes (SDM = -0.379, p = 0.039) than the use of methylprednisolone (SDM = -0.459, p = 0.187). No serious side effect of treatment was reported. In patients who have failed initial treatment with systemic steroids, additional treatment with salvage intratympanic dexamethasone injections demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in the hearing thresholds as compared to controls.
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Cancer-targeted functional gold nanoparticles for apoptosis induction and real-time imaging based on FRET.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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A versatile gold nanoparticle-based multifunctional RB-DEVD-AuNP-DTP has been developed to induce the targeted apoptosis of cancer cells and image in real time the progress of the apoptosis. The multifunctional nanoparticles were demonstrated to have the ability to initiate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and activate caspase-3 for real-time imaging of the progression of apoptosis.
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One lump or two? Concomitant Leydig cell tumour and paratesticular leiomyoma in an adult man.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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We present the first reported case of a concomitant Leydig cell tumour (LCT) and paratesticular leiomyoma in an adult man with a history of bilateral cryptorchidism. An 80-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of a left testicular lump associated with mild discomfort and a gradual increase in size on a background of bilateral cryptorchidism requiring multiple orchidopexy procedures as a child. Ultrasound confirmed a lesion suspicious for malignancy and he proceeded to a left radical orchidectomy. Histopathological assessment of the left testis revealed a concomitant testicular LCT with rare malignant features and paratesticular leiomyoma.
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Regulation of pepc gene expression in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and its effects on cyclic electron flow around photosystem I and tolerances to environmental stresses.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Since pepc gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) has been cloned from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and other cyanobacteria, the effects of pepc gene expression on photosynthesis have not been reported yet. In this study, we constructed mutants containing either upregulated (forward) or downregulated (reverse) pepc gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Western blot and enzymatic analysis showed that PEPCase activity was significantly reduced in the reverse mutant compared with the wild type, and that of the forward mutant was obviously increased. Interestingly, the net photosynthesis in both the reverse mutant and the forward mutant were higher than that of the wild type, but dark respiration was decreased only in the reverse mutant. The absorbance changes of P700 upon saturation pulse showed the photosystem I (PSI) activity was inhibited, as reflected by Y(I), and Y(NA) was elevated, and dark reduction of P700(+) was stimulated, indicating enhanced cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI in the reverse mutant. Additionally, the reverse mutant photosynthesis was higher than that of the wild type in low temperature, low and high pH, and high salinity, and this implies increased tolerance in the reverse mutant through downregulated pepc gene.
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Two trihydrazine-bridged cobalt(II) chain compounds exhibiting antiferromagnetic ordering and single-chain magnetic behavior.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Two new trihydrazine bridged Co(II) chain compounds have been synthesized and magnetically characterized. The two compounds are both composed of [Co(N2H4)3](2+) chains. One exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering behavior while the other behaves as a single-chain magnet (SCM) at low temperature.
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[Therapeutic effects of Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine on asthma airway remodeling in rats and its mechanism].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To explore the therapeutic effects and mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine on airway remodeling in rats.
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[Hypoxia-responsive factor PHD2 and angiogenic diseases].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHDs) family is one of the most important regulatory factors in hypoxic stress. PHD2 plays a critical role in cells and tissues adaptation to the low oxygen environment. Its hydroxylation activity regulates the stability and transcriptional activity of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which is the key factor in response to hypoxic stress. Subsequently, PHD2 acts as an important factor in oxygen homeostasis. Studies have shown that PHD2, through its regulation on HIF-1, plays an important role in the post-ischemic neovascularization. Furthermore, under hypoxic condition, PHD2 also regulates other pathways that positively regulate angiogenesis factors HIF-1 independently. Moreover, recently, several evidences have also shown that PHD2 also affects tumor growth and metastasis in a tumor microenvironment. Based on these facts, PHD2 have been considered as a potential therapeutic target both in treating ischemic diseases and tumors. Here, we review the molecular regulation mechanism of PHD2 and its physiological and pathological functions. We focus on the role of PHD2 in both therapeutic angiogenesis for ischemic disease and tumor angiogenesis, and the current progress in utilizing PHD2 as a therapeutic target.
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[Differential expression in ACE2, Ang(1-7) and Mas receptor during progression of liver fibrosis in a rat model].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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To investigate the changes in expression of the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor axis' components that occur during progression of liver fibrosis using a rat model system.
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Relationship Between ABCB1 Polymorphisms, Thromboelastography and Risk of Bleeding Events in Clopidogrel-Treated Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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This study sought to investigate the relationship of polymorphisms in ABCB1 and the predictive value of thromboelastography (TEG) on bleeding risk in clopidogrel-treated patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
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Terrien's marginal degeneration accompanied by latticed stromal opacities.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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We report a case of Terrien's marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers.
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Studies on the analgesic activities of Jia-Yuan-Qing pill and its safety evaluation in mice.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The analgesic activity of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Rhizoma Corydalis, and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati have been reported in recent years. A new formula named Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) is therefore created by combining the three herbs at 9:7:7 ratio according to traditional Chinese theories. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of JYQP as a novel painkiller in various models. Acute toxicity test was applied to evaluate the safety of JYQP. Acetic-acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, formalin test, and naloxone-pretreated writhing test were employed to elaborate the analgesic activity of JYQP and its possible mechanism. A bone cancer pain mouse model was performed to further assess the effect of JYQP in relieving cancer pain. Test on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms was conduct to examine the physical dependence of mice on JYQP. Data revealed that JYQP reduced writhing and stretching induced by acetic acid; however, this effect could not be blocked by naloxone. JYQP specifically suppressed the phase II reaction time in formalin-treated mice; meanwhile, no analgesic effect of JYQP in hot plate test was observed, indicating that JYQP exerts analgesic activity against inflammatory pain rather than neurogenic pain. Furthermore, JYQP could successfully relieve bone cancer pain in mice. No physical dependence could be observed upon long-term administration in mice. Collectively, our present results provide experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of JYQP as an effective and safe agent for pain treatment.
