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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Application of Frontal Affinity Chromatography to Study the Biomolecular Interactions with Trypsin.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Trypsin is a serine protease that has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders and malignancy diseases, thus the identification of biomolecular interactions of compounds to trypsin could be of great therapeutic importance. In this study, trypsin was immobilized on a monolithic silica capillary column via sol-gel. The binding properties of four small molecules (daidzin, genistin, matrine and oxymatrine) to trypsin were examined using the trypsin affinity columns by frontal analysis. The results indicate that the matrine (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.904 ?M) has stronger interaction with trypsin than the oxymatrine (Kd = 8.204 ?M), whereas daidzin and genistin were nearly have no affinity with trypsin. The results demonstrated that the frontal affinity chromatography can be used for the direct determination of protein-protease inhibitor binding interactions and have several significant advantages, including easy fabricating, reproducible, minimal technological requirements and potential to become a reliable alternative for quantitative studies of biomolecular interactions.
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[Metabolic pathway and metabolites of total diterpene acid isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The preliminary metabolic profile of total diterpene acid (TDA) isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro tests. Pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2) was identified as the predominant metabolite in plasma, urine, bile and feces after both oral and intravenous administrations to rats using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS(n), and demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B (DDPB), a metabolite proposed to be the glucoside of PC2 (PC2G), as well as pseudolaric acid C (PC), pseudolaric acid A (PA), pseudolaric acid A O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PAG), pseudolaric acid B O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PBG) and deacetylpseudolaric acid A (DPA) originated from TDA could also be detected. It was demonstrated by tests that the metabolism of TDA is independent of intestinal microflora, and neither of pepsin and trypsin is in charge of metabolism of TDA, TDA is also stable in both pH environments of gastric tract and intestinal tract. The metabolites of TDA in whole blood in vitro incubation were found to be PC2, DDPB and PC2G, which demonstrated that the metabolic reaction of TDA in vivo is mainly occurred in blood and contributed to be the hydrolysis of plasma esterase to ester bond, as well as the glucosylation reaction. These results clarified the metabolic pathway of TDA for the first time, which is of great significance to the in vivo active form and acting mechanism research of P. kaempferi.
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Suppression of C6 gliomas via application of rat hyperplasia gene.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Among all neurological tumors, tumor incidence of the neuroepithelial tissue is the highest, where 50% are gliomas. Treatment for gliomas has traditionally included surgery and adjuvant therapy. With advancements in medicine, gene therapy has entered the clinical setting, in which control of tumor growth, tumor volume and decrease of supply of blood to the tumor have been observed. Rat hyperplasia suppressor gene (rHSG) has been proven to inhibit the injury-mediated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
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Cloning of mating-type gene MAT1-1 from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) using TAIL-PCR technology.
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional Chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. In this study, one C. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a MAT1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. A 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type MAT1-1 from C. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, but genes within the mating-type MAT1-2 remain undetectable. Sequence analysis shows that the mating-type gene MAT1-1 idiomorph contains 2 genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2. The MAT1-1-1 gene consists of 1480-bp nucleotides that encode 456 amino acids and contain the conserved a-box domain interrupted by 2 introns; the MAT1-1-2 gene consists of 1066 nucleotides that encode 377 amino acids interrupted by one intron. The intervening distance between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 is 778 bp. The C. militaris MAT1-1 idiomorph organization is the same as that of Cordyceps takaomontana. The MAT1-1 mating-type idiomorph of both Cordyceps species lacks the MAT1-1-3 gene, which is typically present in Pyrenomycetes. These studies provide some insights for further study of the morphological development of C. militaris and will eventually benefit the domestication of O. sinensis.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress preconditioning antagonizes low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammation in human mesangial cells through upregulation of XBP1 and suppression of the IRE1?/IKK/NF??B pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Elevated plasma low?density lipoprotein (LDL) is associated with systemic inflammation, and is an important factor in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress preconditioning on LDL?induced inflammatory responses, in human mesangial cells (HMCs). HMCs were exposed to LDL (200 nm), with or without pretreatment with tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, and tested for changes to gene expression levels. Small interfering RNA technology was used to knockdown the expression of inositol?requiring enzyme?1? (IRE1?) and X?box?binding protein?1 (XBP?1), in order to determine their effects on LDL?treated HMCs. LDL treatment resulted in a significant, and time?dependent, increase in the relative mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and CD40, which was coupled with enhanced phosphorylation of IRE1?, I?B kinase (IKK), and nuclear factor (NF)??B p65 and p65 nuclear translocation. The LDL?induced inflammatory responses were significantly reduced in the IRE1??depleted HMCs. Furthermore, pretreatment with tunicamycin significantly attenuated the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and CD40, by LDL. Whereas, silencing XBP1 expression significantly restored the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in the LDL?treated HMCs with ER stress preconditioning. The phosphorylation levels of IRE1?, IKK, and NF??B p65 were markedly increased in the XBP1?depleted HMCs. Conversely, overexpression of XBP1 blocked LDL?induced inflammation in the HMCs. The results of the present study demonstrate that ER stress preconditioning antagonizes LDL?induced inflammatory responses in HMCs, which may be mediated through upregulation of XBP1, and subsequent inactivation of the IRE1?/IKK/NF??B pathway.
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Primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome: Simplified criteria may be effective in the diagnosis of Chinese patients.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of three criteria, the Paris criteria, the revised diagnostic criteria and the simplified diagnostic scoring system for the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap syndrome in Chinese patients.
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[A method for assessing the total viable count of fresh meat based on hyperspectral scattering technique].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The objective of this study is to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to predict the bacteria total viable count in fresh pork. The hyperspectral scattering data were curvefitted by different fitting methods, and correlation differences of models were compared based on the bacteria total viable count of fresh pork, thus providing modeling basis of device for future study. Total 63 fresh pork samples which was used in the experiment were stored at 4 degrees C in the refrigerator of constant temperature. Experiment was performed everyday for 15 days. 4 or 5 random samples were used each day for the experiment. Hyperspectral scattering images and spectral scattering optical data in the wavelength region of 400 to 1 100 nm were acquired from the surface of all of the pork samples. Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork samples. Different parameters could be obtained by Lorentz and Gompertz fitting and the modified function fitting. The different parameters could represent the optical characteristic of the scattering profiles. The standard values of the bacteria total viable count of pork were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods. Because the standard value of the bacteria total viable count was big, log10 of the bacteria total viable count obtained by classical microbiological plating was used to simplify the calculation. Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the models. The multi-linear regression statistical approach was used to establish the models for predicting pork the bacteria total viable count. Both Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function included three and four parameters formula. The results showed that correlation coefficient of the models is higher with Lorentz three parameters combination, Lorentz four parameters combination and Gompertz four parameters combination than the individual parameters and other two or three integrated parameters. The three models' correction set and prediction set correlation coefficients were 0.93, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.90, 0.90, 0.92, and the corresponding standard deviation were 0.47, 0.44, 0.39 and 0.56, 0.46, 0.42. Correlation was best with Gompertz four parameters. The device system will select the best correlation and the best stability of the model as the final model.
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Genetic analysis of vegetative branching in sorghum.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We identified quantitative trait loci influencing plant architecture that may be valuable in breeding of optimized genotypes for sustainable food and/or cellulosic biomass production, and advancing resilience to changing climates. We describe a 3-year study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for vegetative branching of sorghum in a recombinant inbred line population of 161 genotypes derived from two morphologically distinct parents, S. bicolor × S. propinquum. We quantify vegetative branching based on morphological position and physiological status. Different sets of QTLs for different levels of branching were identified. QTLs discovered on chromosomes 1, 3, 7 and 8 affect multiple vegetative branching variables, suggesting that these regions may contain genes that control general axillary meristem initiation. Other regions that only influence one vegetative branching trait could contain genes that influence developmental processes contributing to divergent patterns of plant architecture. We investigate the relationship between vegetative branching patterns and dry biomass, and conclude that tillers with mature panicles and immature secondary branches each show consistent positive correlation with dry biomass. Among 19 branching-related genes from rice, eight sorghum homologs of seven rice genes are in syntenic blocks within branching-related QTL likelihood intervals. Five of these eight genes are within 700 kb of SNPs significantly associated with differences in branching in genome-wide association study of a diversity panel of 377 sorghum accessions, and three contain striking allelic variations between S. bicolor and S. propinquum that are likely to impact gene functions. Unraveling genetic determinants for vegetative branching may contribute to deterministic breeding of optimized genotypes for sustainable food and cellulosic biomass production in both optimal and marginal conditions, which are resilient to future climates that are more volatile and more stressful.
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VSEAMS: a pipeline for variant set enrichment analysis using summary GWAS data identifies IKZF3, BATF and ESRRA as key transcription factors in type 1 diabetes.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many loci implicated in disease susceptibility. Integration of GWAS summary statistics (P-values) and functional genomic datasets should help to elucidate mechanisms.
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AMPD1 functional variants associated with autism in Han Chinese population.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Autism is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with high heterogeneity. Following our genome-wide associated loci with autism, we performed sequencing analysis of the coding regions, UTR and flanking splice junctions of AMPD1 in 830 Chinese autism individuals as well as 514 unrelated normal controls. Fourteen novel variants in the coding sequence were identified, including 11 missense variants and 3 synonymous mutations. Among these missense variants, 10 variants were absent in 514 control subjects, and conservative and functional prediction was carried out. Mitochondria activity and lactate dehydrogenase assay were performed in 5 patients' lymphoblast cell lines; p.P572S and p.S626C showed decreased mitochondrial complex I activity, and p.S626C increased lactate dehydrogenase release in medium. Conclusively, our data suggested that mutational variants in AMPD1 contribute to autism risk in Han Chinese population, uncovering the contribution of mutant protein to disease development that operates via mitochondria dysfunction and cell necrosis.
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Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.
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SDF-1/CXCR4 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and progression of colorectal cancer by activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor, CXCR4, play an important role in angiogenesis and are associated with tumor progression. This study aimed to investigate the role of SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as the underlying mechanisms. The data showed that expression of CXCR4 and ?-catenin mRNA and protein was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in distant normal tissues. CXCR4 expression was associated with ?-catenin expression in CRC tissues, whereas high CXCR4 expression was strongly associated with low E-cadherin, high N-cadherin, and high vimentin expression, suggesting a cross talk between the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in CRC. In vitro, SDF-1 induced CXCR4-positive colorectal cancer cell invasion and EMT by activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. In contrast, SDF-1/CXCR4 axis activation-induced colorectal cancer invasion and EMT was effectively inhibited by the Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor Dickkopf-1. In conclusion, CXCR4-promoted CRC progression and EMT were regulated by the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Thus, targeting of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis could have clinical applications in suppressing CRC progression.
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Telomere-centric genome repatterning determines recurring chromosome number reductions during the evolution of eukaryotes.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is central to the evolution of many eukaryotic genomes, in particular rendering angiosperm (flowering plant) genomes much less stable than those of animals. Following repeated duplication/triplication(s), angiosperm chromosome numbers have usually been restored to a narrow range, as one element in a 'diploidization' process that re-establishes diploid heredity. In several angiosperms affected by WGD, we show that chromosome number reduction (CNR) is best explained by intra- and/or inter-chromosomal crossovers to form new chromosomes that utilize the existing telomeres of 'invaded' and centromeres of 'invading' chromosomes, the alternative centromeres and telomeres being lost. Comparison with the banana (Musa acuminata) genome supports a 'fusion model' for the evolution of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes 2 and 3, implying that the grass common ancestor had seven chromosomes rather than the five implied by a 'fission model.' The 'invading' and 'invaded' chromosomes are frequently homoeologs, originating from duplication of a common ancestral chromosome and with greater-than-average DNA-level correspondence to one another. Telomere-centric CNR following recursive WGD in plants is also important in mammals and yeast, and may be a general mechanism of restoring small linear chromosome numbers in higher eukaryotes.