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Decreased expression and prognostic role of cytoplasmic BRSK1 in human breast carcinoma: correlation with Jab1 stability and PI3K/Akt pathway.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab1) was overexpressed in breast cancer, which was involved in degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). The objective of this study was to examine the effect of brain specific kinase 1 (BRSK1) expression on Jab1 over-expression and related signaling pathway in breast cancer.
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[Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer.
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Pre-operative high resolution computed tomography scans for cholesteatoma: has anything changed?
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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CT temporal bone scans are often performed to aid in surgical planning and management of cholesteatomas. With improvements in the resolution of CT scans today, it is now possible to obtain more information from these scans than before. The aim of this study is to compare findings on high resolution CT (HRCT) temporal bone scans to intra-operative findings, so as to determine how well various middle ear structures are assessed by HRCT scanning.
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[Using the health literacy concept to promote self-management in a chronic kidney disease patient].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must learn and use self-management skills to control their disease and delay disease progression. Comprehension of instructions is thus critical to integrating self-management principles into daily life. In this case report, the client had difficulty implementing the behavioral changes necessary to control diet and blood sugar due to the lack of proper and sufficient information. The authors applied health literacy concepts to assess the client's knowledge and skills related to disease control and then provided health teaching at a level appropriate to the client's health literacy level. This individualized care enhanced the client's confidence and motivation to implement self-care activities. Healthcare professionals should help patients overcome barriers to reading and verbal communication to help low-health-literacy patients successfully self-manage their chronic disease. Clients may thus learn to report their symptoms clearly and accurately.
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Superior antibacterial activity of zinc oxide/graphene oxide composites originating from high zinc concentration localized around bacteria.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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New materials with good antibacterial activity and less toxicity to other species attract numerous research interest. Taking advantage of zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO), the ZnO/GO composites were prepared by a facile one-pot reaction to achieve superior antibacterial properties without damaging other species. In the composites, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), with a size of about 4 nm, homogeneously anchored onto GO sheets. The typical bacterium Escherichia coli and HeLa cell were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the ZnO/GO composites, respectively. The synergistic effects of GO and ZnO NPs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the composites. GO helped the dispersion of ZnO NPs, slowed the dissolution of ZnO, acted as the storage site for the dissolved zinc ions, and enabled the intimate contact of E. coli with ZnO NPs and zinc ions as well. The close contact enhanced the local zinc concentration pitting on the bacterial membrane and the permeability of the bacterial membrane and thus induced bacterial death. In addition, the ZnO/GO composites were found to be much less toxic to HeLa cells, compared to the equivalent concentration of ZnO NPs in the composites. The results indicate that the ZnO/GO composites are promising disinfection materials to be used in surface coatings on various substrates to effectively inhibit bacterial growth, propagation, and survival in medical devices.
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A pH-responsive drug nanovehicle constructed by reversible attachment of cholesterol to PEGylated poly(l-lysine) via catechol-boronic acid ester formation.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The present work reports the construction of a drug delivery nanovehicle via a pH-sensitive assembly strategy for improved cellular internalization and intracellular drug liberation. Through spontaneous formation of boronate linkage in physiological conditions, phenylboronic acid-modified cholesterol was able to attach onto catechol-pending methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine). This comb-type polymer can self-organize into a micellar nanoconstruction that is able to effectively encapsulate poorly water-soluble agents. The blank micelles exhibited negligible in vitro cytotoxicity, yet doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles could effectively induce cell death at a level comparable to free DOX. Owing to the acid-labile feature of the boronate linkage, a reduction in environmental pH from pH 7.4 to 5.0 could trigger the dissociation of the nanoconstruction, which in turn could accelerate the liberation of entrapped drugs. Importantly, the blockage of endosomal acidification in HeLa cells by NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased the nuclear uptake efficiency and cell-killing effect mediated by the DOX-loaded nanoassembly, suggesting that acid-triggered destruction of the nanoconstruction is of significant importance in enhanced drug efficacy. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay revealed the effective internalization of the nanoassemblies, and their cellular uptake exhibited a cholesterol dose-dependent profile, indicating the contribution of introduced cholesterol functionality to the transmembrane process of the nanoassembly.
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Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of drug-loading rate and particle size of risperidone microspheres by improved chemometric model.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Microspheres have been developed as drug carriers in controlled drug delivery systems for years. In our present study, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is applied to analyze the particle size and drug loading rate in risperidone poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Various batches of risperidone PLGA microspheres were designed and prepared successfully. The particle size and drug-loading rate of all the samples were determined by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Monte Carlo algorithm combined with partial least squares (MCPLS) method was applied to identify the outliers and choose the numbers of calibration set. Furthermore, a series of preprocessing methods were performed to remove signal noise in NIR spectra. Moving window PLS and radical basis function neural network (RBFNN) methods were employed to establish calibration model. Our data demonstrated that PLS-developed model was only suitable for drug loading analysis in risperidone PLGA microspheres. Comparatively, RBFNN-based predictive models possess better fitting quality, predictive effect, and stability for both drug loading rate and particle size analysis. The correlation coefficients of calibration set (Rc(2)) were 0.935 and 0.880, respectively. The performance of optimum RBFNN models was confirmed by independent verification test with 15 samples. Collectively, our method is successfully performed to monitor drug-loading rate and particle size during risperidone PLGA microspheres preparation.
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Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies.
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Ultrasound-mediated synthesis of 4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates catalyzed by 1-carboxymethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under solvent free condition.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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4-Substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates (4) have been synthesized by the solvent-free reaction of aldehyde, methyl propiolate and ammonium carbonate catalyzed by ionic liquid 1-carboxymethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under ultrasonic irradiation. The effects of changes in the ultrasonic power, temperature, catalysts and reactants on the synthesis of 4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates (4) are discussed. With the optimized reaction conditions, various aldehydes were used to synthesize 1,4-dihydropyridines (4) under the influence of ultrasound irradiation. Compared with the conventional thermal methods, the remarkable advantages of this method are the simple experimental procedure, shorter reaction time (2-10min) and high yield of product (76-95%). Furthermore, the green catalytic system can be recycled specific times without significantly decreasing the yields and reaction rates.
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A boronate-linked linear-hyperbranched polymeric nanovehicle for pH-dependent tumor-targeted drug delivery.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Advanced drug delivery systems, which possess post-functionalization feasibility to achieve targetability and traceability, favorable pharmacokinetics with dynamic but controllable stability, and preferable tumor accumulation with prolonged drug residence in disease sites, represent ideal nanomedicine paradigm for tumor therapy. To address this challenge, here we reported a dynamic module-assembly strategy based on reversible boronic acid/1,3-diol bioorthogonality. As a prototype, metastable hybrid nanoself-assembly between hydrophobic hyperbranched diol-enriched polycarbonate (HP-OH) and hydrophilic linear PEG terminated with phenylboronic acid (mPEG-PBA) is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The nanoconstruction maintained excellent stability with little leakage of loaded drugs under the simulated physiological conditions. Such a stable nanostructure enabled the effective in vivo tumor accumulation in tumor site as revealed by NIR imaging technique. More importantly, this nanoconstruction presented a pH-labile destruction profile in response to acidic microenvironment and simultaneously the fast liberation of loaded drugs. Accordingly at the cellular level, the intracellular structural dissociation was also proved in terms of the strong acidity in late endosome/lysosome, thus favoring the prolonged retention of remaining drug-loaded HP-OH aggregates within tumor cells. Hence, our delicate design open up a dynamical module-assembly path to develop site and time dual-controlled nanotherapeutics for tumor chemotherapy, allowing enhanced tumor selectivity through prolonged retention of delivery system in tumor cells followed by a timely drug release pattern.
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1082-39, an analogue of sorafenib, inhibited human cancer cell growth more potently than sorafenib.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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1082-39, an analogue of sorafenib, is a derivative of indazole diarylurea. We evaluated the activity of 1082-39 against human cancer cell growth. Its effects and mechanisms of action were then compared with those of sorafenib. The experiments were performed in human melanoma M21 cells.
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Allograft inflammatory factor-1 alleviates liver disease of BALB/c mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) plays an important role in various inflammatory conditions. Our previous study demonstrated that AIF-1 was over-expressed in the liver of BALB/c mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and played significant role in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to focus on the effect of AIF-1 treatment on liver fibrosis and necrosis of BALB/c mice infected with S. japonicum. Seventy-two BALB/c mice were infected with cercariae of S. japonicum and then divided into three groups: AIF-1-treated group, saline-treated group, and control group. The vital signs, liver function, egg load, and hepatic pathological changes of the mice were assessed, and the levels of AIF-1 and TNF-? in the liver and spleen were measured at 5, 8, and 14 weeks postinfection. The treatment of AIF-1 on the mice infected with S. japonicum suppressed the expression of TNF-? and increased the effectiveness of AIF-1 in the liver and spleen at 14 weeks postinfection. Histopathological analysis and Masson trichrome staining for the liver tissues showed that the liver fibrosis and necrosis were alleviated previously compared with other infected mice at 14 weeks postinfection. The treatment of AIF-1 on the mice infected with S. japonicum can alleviate hepatic fibrosis and necrosis which indicate that AIF-1 use may prevent and cure the liver fibrosis.
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Fabrication of uniform 4H-SiC mesopores by pulsed electrochemical etching.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this letter, the uniform 4H silicon carbide (SiC) mesopores was fabricated by pulsed electrochemical etching method. The length of the mesopores is about 19 ?m with a diameter of about 19 nm. The introduction of pause time (T off) is crucial to form the uniform 4H-SiC mesopores. The pore diameter will not change if etching goes with T off. The hole concentration decreasing at the pore tips during the T off is the main reason for uniformity.
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Promoter analysis reveals globally differential regulation of human long non-coding RNA and protein-coding genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.
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[Risk factors and short-term prognosis of acute kidney injury in elderly patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the risk factors and short-term outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly patients.