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Long-term Tai Chi training is related to depressive symptoms among Tai Chi practitioners.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Due to the close association with physical and psychological health and quality of life, mood disorders, especially depressive symptoms, are an important global public-health issue. It is hypothesized that long-term physical training and mood adjustment may have a beneficial effect on the prevention of the onset of depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between long-term Tai Chi training and depressive symptoms among Tai Chi practitioners.
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Differential expression and regulation of Ido2 in the mouse uterus during peri-implantation period.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Ido2 is involved in tryptophan catabolism and immunity, but its physiological functions remain poorly understood. This study was undertaken to examine the expression and regulation of Ido2 gene in mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period. The results showed that Ido2 mRNA was highly expressed on day 4 of pregnancy and in the delayed implantation uterus. On days 5-8 of pregnancy, a low level of Ido2 expression was observed in the uteri. Simultaneously, Ido2 mRNA was also lowly expressed in the decidualized uterus. In the uterine stromal cells, 8-Br-cAMP could inhibit the expression of Ido2 mRNA. Moreover, Ido2 mRNA expression was gradually decreased after the stromal cells were treated with estrogen and progesterone and reached a nadir at 96 h. Further study found that overexpression of Ido2 could downregulate the expression of decidualization marker genes PRL, IGFBP1, and Dtprp under in vitro decidualization, while inhibition of Ido2 with devo-1-methyl-tryptophan (D-1-MT) could upregulate the expression of these marker genes. Under in vitro decidualization, overexpression of Ido2 could suppress the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and elevate the expression of Bax and MMP2 genes. On the contrary, Ido2 inhibitor D-1-MT could enhance the proliferation of stromal cells and expression of Bcl2 gene but decline the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In the uterine stromal cells, estrogen and progesterone could induce the expression of Ido2 mRNA. These data indicate that Ido2 may be important for mouse embryo implantation and decidualization.
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Comparison of two in vitro angiogenesis assays for evaluating the effects of netrin-1 on tube formation.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Netrin-1 is a neural guidance cue that also regulates vascular development. Controversial results, however, have been obtained concerning the roles of netrin-1 in vascular development both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, two in vitro angiogenesis assays were compared to evaluate the effects of netrin-1 secreted by retrovirally transduced melanoma cells (Mel2a-netrin1) on tube formation. The results showed that there was no obvious difference in tube formation induced by conditioned media (CM) from the control, Mel2a-netrin1 and Mel2a cells in a matrigel assay. The results of another in vitro assay, in which endothelial cells were co-cultured with human fibroblasts, however, showed that Mel2a-netrin1 CM inhibited the tube formation, supposedly through blocking the elongation and coalescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These results confirmed that the matrigel assay is not able to demonstrate the anti-angiogenic roles of netrin-1.
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Advances in the relationship between perauorinated compounds and thyroid function.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The influence of perauorinated compounds(PFCs)on human health has increasingly been recognized. Recent studies have shown that PFCs are associated with the incidences of tumors,neurotoxicities,reproductive toxicity,and metabolic syndrome. However,the relationship between PFCs and thyroid diseases remains unclear. While some foreign studies have explored their potential correlations,the findings were still controversial due to different methodologies and populations. This article reviews the recent advances in the research on the relationship between PFCs and thyroid function.
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NKG2A expression and impaired function of NK cells in patients with new onset of Graves' disease.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease. A significant decrease of the distribution of NK cells in the peripheral blood in children and adolescents with untreated GD has been observed. However, the role of NK and its subsets in adults with GD remains unclear.
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Optimization of technological parameters for preparation of lycopene microcapsules.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family with high degree of unsaturation and all-trans form. Lycopene is easy to isomerize and auto oxide by heat, light, oxygen and different food matrices. With an increasing understanding of the health benefit of lycopene, to enhance stability and bioavailability of lycopene, ultrasonic emulsification was used to prepare lycopene microcapsules in this article. The results optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) for microcapsules consisted of four major steps: (1) 0.54 g glycerin monostearate was fully dissolved in 5 mL ethyl acetate and then added 0.02 g lycopene to form an organic phase, 100.7 mL distilled water which dissolved 0.61 g synperonic pe(R)/F68 as the aqueous phase; (2) the organic phase was pulled into the aqueous phase under stirring at 60 °C water bath for 5 min; (3) the mixture was then ultrasonic homogenized at 380 W for 20 min to form a homogenous emulsion; (4) the resulting emulsion was rotary evaporated at 50 °C water bath for 10 min under a pressure of 20 MPa. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) of lycopene microcapsules under the optimized conditions approached to 64.4%.
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1HNMR-based metabolomic profile of rats with experimental acute pancreatitis.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common inflammatory disease of the pancreas accompanied by serious metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the specific metabolic process of this disease is still unclear. Characterization of the metabolome may help identify biomarkers for AP. To identify potential biomarkers, this study therefore investigated the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic profile of AP.
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Evaluation of whole brain health in aging and Alzheimer's disease: a standard procedure for scoring an MRI-based brain atrophy and lesion index.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The Brain Atrophy and Lesion Index (BALI), a semi-quantitative rating scale, has been developed to evaluate whole brain structural changes in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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Extensive and biased intergenomic nonreciprocal DNA exchanges shaped a nascent polyploid genome, gossypium (cotton).