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Impact of implantoplasty on strength of the implant-abutment complex.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Purpose: Implantoplasty, a procedure that is done to smooth contaminated implant surfaces, has been used in the treatment of peri-implantitis. It reduces the implant diameter, which might compromise the implants strength. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of implantoplasty on implant strength. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two tapered implants were used; half were 3.75 mm in diameter (narrow) and the other half were 4.7 mm in diameter (wide). All implants were connected to 20-degree angled abutments. The apical half of each implant was embedded in acrylic resin. Eight 3.75-mm- and eight 4.7-mm-diameter implants were randomly assigned to receive implantoplasty. The remaining implants did not receive implantoplasty (control group). Implantoplasty was performed with a series of diamond and polishing burs. The specimens were then loaded 30 degrees off-axis in a universal testing machine until fracture failure occurred. Bending and fracture strength values were recorded and analyzed statistically (? = .05). The fractured surfaces were evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Results: All narrow implants failed by fracture at the implant platform. The mean bending strength of narrow implants was statistically significantly reduced by implantoplasty (511.4 ± 55.9 N versus 613.9 ± 42.8 N). Implantoplasty did not affect the strength of wide implants; fracture failures occurred at the abutment screw. The fracture mode was ductile and the crack growth was oblique in direction, indicating complex stress distribution and concentration under loading. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, implantoplasty appeared to weaken the strength of narrower implants. Therefore, this procedure should be performed with caution on narrower, freestanding implants that are subject to greater occlusal force (eg, posterior regions). Validation of these results is needed for different implant systems.
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Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Angle for Predicting the Outcome of Horizontal Bone Augmentation.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ridge morphology on the amount of horizontal bone augmentation achieved with the sandwich bone augmentation (SBA) technique in the reconstruction of buccal dehiscence defects on dental implants.
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Effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in murine Schistosomiasis japonica.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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In a previous study we demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) contributed to the escape of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) from the hosts immune responses. In this paper, we studied the effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) on CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in murine Schistosomiasis japonica and its corresponding role in the immune evasion of S. japonicum in mice. The results showed substantial reductions of worm burden and egg production in worm groups treated with anti-CD25 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) compared to an infected but untreated control. The reduction effect was even enhanced in an experimental group co-treated with both mAbs. Compared to the control group, the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs was very much lower in the anti-CD25 mAb group as determined by FACS analyses and higher in the anti-CTLA-4 mAb group. ELISA analyses showed that both the anti-CTLA-4 mAb and the co-treated groups had higher levels of cytokines compared to the control group as well as larger egg granuloma sizes as determined by microscopical analyses of liver sections of infected mice. These results suggest that treatment with an anti-CTLA-4 mAb allows the host to clear S. japonicum, but at the cost of elevated pathological damage. The latter indicated a role of CTLA-4 in granuloma formation. Moreover, CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs and CTLA-4 may exert synergistic effects during immune evasion processes by enhancing Th1-type immune response.
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Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating and dynamics of temporal solitons in silicon nanowire waveguides.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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We demonstrate the evolution of picosecond pulses in silicon nanowire waveguides by sum frequency generation cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (SFG-XFROG) and nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) modeling. Due to the unambiguous temporal direction and ultrahigh sensitivity of the SFG-XFROG, which enable observation of the pulse accelerations, the captured pulses temporal and spectral characteristics showed remarkable agreement with NLSE predictions. The temporal intensity redistribution of the pulses through the silicon nanowire waveguide for various input pulse energies is analyzed experimentally and numerically to demonstrate the nonlinear contributions of self-phase modulation, two-photon absorption, and free carriers. It indicates that free carrier absorption dominates the pulse acceleration. The model for pulse evolution during propagation through arbitrary lengths of silicon nanowire waveguides is established by NLSE, in support of chip-scale optical interconnects and signal processing.
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Dual-Targeting Pro-apoptotic Peptide for Programmed Cancer Cell Death via Specific Mitochondria Damage.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Mitochondria are vital organelles to eukaryotic cells. Damage to mitochondria will cause irreversible cell death or apoptosis. In this report, we aim at programmed cancer cell death via specific mitochondrial damage. Herein, a functionalized pro-apoptotic peptide demonstrates a dual-targeting capability using folic acid (FA) (targeting agent I) and triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation (targeting agent II). FA is a cancer-targeting agent, which can increase the cellular uptake of the pro-apoptotic peptide via receptor-mediated endocytosis. And the TPP cation is the mitochondrial targeting agent, which specifically delivers the pro-apoptotic peptide to its particular subcellular mitochondria after internalized by cancer cells. Then the pro-apoptotic peptide accumulates in mitochondria and causes its serious damage. This dual-targeting strategy has the potential to effectively transport the pro-apoptotic peptide to targeted cancer cell mitochondria, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and triggering the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis to efficiently eliminate cancer cells.
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Fabrication of Novel Reduction-Sensitive Gene Vectors Based on Three-Armed Peptides.
Macromol Biosci
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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To address the inherent barriers of gene transfection, two reduction-sensitive branched polypeptides (RBPs) are synthesized and explored as novel non-viral gene vectors. The introduced disulfide linkages in RBPs facilitate glutathione-triggered intracellular gene release and reduce polymer degradation-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the highly branched architecture concurrently realizes multivalency for strong DNA binding and elicits conformational flexibility for tight DNA compacting, which are beneficial for cellular entry. To increase the endosomal escape of plasmid DNA, pH-sensitive histidyl residues are incorporated into RBPs to improve buffer capacity in an acidic environment. In vitro study demonstrates that RBPs can efficiently mediate the DNA transfection and avoid apparent cytotoxicity in HeLa and COS7. The present gene delivery system offers a simple and flexible approach to fabricate microenvironment-specific branched gene vectors for gene therapy.
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Ridge width gain with screw spreaders: a cadaver study.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The aim of this cadaver study was to evaluate the amount of ridge expansion with screw spreaders.
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Acidity-Promoted Cellular Uptake and Drug Release Mediated by Amine-Functionalized Block Polycarbonates Prepared via One-Shot Ring-Opening Copolymerization.
Macromol Biosci
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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This paper reports a drug nanovehicle self-assembled from an amine-functionalized block copolymer poly(6,14-dimethyl-1,3,9,11-tetraoxa-6,14-diaza-cyclohexadecane-2,10-dione)-block-poly(1,3-dioxepan-2-one) (PADMC-b-PTeMC), which is prepared by controlable ring-opening block copolymerization attractively in a "one-shot feeding" pathway. The copolymers display high cell-biocompatibility with no apparent cytotoxicities detected in 293T and HeLa cells. Due to their amphiphilic nature, PADMC-b-PTeMC copolymers can self-assemble into nanosized micelles capable of loading anticancer drugs such as camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX). In particular, the outer PADMC shell endows the PADMC-b-PTeMC nanomicelles with pH-dependent control over the micellar morphology, cell uptake efficiency, and the drug release pattern. Confocal inspection reveals the remarkably enhanced cellular internalization of drug loaded micelles by cancerous HeLa cells at relatively lower pH 5.8 simulating the mildly acid microenvironment in tumors. Along with the acidity-triggered volume expansion of micelles, an accelerated CPT release in vitro occurs. The obtained results adumbrate the possibility of completely biodegradable PADMC-b-PTeMC as pH-sensitive drug carriers for tumor chemotherapy.
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Anatomical studies of ovule development in the post-bloom pistils of the Zuili plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.).
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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In order to investigate the cause of poor fruit set in Zuili plums, anatomical examinations of post-bloom pistils were conducted and the dates of young fruit drop were recorded during the growing seasons of 2008 and 2009. Pistils of cv. Black Amber were also examined as an abundant setting control. Two major dropping periods were detected in Zuili: one during the first 5 d after full bloom (DAF) and another between 10 and 17 DAF. Anatomical analyses of the pistils at the full bloom stage revealed that half of the ovules had not developed embryos, which may have caused their early drop. In most dropped pistils collected at 17 DAF, the micropyle had not been penetrated by a pollen tube, indicating that they were not fertilized. Zuili ovules initiated embryo division at 10-12 DAF, although thereafter embryo development was retarded when compared to the rates observed in Black Amber. Ovule fertilization failure and inactive embryo development after ovule fertilization may be the major causes of the later fruit drop observed in Zuili plum trees.
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Molecular phylogeny of Koenigia L. (Polygonaceae: Persicarieae): implications for classification, character evolution and biogeography.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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To examine the phylogenetic relationships of Koenigia sensu lato (Polygonaceae), 43 samples representing all species of Koenigia and closely related taxa (e.g., Aconogonon, Bistorta, and Persicaria) were sequenced for nuclear ITS and four plastid regions (trnL-F, atpB-rbcL, rbcL, and rpl32-trnL((UAG))). Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Koenigia recognized by Hedberg is paraphyletic and that the basal species K. delicatula should be reassigned to a separate new genus. Based on these findings, we further propose that the genus Koenigia sensu lato be circumscribed to include five species. Ancestral state reconstruction showed that the pollen apertures likely evolved in parallel in the Aconogonon-Koenigia-Bistorta clade and Persicaria clade and that tricolpate pollen is most likely to be the ancestral state. Quincuncial aestivation likely evolved during the early evolution of Koenigia and its close relatives. Our findings suggest that the uplift of the Himalayas has played an important role in promoting species diversification of Koenigia. Koenigia islandica expanded its range during Pleistocene glacial cycles by tracking changes in newly available habitats.
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Evaluation of the toxicity of food additive silica nanoparticles on gastrointestinal cells.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Silica nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in food products as an additive; however, their toxicity and safety to the human body and the environment still remain unclear. As a food additive, silica NPs firstly enter the human gastrointestinal tract along with food, thus their gastrointestinal toxicity deserves thorough study. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of food additive silica NPs to cells originating from the gastrointestinal tract. Four silica NP samples were introduced to human gastric epithelial cell GES-1 and colorectal adenocarcinoma cell Caco-2 to investigate the effect of silica sample, exposure dose and exposure period on the morphology, viability and membrane integrity of cells. The cell uptake, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, cell cycle and apoptosis were determined to reveal the toxicity mechanism. The results indicate that all four silica NPs are safe for both GES-1 and Caco-2 cells after 24-h exposure at a concentration lower than 100?µg?ml(-1) . At a higher concentration and longer exposure period, silica NPs do not induce the apoptosis/necrosis of cells, but arrest cell cycle and inhibit the cell growth. Notably, silica NPs do not pass through the Caco-2 cell monolayer after 4-h contact, indicating the low potential of silica NPs to cross the gastrointestinal tract in vivo. Our findings indicate that silica NPs could be used as a safe food additive, but more investigations, such as long-term in vivo exposure, are necessary in future studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the immune response to HBV vaccine in a mouse model.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Vaccination is the most effective and cost-effective way to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Collective data suggest that helminth infections affect immune responses to some vaccines. Therefore, it is important to reveal the effects of helminth infections on the efficacy of protective vaccines in countries with highly prevalent helminth infections. In the present work, effects of Trichinella spiralis infection on the protective efficacy of HBV vaccine in a mouse model were investigated. This study demonstrated that the enteric stage of T. spiralis infection could inhibit the proliferative response of spleen lymphocytes to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and lead to lower levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies, interferon-?, and interleukin (IL)-2, along with higher levels of IL-4 and IL-5. However, these immunological differences are absent in the muscle stage of T. spiralis infection. The results suggest that the muscle stage of T. spiralis infection does not affect the immune response to HBV vaccination, while the enteric-stage infection results in a reduced immune response to HBsAg.