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Genome duplication is thought to be central to the evolution of morphological complexity, and some polyploids enjoy a variety of capabilities that transgress those of their diploid progenitors. Comparison of genomic sequences from several tetraploid (AtDt) Gossypium species and genotypes with putative diploid A- and D-genome progenitor species revealed that unidirectional DNA exchanges between homeologous chromosomes were the predominant mechanism responsible for allelic differences between the Gossypium tetraploids and their diploid progenitors. Homeologous gene conversion events (HeGCEs) gradually subsided, declining to rates similar to random mutation during radiation of the polyploid into multiple clades and species. Despite occurring in a common nucleus, preservation of HeGCE is asymmetric in the two tetraploid subgenomes. At-to-Dt conversion is far more abundant than the reciprocal, is enriched in heterochromatin, is highly correlated with GC content and transposon distribution, and may silence abundant A-genome-derived retrotransposons. Dt-to-At conversion is abundant in euchromatin and genes, frequently reversing losses of gene function. The long-standing observation that the nonspinnable-fibered D-genome contributes to the superior yield and quality of tetraploid cotton fibers may be explained by accelerated Dt to At conversion during cotton domestication and improvement, increasing dosage of alleles from the spinnable-fibered A-genome. HeGCE may provide an alternative to (rare) reciprocal DNA exchanges between chromosomes in heterochromatin, where genes have approximately five times greater abundance of Dt-to-At conversion than does adjacent intergenic DNA. Spanning exon-to-gene-sized regions, HeGCE is a natural noninvasive means of gene transfer with the precision of transformation, potentially important in genetic improvement of many crop plants.
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SLC39A5 mutations interfering with the BMP/TGF-? pathway in non-syndromic high myopia.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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High myopia, with the characteristic feature of refractive error, is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It has a high heritability, but only a few causative genes have been identified and the pathogenesis is still unclear.
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Incidental finding of papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAFV600E mutation in a patient with coexistent primary hyperparathyroidism and Graves' hyperthyroidism.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The simultaneous occurrence of hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism was previously reported to be rare, but it was recognised more and more clearly by effective evaluations. Recent studies also mentioned the coexistence of parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The potential mechanism is still unknown. We report a case of a 46-year-old man coexisted with primary hyperparathyroidism, Graves' hyperthyroidism and occult PTC. The patient had a 6-month history of polyphagia and irritability. Blood examinations showed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Serum phosphate was lower. Thyroid function evaluation indicted Graves' hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed a solitary hyperchoic thyroid nodule in the right gland. Parathyroid radioisotope scanning found a mild enhancement of 99mTc absorption in the lower part of the right parathyroid gland. A surgical exploration was carried out and the parathyroid adenoma resection was performed. An occult micro-PTC with BRAF(V600E) mutation was also detected.
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Protection of skin with subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in water during superficial radiofrequency ablation in a rabbit model.
Int J Hyperthermia
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in water (D5W), to prevent skin injury during radiofrequency (RF) ablation.
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Augmenter of liver regeneration ameliorates renal fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy.
Biosci. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Renal fibrosis is a hallmark in CKD (chronic kidney disease) and is strongly correlated to the deterioration of renal function that is characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis and disruption of the normal architecture of the kidney. ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) is a growth factor with biological functions similar to those of HGF (hepatocyte growth factor). In this study, our results indicate that endogenous ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal fibrosis in UUO (unilateral ureteral obstruction) rat model. Moreover, we find that administration of rhALR (recombinant human ALR) significantly alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis and reduces renal-fibrosis-related proteins in UUO rats. Further investigation reveals that rhALR suppresses the up-regulated expression of TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor ?1) induced by UUO operation in the obstructed kidney, and inhibits Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation activated by the UUO-induced injury in the animal model. Therefore we suggest that ALR is involved in the progression of renal fibrosis and administration of rhALR protects the kidney against renal fibrosis by inhibition of TGF-?/Smad activity.
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Numerical well testing interpretation model and applications in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV), permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I) wellbore storage section, (II) intermediate flow section (transient section), (III) mid-radial flow section, (IV) crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer), and (V) systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
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Effectiveness of a community-based individualized lifestyle intervention among older adults with diabetes and hypertension, Tianjin, China, 2008-2009.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Though diet and exercise modification is effective in preventing diabetes and hypertension, community-based models for lifestyle intervention for managing these conditions that are practical and effective are few.
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Synergistic mechanism for tetrandrine on fluconazole against Candida albicans through the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism pathway.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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We found that tetrandrine (TET) can reverse the resistance of Candida albicans to fluconazole (FLC) and that this interaction is associated with the inhibition of drug efflux pumps. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration, which plays a major role in C. albicans metabolism, is the primary source of ATP for cellular processes, including the activation of efflux pumps. However, it was unclear if TET exerts its synergistic action against C. albicans via its impact on the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism. To investigate this mechanism, we examined the impact of FLC in the presence or absence of TET on two C. albicans strains obtained from a single parental source (FLC-sensitive strain CA-1 and FLC-resistant strain CA-16). We analysed key measures of energy generation and conversion, including the activity of respiration chain complexes I and III (CI and CIII), ATP synthase (CV) activity, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and studied intracellular ATP levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), which has a critical impact on energy transport. Mitochondrial morphology was observed by confocal microscopy. Our functional analyses revealed that, compared with strains treated only with FLC, TET+FLC increased the ATP levels and decreased ??m in CA-1, but decreased ATP levels and increased ??m in CA-16 (P<0.05). Additionally, CI, CIII and CV activity decreased by 23-48%. The production of ROS increased by two- to threefold and mitochondrial morphology was altered in both strains. Our data suggested that TET impacted mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism by influencing the generation and transport of ATP, reducing the utilization of ATP, and resulting in the inhibition of drug efflux pump activity. This activity contributed to the synergistic action of TET on FLC against C. albicans.