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In situ investigation of processing property in combination with integration of microbial fuel cell and tubular membrane bioreactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Microbial fuel cell (MFC) presents a novel method for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. In this study, a bio-cathode MFC with tubular membrane assembly was integrated to construct a MFC-TMBR system, which combined the advantages of each individual module. To examine the feasibility of MFC-TMBR integrated process, both electricity generation and wastewater treatment were investigated. Maximum voltage output of 0.8 V and maximum power density of 0.040 W/m(2) were obtained in the 30th day of operation. The MFC-TMBR system achieved organic removal of 94%, as well as the ammonia nitrogen removal of more than 80%. Membrane fouling mitigation was realized using cross-flow filtration with tubular membrane in the MFC-TMBR, without any physical cleaning during the 30-day operation. Lower MLSS concentration and higher DO could potentially support this system. Low-cost materials were adopted for reactor construction. The results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for wastewater treatment.
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A systematic review on marginal bone loss around short dental implants (<10 mm) for implant-supported fixed prostheses.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of implant length on peri-implant marginal bone loss (MBL) and its associated influencing factors.
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A Dual-Responsive Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle for Tumor-Triggered Targeting Drug Delivery.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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A novel pH- and redox- dual-responsive tumor-triggered targeting mesoporous silica nanoparticle (TTTMSN) is designed as a drug carrier. The peptide RGDFFFFC is anchored on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles via disulfide bonds, which are redox-responsive, as a gatekeeper as well as a tumor-targeting ligand. PEGylated technology is employed to protect the anchored peptide ligands. The peptide and monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) with benzoic-imine bond, which is pH-sensitive, are then connected via "click" chemistry to obtain TTTMSN. In vitro cell research demonstrates that the targeting property of TTTMSN is switched off in normal tissues with neutral pH condition, and switched on in tumor tissues with acidic pH condition after removing the MPEG segment by hydrolysis of benzoic-imine bond under acidic conditions. After deshielding of the MPEG segment, the drug-loaded nanoparticles are easily taken up by tumor cells due to the exposed peptide targeting ligand, and subsequently the redox signal glutathione in tumor cells induces rapid drug release intracellularly after the cleavage of disulfide bond. This novel intelligent TTTMSN drug delivery system has great potential for cancer therapy.
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Alterations in bone quality after socket preservation with grafting materials: a systematic review.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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While the ability of various grafting materials to preserve extraction socket morphology has been adequately reviewed, the quality of the grafted bone in the socket is not as well understood. This systematic review aimed to compare the proportion of vital bone and connective tissue between grafted and naturally healed sockets.
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Recombinant expression and functional analysis of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene fragment.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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To investigate the function of a bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC2) derived from photosynthetically-grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a fragment of the pepc2 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. After optimal induction for 6 h, PEPC activity in the reverse mutant was lower than wild type (0.9 vs. 1.7 U/mg protein), and soluble protein was also lower than wild type (119 vs. 186 mg/g dry wt). In contrast, the total lipid content was increased from 56 (in wild type) to 71 mg/g dry wt, despite the growth rate being slightly diminished. The changes in PEPC activity, soluble protein and total lipid in the forward mutant were the opposite (2.4 U/mg, 230 mg/g, and 44 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Together, these data indicate that PEPC may function as a metabolic pivot in the regulation of protein and lipid accumulation in this alga.
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Theranostic GO-Based Nanohybrid for Tumor Induced Imaging and Potential Combinational Tumor Therapy.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Graphene oxide (GO)-based theranostic nanohybrid is designed for tumor induced imaging and potential combinational tumor therapy. The anti-tumor drug, Doxorubicin (DOX) is chemically conjugated to the poly(ethylenimine)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEI-PEG) grafted GO via a MMP2-cleavable PLGLAG peptide linkage. The therapeutic efficacy of DOX is chemically locked and its intrinsic fluorescence is quenched by GO under normal physiological condition. Once stimulated by the MMP2 enzyme over-expressed in tumor tissues, the resulting peptide cleavage permits the unloading of DOX for tumor therapy and concurrent fluorescence recovery of DOX for in situ tumor cell imaging. Attractively, this PEI-bearing nanohybrid can mediate efficient DNA transfection and shows great potential for combinational drug/gene therapy. This tumor induced imaging and potential combinational therapy will open a window for tumor treatment by offering a unique theranostic approach through merging the diagnostic capability and pathology-responsive therapeutic function.
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Therapeutic nanomedicine based on dual-intelligent functionalized gold nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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A novel strategy to construct a therapeutic system based on functionalized AuNPs which can specifically respond to tumor microenvironment was reported. In the therapeutic system, doxorubicin was conjugated to AuNPs via thiol-Au bond by using a peptide substrate, CPLGLAGG, which can be specifically cleaved by the protease. In vivo study shows that after injection of the functionalized AuNPs to the tumor-bearing mice, the over-expressed protease of MMP-2 in tumor tissue and intracellular GSH can lead to the rapid release of the anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin) from the functionalized AuNPs to inhibit tumor growth and realize fluorescently imaging simultaneously. The functionalized AuNPs with tumor-triggered drug release property can further improve the efficacy and reduce side effects significantly.
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The use of the facial clinimetric evaluation scale as a patient-based grading system in Bells palsy.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The severity of Bells facial palsy is monitored through physician-graded instruments, like the House-Brackmann or Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (FGS). These instruments primarily measure the degree of facial muscle impairment and its resulting asymmetry, but neglect the other functional aspects of facial disability. The aim of this study is therefore to compare the FGS with a patient-graded quality-of-life (QOL) instrument, Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale (FaCE).
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Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most important model fruits in the Rosaceae family. Native to the west of China, where peach has been domesticated for more than 4,000 years, its cultivation spread from China to Persia, Mediterranean countries and to America. Chinese peach has had a major impact on international peach breeding programs due to its high genetic diversity. In this research, we used 48 highly polymorphic SSRs, distributed over the peach genome, to investigate the difference in genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among Chinese cultivars, and North American and European cultivars, and the evolution of current peach cultivars.
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Single port laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ileocolic intussusception.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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A 36-year-old male was admitted with right lower abdominal pain and diarrhea for more than 3 mo. Colonoscopy and a barium enema study revealed a submucosal tumor over the cecum, but computed tomography showed an ileal lipoma. There was no definitive diagnosis preoperatively, but ileocolic intussusception was noted during surgery. Single port laparoscopic radical right hemicolectomy was performed because intra-operative reduction failed. The histological diagnosis of the resected tumor was lipoma. Single port laparoscopic surgery has recently been proven to be safe and feasible. There are advantages compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery, such as smaller incision wounds, fewer port site complications, and easier conversion. However, there are some drawbacks which need to be overcome, such as difficulties in triangulation and instrument clashing. If there are no contraindications to laparoscopy, single port laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely and should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of intussusception in adults. Here, we report the first case of ileocolic intussusception successfully treated by single port laparoscopic surgery.
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Phenyl-1,3,5-trithienyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole: a molecular backbone potentially affording high efficiency for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells through judicious molecular design.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Finding new molecular backbones is necessary for further advances in solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs). Increasing molecular ? conjugation generally enhances the light-harvesting ability, and the resulting strong ?-?-stacking interactions improve the charge-carrier transport ability; both increase the efficiency. In this study, we focus on the phenyl-1,3,5-trithienyl (3T-P) backbone because of its C3 symmetry, planarity, and particularly high conjugation between the three arms through the core phenyl unit. When the three arms were functionalized with diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) units to afford 3D-T-P, only modest efficiency was achieved (1.16%). Introduction of 4,8-bis(2-(2-ethylhexylthienyl)) benzodithiophene (BDT) between the 3T-P and DPP units to give 3D-B-T-P enhanced the light-harvesting ability, and particularly improved the hole mobility by 1.5 orders of magnitude (5.91×10(-2) versus 1.05×10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). When using PC71BM as the acceptor material, 3D-B-T-P gave the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.27%, which is about 1.9 times higher than the best efficiency from 3D-T-P (?1.16%). The efficiency can be improved up to 3.60% with 3% (v/v) of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as the cosolvent and thermal annealing at 100 °C for 10 min. This PCE is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency reported to date among the phenyl-1,3,5-based C3-symmetric molecules. Removing one DPP unit from 3D-T-P to form 2D-T-P, or from 3D-B-T-P to form 2D-B-T-P both decreased the light-harvesting ability and the hole mobility, thereby affording lower efficiency. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the planar phenyl-1,3,5-trithienyl-based C3 -symmetric structure can be a promising backbone, and enhancing the conjugation of the 3D-T-P backbone can effectively improve the device performance.
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Effects of coexisting polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and P2Y12 on clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing stent-based coronary intervention.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The CYP2C19 G681A single polymorphism has been proven to affect clopidogrel responsiveness. However, the effect of coexisting polymorphisms of other genes has not yet been reported in the Chinese population. This study investigated the effect of coexisting polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and P2Y12 on clopidogrel responsiveness and adverse clinical events in Chinese patients.
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A randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the sandwich bone augmentation technique in increasing buccal bone thickness during implant placement surgery: I. Clinical and radiographic parameters.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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OBJECTIVES: Sandwich bone augmentation (SBA) has been proposed to augment the width of edentulous ridges for implant placement. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a membrane on SBA for the regeneration of buccal implant dehiscence defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy patients, each with a single defect, were randomly assigned into two groups. Both groups received an inner and outer layer of mineralized human cancellous and cortical particulate allograft. In the test group, a bovine pericardium membrane covered the bone grafts, while no membrane was placed in the control group. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and immediately after implant placement and at 6 months post-surgery. RESULTS: All implants placed were successfully osseointegrated at 6 months. Clinical re-entry measurements showed significant buccal bone gain in the test group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The test group had 1.12, 2.21 and 2.44 mm more buccal bone thickness at 2, 4 and 6 mm below the bone crest. There were no significant differences in the mid-buccal vertical bone height, defect height and width reductions and bone fill between the two groups (P > 0.05). Cone beam computed tomography analysis demonstrated significant buccal bone gain of 1.22 mm in the test group. Radiographic vertical bone loss at 1-year post-surgery showed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: Sandwich bone augmentation is a predictable technique for regenerating buccal bone on implant dehiscence defects. Addition of a barrier membrane prevented significant horizontal buccal bone resorption as space was maintained more effectively when compared with sites treated without a membrane.