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The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus.
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The Impact of Laparoscopic Converted to Open Colectomy on Short-Term and Oncologic Outcomes for Colon Cancer.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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This study was designed to evaluate the impact of laparoscopic converted to open colectomy on short-term and oncologic outcomes and to identify risk factors for long-term survival in patients undergoing colectomy for non-metastatic colon cancer.
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Effects of Notch-1 down-regulation on malignant behaviors of breast cancer stem cells.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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This study examined the effect of Notch-1 signaling on malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells by regulating breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). BCSCs were enriched by using serum-free medium and knocked out of Notch-1 by using a lentiviral vector. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the Notch-1 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and BCSCs, and flow cytometry to detect the proportion of BCSCs in BCSC spheres. The BCSC self-renewal, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity were examined by the tumor microsphere-forming assay and transwell assay and after xenotransplantation. The results showed that the Notch-1 silencing reduced the number of BCSC spheres, the proportion of BCSCs, and the number of cells penetrating through the transwell membrane. It also decreased the size of tumors that were implanted in the nude mice. These results suggest that Notch-1 signaling is intimately linked to the behaviors of BCSCs. Blocking Notch-1 signaling can inhibit the malignant behaviors of BCSCs, which may provide a promising therapeutical approach for breast cancer.
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A hybrid qPCR/SNP array approach allows cost efficient assessment of KIR gene copy numbers in large samples.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) are surface receptors of natural killer cells that bind to their corresponding Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I ligands, making them interesting candidate genes for HLA-associated autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, allelic and copy number variation in the KIR region effectively mask it from standard genome-wide association studies: single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) probes targeting the region are often discarded by standard genotype callers since they exhibit variable cluster numbers. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays address this issue. However, their cost is prohibitive at the sample sizes required for detecting effects typically observed in complex genetic diseases.
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Specificity protein 1 regulates topoisomerase II? expression in SH-SY5Y cells during neuronal differentiation.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Topoisomerase II? (top II?) is a nuclear enzyme with an essential role in neural development. The regulation of top II? gene expression during neural differentiation is poorly understood. Functional analysis of top II? gene structure displayed a GC box sequence in its transcription promoter, which binds the nuclear transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Sp1 regulates gene expression via multiple mechanisms and is essential for early embryonic development. This study seeks to determine whether Sp1 regulates top II? gene expression during neuronal differentiation. For this purpose, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were induced to neuronal differentiation in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) for 5 days. After incubation with 10 ?M RA for 3-5 days, a majority of the cells exited the cell cycle to become postmitotic neurons, characterized by the presence of longer neurite outgrowths and expression of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2). Elevated Sp1 and top II? mRNA and protein levels were detected and found to be positively correlated with the differentiation stage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated an increased recruitment of Sp1 to the top II? promoter after RA treatment. Mithramycin A, a compound that interferes with Sp1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences, downregulated the expression of top II?, resulting in reduced expression of MAP2 and decreased neurite length compared with the control group. Our results indicate that Sp1 regulates top II? expression by binding to the GC box of the gene promoter during neuronal differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells.
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Implications of biomarkers in human hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis and therapy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent tumors worldwide and accounts for approximately one-third of all malignancies. In the past decade, advances have been made to improve the prognosis of HCC, including improvement in the clinical diagnosis of early-stage HCC using molecular biomarkers and molecular-targeted therapy to treat advanced HCC. However, the diagnosis, pathogenesis and targeted therapy of HCC are not completely independent, and should be comprehensively studied. For example, a number of tumor markers provide useful clinical information not only for prognosis, but also in pathogenesis and treatment efficacy. Therefore, this review will focus on the role of several specific biomarkers implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC and several promising molecular-targeted drugs that target the biomarkers of HCC.
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Infrequent ERBB2 mutations in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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ERBB2 mutations have been reported to occur in a subset of patients with lung adenocarcinomas or lung squamous cell carcinomas for some ethnicities, but it is unclear for Chinese patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas up to now. We retrospectively evaluated the status of ERBB2 mutations in a large cross-sectional cohort of 212 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosed in several hospitals from southern China during a time period of 1.5 years by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based direct sequencing and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. ERBB2 mutation was found in 1 of 49 lung adenocarcinomas (2.0%) and none in lung squamous cell carcinomas and lung adenosquamous carcinomas. It implies the occurrence of ERBB2 mutations is infrequent in Chinese patients with NSCLC, especially in lung squamous cell carcinomas.
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Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-?1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing T?R II expression in vitro.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-? receptor type II (T?R II) and significantly alleviates TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD.
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[CXCR4 and Nrf2 expressions in non-small cell lung cancer and their clinical implications].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To detect the expressions of CXCR4 and Nrf2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and analyze their association with the clinicopathological features of NSCLC.
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Using heuristic value prediction and dynamic task granularity resizing to improve software speculation.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Exploiting potential thread-level parallelism (TLP) is becoming the key factor to improving performance of programs on multicore or many-core systems. Among various kinds of parallel execution models, the software-based speculative parallel model has become a research focus due to its low cost, high efficiency, flexibility, and scalability. The performance of the guest program under the software-based speculative parallel execution model is closely related to the speculation accuracy, the control overhead, and the rollback overhead of the model. In this paper, we first analyzed the conventional speculative parallel model and presented an analytic model of its expectation of the overall overhead, then optimized the conventional model based on the analytic model, and finally proposed a novel speculative parallel model named HEUSPEC. The HEUSPEC model includes three key techniques, namely, the heuristic value prediction, the value based correctness checking, and the dynamic task granularity resizing. We have implemented the runtime system of the model in ANSI C language. The experiment results show that when the speedup of the HEUSPEC model can reach 2.20 on the average (15% higher than conventional model) when depth is equal to 3 and 4.51 on the average (12% higher than conventional model) when speculative depth is equal to 7. Besides, it shows good scalability and lower memory cost.
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Caveolin 1 knockdown inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human breast cancer BT474 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that caveolin 1 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, however, few studies have demonstrated that caveolin 1 also serves as a tumor promoter in breast cancer. In the present study, caveolin 1 small interfering RNA was used to knock down caveolin 1 expression in order to investigate the association between caveolin 1 and the proliferation and metastatic abilities of human breast cancer BT474 cells. The results revealed that cell proliferation, migration and invasion were attenuated by caveolin 1 knockdown in BT474 cells. Furthermore, caveolin 1 knockdown in BT474 cells arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase and decreased the number of cells in the S phase. In addition, caveolin 1 knockdown decreased the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway and inhibited the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins (cyclin D1, c-Fos and ?-catenin), whilst the expression of E-cadherin was increased. Furthermore, the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 and -1 was also inhibited by caveolin 1 knockdown. In combination, these results demonstrated that caveolin 1 knockdown had a tumor suppressing effect on BT474 cells.
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Expression and significance of the novel tumor-suppressor gene SMG-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Recent studies have demonstrated that SMG-1, a newly characterized member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs), is involved in tumorigenesis as a new tumor suppressor. However, its expression and significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain obscure. The present study investigated SMG-1 expression in HCC tissue specimens, aimed at defining the association with clinicopathological significance. Both immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR were employed to analyze SMG-1 expression in 157 HCC and corresponding distant normal tissue specimens. The results revealed that expression of SMG-1 was significantly lower in the HCC tissue specimens than that in the distant normal tissues. Moreover, a lower expression level of SMG-1 was significantly correlated with serum ?-fetoprotein level (P=0.001), poorly differentiated tumors (P=0.009) and more advanced TNM stage (P<0.001). Further study showed that SMG-1 expression was exactly associated with tumor differentiation and clinical stage in HCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that low SMG-1 expression was related to poor overall survival, and the prognostic impact of SMG-1 was further confirmed by stratified survival analysis. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that low SMG-1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for an unfavorable overall survival. We conclude that SMG-1 is downregulated in HCC and may represent a promising biomarker for predicting the prognosis of HCC, including the prognosis of early-stage patients.
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Sequencing of transcriptomes from two Miscanthus species reveals functional specificity in rhizomes, and clarifies evolutionary relationships.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Miscanthus is a promising biomass crop for temperate regions. Despite the increasing interest in this plant, limited sequence information has constrained research into its biology, physiology, and breeding. The whole genome transcriptomes of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus presented in this study may provide good resources to understand functional compositions of two important Miscanthus genomes and their evolutionary relationships.
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Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury through Promoting Gastrointestinal Motility in Rats with Acute Pancreatitis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Objective. Gastrointestinal disfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) were common in acute pancreatitis (AP). The effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and ALI in rats with AP was investigated to verify the theory of "lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related" in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, and EA group. AP model was established by three injections of 20% L-arginine at 1?h intervals. EA were applied to bilateral ST-25 and ST-36 for 30 minutes twice a day after modeling for 3 days. Arterial blood, pancreas, lung, and intestinal tissues were collected for detecting the inflammatory factors and histopathology. Intestinal propulsion rate (IPR) was also measured at 72?h. Results. EA treatment improved IPR and increased CCK-8 level compared with model group (P < 0.05). It lowered the serum levels of TNF- ? and IL-6 and increased the level of IL-4 with no effect on IL-10. EA treatment reduced serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in the lung and the pathologic scores of pancreas, lung and intestine were decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. EA treatment could promote gastrointestinal motility through inhibiting VIP, and promoting CCK expression and regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators to ameliorate ALI in AP.
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A method for gene-based pathway analysis using genomewide association study summary statistics reveals nine new type 1 diabetes associations.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Pathway analysis can complement point-wise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in exploring genomewide association study (GWAS) data to identify specific disease-associated genes that can be candidate causal genes. We propose a straightforward methodology that can be used for conducting a gene-based pathway analysis using summary GWAS statistics in combination with widely available reference genotype data. We used this method to perform a gene-based pathway analysis of a type 1 diabetes (T1D) meta-analysis GWAS (of 7,514 cases and 9,045 controls). An important feature of the conducted analysis is the removal of the major histocompatibility complex gene region, the major genetic risk factor for T1D. Thirty-one of the 1,583 (2%) tested pathways were identified to be enriched for association with T1D at a 5% false discovery rate. We analyzed these 31 pathways and their genes to identify SNPs in or near these pathway genes that showed potentially novel association with T1D and attempted to replicate the association of 22 SNPs in additional samples. Replication P-values were skewed (P=9.85×10-11) with 12 of the 22 SNPs showing P<0.05. Support, including replication evidence, was obtained for nine T1D associated variants in genes ITGB7 (rs11170466, P=7.86×10-9), NRP1 (rs722988, 4.88×10-8), BAD (rs694739, 2.37×10-7), CTSB (rs1296023, 2.79×10-7), FYN (rs11964650, P=5.60×10-7), UBE2G1 (rs9906760, 5.08×10-7), MAP3K14 (rs17759555, 9.67×10-7), ITGB1 (rs1557150, 1.93×10-6), and IL7R (rs1445898, 2.76×10-6). The proposed methodology can be applied to other GWAS datasets for which only summary level data are available.