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Reduced Oct4 expression directs a robust pluripotent state with distinct signaling activity and increased enhancer occupancy by Oct4 and Nanog.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency is governed by a gene regulatory network centered on the transcription factors Oct4 and Nanog. To date, robust self-renewing ESC states have only been obtained through the chemical inhibition of signaling pathways or enforced transgene expression. Here, we show that ESCs with reduced Oct4 expression resulting from heterozygosity also exhibit a stabilized pluripotent state. Despite having reduced Oct4 expression, Oct4(+/-) ESCs show increased genome-wide binding of Oct4, particularly at pluripotency-associated enhancers, homogeneous expression of pluripotency transcription factors, enhanced self-renewal efficiency, and delayed differentiation kinetics. Cells also exhibit increased Wnt expression, enhanced leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) sensitivity, and reduced responsiveness to fibroblast growth factor. Although they are able to maintain pluripotency in the absence of bone morphogenetic protein, removal of LIF destabilizes pluripotency. Our findings suggest that cells with a reduced Oct4 concentration range are maintained in a robust pluripotent state and that the wild-type Oct4 concentration range enables effective differentiation.
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Reliability of volumetric imaging software for cone-beam computed tomogram scans in the anterior maxilla.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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This study aimed to compare buccal bone thickness in the maxillary anterior region provided by cone-beam computed tomography scans of cadaveric specimens using 2 different volumetric imaging software.
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Solution-processed DPP-based small molecule that gives high photovoltaic efficiency with judicious device optimization.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A solution-processed diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based small molecule, namely BDT-DPP, with broad absorption and suitable energy levels has been synthesized. The widely used solvents of chloroform (CF) and o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) were used as the spin-coating solvent, respectively, and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) was used as additive to fabricate efficient photovoltaic devices with BDT-DPP as the donor material and PC71BM as the acceptor material. Devices fabricated from CF exhibit poor fill factor (FF) of 43%, low short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 6.86 mA/cm(2), and moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.4%, due to rapid evaporation of CF, leading to poor morphology of the active layer. When 0.3% DIO was added, the FF and Jsc were improved to 60% and 8.49 mA/cm(2), respectively, because of the better film morphology. Active layer spin-coated from the high-boiling-point solvent of o-DCB shows better phase separation than that from CF, because of the slow drying nature of o-DCB, offering sufficient time for the self-organization of active-layer. Finally, using o-DCB as the parent solvent and 0.7% DIO as the cosolvent, we obtained optimized devices with continuous interpenetrating network films, affording a Jsc of 11.86 mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.72 V, an FF of 62%, and a PCE of 5.29%. This PCE is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency reported to date for devices prepared from the solution-processed DPP-based small molecules.
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Do Implant Length and Width Matter for Short Dental Implants (<10 mm)? A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Background: This meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials was conducted to determine the effects of dental implant length and width on implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) implants. Methods: An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant studies published in English from November 1998 to March 2012 was performed. Selected studies were randomized clinical trials, human clinical trials, or prospective trials with a clear aim of investigating the success or survival rate of short (<10 mm) implants. Results: Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. A total of 525 short (<10 mm) dental implants were analyzed, of which 253 were 3.5 mm in diameter (48.19%), 151 were 4.0 mm (28.76%), 90 were 4.1 mm (17.14%), 21 were 4.8 mm (4%), and 10 were 5.1 mm (1.9%). All implants included in this meta-analysis had a follow-up period of 12 to 72 months. The included studies reported on the survival rate and diameter of the implants. Six of the studies used "short implants" (7 to 9 mm), and the remaining were classified as "extra-short implants" (?6 mm). Five-year estimated failure rates were 1.61% and 2.92%, respectively, for extra-short and short implants (z = -3.49, P <0.001, 95% confidence interval = 0.51% to 4.10%). Furthermore, it was found that the wider the implant, the higher the failure rate (estimated failure rate = 2.36%, 95% confidence interval = 1.07% to 5.23%). Conclusions: Neither implant length nor width seemed to significantly affect the survival rate of short implants (<10 mm). Nonetheless, further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
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Characterization of Edenia gomezpompae isolated from a patient with keratitis.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Edenia gomezpompae, isolated from a patient suffering from keratitis, who was an agricultural worker with a 4-year history of diabetes mellitus, is described. Fungal hyphae were detected in corneal scrapings after microscopic examination and repeated culture. Isolates were identified by morphology and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Chlamydospore characteristics of E. gomezpompae are described for the first time. The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the isolate were tested using five antifungal agents. With the exception of fluconazole, the other drugs (natamycin, amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole) assayed were highly effective against this fungus. The keratitis was cured after debridement of the corneal ulcer and treatment with 5 % natamycin. After 3 months, when the patient was reexamined, the corneal ulcer showed signs of healing, with no recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of keratitis caused by E. gomezpompae, as well as being the first known case of disease in humans caused by this species.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.