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Carbon monoxide potently prevents ischemia-induced high-mobility group box 1 translocation and release and protects against lethal renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin-binding nuclear molecule that has potent proinflammatory effects once released by damaged cells. In some disease models, carbon monoxide (CO) exhibits anti-inflammatory and protective properties. Here, we investigated whether the protective effect of CO on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with the inhibition of HMGB1 translocation and release. A renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established with a 100% mortality rate in untreated mice. Pretreatment with the CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) resulted in 100% survival, maximal preservation of renal function, a marked reduction in pathological damage, and blunted upregulation of TLR4, RAGE, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP1 mRNA. Interestingly, CORM-2 pretreatment almost completely inhibited ischemia-induced HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and release. This inhibition was associated with a decrease in nuclear histone acetyltransferase activity. Indeed, CORM-2 pretreatment inhibited the acetylation and release of HMGB1 during hypoxic culture of primary mouse renal tubular epithelia cells in vitro. Using the same renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model, neutralization of HMGB1 was protective, and administration of exogenous HMGB1 largely reversed the protective effect of CORM-2 on kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, CORM-2-delivered CO protects against lethal renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. This protection is correlated with the prevention of HMGB1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation and release.
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Molecular identity of axonal sodium channels in human cortical pyramidal cells.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies in rodents revealed that selective accumulation of Na(+) channel subtypes at the axon initial segment (AIS) determines action potential (AP) initiation and backpropagation in cortical pyramidal cells (PCs); however, in human cortex, the molecular identity of Na(+) channels distributed at PC axons, including the AIS and the nodes of Ranvier, remains unclear. We performed immunostaining experiments in human cortical tissues removed surgically to cure brain diseases. We found strong immunosignals of Na(+) channels and two channel subtypes, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6, at the AIS of human cortical PCs. Although both channel subtypes were expressed along the entire AIS, the peak immunosignals of NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 were found at proximal and distal AIS regions, respectively. Surprisingly, in addition to the presence of NaV1.6 at the nodes of Ranvier, NaV1.2 was also found in a subpopulation of nodes in the adult human cortex, different from the absence of NaV1.2 in myelinated axons in rodents. NaV1.1 immunosignals were not detected at either the AIS or the nodes of Ranvier of PCs; however, they were expressed at interneuron axons with different distribution patterns. Further experiments revealed that parvalbumin-positive GABAergic axon cartridges selectively innervated distal AIS regions with relatively high immunosignals of NaV1.6 but not the proximal NaV1.2-enriched compartments, suggesting an important role of axo-axonic cells in regulating AP initiation in human PCs. Together, our results show that both NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 (but not NaV1.1) channel subtypes are expressed at the AIS and the nodes of Ranvier in adult human cortical PCs, suggesting that these channel subtypes control neuronal excitability and signal conduction in PC axons.
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Validation of EORTC IN-PATSAT32 for Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To test the psychometric properties and applicability of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer In-patient Satisfaction with Care Questionnaire 32 (EORTC IN-PATSAT32) for Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
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Cytokeratin 19, thyroperoxidase, HBME-1 and galectin-3 in evaluation of aggressive behavior of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess usefulness of cytokeratin 19 (CK19), thyroperoxidase (TPO), Hector Battifora mesothelial epitope-1 (HBME-1) and galectin-3 (GAL3) in evaluation of aggressive behavior of PTCs.
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New ZNF644 mutations identified in patients with high myopia.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myopia, or near-sightedness, is one of the most common human visual impairments worldwide, and high myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness. In this study, we investigated the mutation spectrum of ZNF644, a causative gene for autosomal dominant high myopia, in a high-myopia cohort from a Chinese population.
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A high frequency of peripheral blood NKG2D+NK and NKT cells in euthyroid patients with new onset hashimotos thyroiditis-a pilot study.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Hashimotos thyroiditis (HT) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. However, little is known about the role of different subsets of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells at the early stage of the HT process. A total of 45 euthyroid patients with new onset HT and 40 age/gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were examined for the frequency of different subsets of NK and NKT cells and their function by flow cytometry. In comparison with that in HC, significantly higher percentages of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK, NKG2D+, NKp30+ NK and NKT cells, but significantly lower percentages of NKG2A+, KIR2DL3+ inhibitory NK and NKT cells were detected in the HT patients. Furthermore, the percentages of NKG2D+ NK cells were correlated positively with the concentrations of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in the HT patients. Moreover, the percentages of inducible IFN-? and CD107a+ NK cells in the HT patients were significantly higher than those in HC. Our data suggest that activated NK cells may participate in the early pathogenic process of HT.
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Casticin suppresses self-renewal and invasion of lung cancer stem-like cells from A549 cells through down-regulation of pAkt.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2013
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A subpopulation of cancer stem cells is recognized as the cause of tumorigenesis and spreading. To investigate the effects of casticin (5,3-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4-tetramethoxyflavone), derived from Fructus Viticis Simplicifoliae, on lung cancer stem cells, we isolated and identified a subpopulation of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) from non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells with the features including self-renewal capacity and high invasiveness in vitro, elevated tumorigenic activity in vivo, and high expression of stemness markers CD133, CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), using serum-free suspension sphere-forming culture method. We then found that casticin could suppress the proliferation of LCSLCs in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.4 ?mol/L, being much stronger than that in parental A549 cells. In addition, casticin could suppress the self-renewal and invasion of LCSLCs concomitant with decreased CD133, CD44, and ALDH1 protein expression and reduced MMP-9 activity. Further experiments showed that casticin suppressed self-renewal and invasion at least partly through down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, casticin suppressed the characteristics of LCSLCs, suggesting that casticin may be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer via eliminating cancer stem cells.
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Nivetetracyclates A and B: Novel Compounds Isolated from Streptomyces niveus.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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A high-throughput screening of a microbial natural product library led to the discovery of two novel compounds named nivetetracyclates A and B (1 and 2), which were produced by Streptomyces niveus designated as LS2151. The backbone of the compounds contains a hydrotetracyclate not previously reported from a natural source. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The nivetetracyclates exhibited activity against human HeLa cells.
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Risk of GWAS-identified genetic variants for breast cancer in a Chinese population: a multiple interaction analysis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of breast cancer (BC) have identified multiple risk variants. However, the multiple interactions among these variants are still not well established. In this study, we utilized the multi-analytic strategy combing random forest (RF), multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and logistic regression approaches to investigate the high-order interactions among ten genetic variants recently identified by GWAS in 477 BC patients and 534 healthy controls. Expectedly, six variants, rs1219648, rs3757318, rs1926657, rs6556756, rs2046210, and rs4973768, were significantly associated with BC risk under independent analysis. In RF analysis, rs3757318, rs2046210, and rs4973768 were ranked as the top three important risk factors and were selected as the best set which taking interactions into consideration. Subsequently, the MDR analysis of the ten variants found that the three-factor model including rs3757318, rs2046210, and rs4973768 interpret the best interaction model with the maximized testing accuracy of 0.6183 and cross-validation consistency of 10/10. Intriguingly, cumulative effect was observed in the manner of dose-dependent with increasing numbers of risk alleles (P trend = 9.80 × 10(-5)), and the individuals carrying 4-6 risk alleles had a threefold higher risk of BC than carrying 0 risk alleles (OR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.96-5.48). Our findings emphasized the proof of principle that multiple interactions of genetic variants, including rs3757318, rs2046210, and rs4973768 may play important roles in the susceptibility of BC though the biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations need to be elucidated.
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Doping concentration induced phase transition in Eu³?-doped ?-PbF? nano-particles.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Europium doped ?-PbF? nano-particles with different doping concentration are prepared to investigate the site structure of Eu³? dopants. It is concluded that the site symmetry of Eu³? dopants in ?-PbF? nano-particles lowers from O(h)to D(4h) with the increase of doping concentration. By X-ray diffraction analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy study, a doping concentration induced phase transition from lowly doped cubic Pb?EuF? to highly doped tetragonal PbEuF? is detected. The intermediate phase of moderately doped nano-particles, which contains both phases mentioned above, is observed for the first time. Moreover, the temperature-dependent intermediate phase analysis suggests that the tetragonal phase is more stable than the cubic phase, which is also confirmed by the first-principle calculations. Our results suggest that the doping concentration induced phase transition in ?-PbF? nano-particles can be used for understanding other Lanthanide-doped nano-particle systems.
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Unusual presentation of two Chinese phenylketonuria sisters who were misdiagnosed for years.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Significant developmental delay was first noticed when both sisters were in their third year of life. However, no biochemical disorders were found through the routine biochemical tests, including liver and kidney function, lipoprotein, urine and blood cell count analysis. Progressively, both sisters exhibited odd behaviour, accompanied by personality changes and altered sleep rhythm and then were diagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the eighth year, the younger sister began to take risperidone due to a presumed psychiatric disorder. Four months before attending our hospital, both sisters were diagnosed by MRI as having hereditary leukodystrophy. Nerve-nurturing treatment was tried, but without good outcome. They were then referred to our hospital for further consultation. After systematic examinations, it was confirmed that both the sisters were suffering from phenylketonuria. The symptoms were alleviated after dietary restriction of phenylalanine and symptomatic treatment.
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Structure and distortion of lead fluoride nanocrystals in rare earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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A series of rare earth (RE) doped oxyfluoride glasses with the composition of (45-x) SiO2-5Al2O3-40PbF2-10CdF2-xRe2O3 (x = 1, 5, 10, 15) (mol%) were prepared by a traditional melt-quenching method. Glass ceramics (GCs) were obtained after thermal treatment and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the nanocrystal structure and distortion. Both the dopant type and the doping level play an important role in the distortion of the PbF2-RE lattice. It is found that a cubic Pb3REF9 phase forms in low doping GCs, a tetragonal PbREF5 phase forms in middle doping GCs and cubic PbRE3F11 forms in high doping GCs. Accordingly, the site symmetry of RE(3+) dopants in ?-PbF2 nanocrystal undergoes a transition of Oh···D4h···Oh with the increase of doping level. The change in the ligands coordinating the RE(3+) ions was further illustrated by the optical changes in Yb-doped GCs. This paper provides insights on the nanocrystal structure of RE at the atomic level and tries to make a complete description of the nanocrystal structure and distortion in these glass-ceramic materials, which will benefit the optimization of optical properties.
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Seed shattering in a wild sorghum is conferred by a locus unrelated to domestication.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Suppression of seed shattering was a key step during crop domestication that we have previously suggested to be convergent among independent cereal lineages. Positional, association, expression, and mutant complementation data all implicate a WRKY transcription factor, SpWRKY, in conferring shattering to a wild sorghum relative, Sorghum propinquum. We hypothesize that SpWRKY functions in a manner analogous to Medicago and Arabidopsis homologs that regulate cell wall biosynthesis genes, with low expression toward the end of floral development derepressing downstream cell wall biosynthesis genes to allow deposition of lignin that initiates the abscission zone in the seed-pedicel junction. The recent discovery of a YABBY locus that confers shattering within Sorghum bicolor and other cereals validated our prior hypothesis that some parallel domestication may have been convergent. Ironically, however, the shattering allele of SpWRKY appears to be recently evolved in S. propinquum and illustrates a case in which the genetic control of a trait in a wild relative fails to extrapolate even to closely related crops. Remarkably, the SpWRKY and YABBY loci lie only 300 kb apart and may have appeared to be a single genetic locus in some sorghum populations.
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[Design, synthesis and biological activity evaluation of adenosine analogues].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl) adenosine, HEA (1), an active ingredient isolated from cultured mycelia of cordyceps species which is a famous traditional tonic in China, showed brain protective, sedative hypnotic activity in pharmacological tests. In order to explore novel non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic agents, HEA was treated as the lead compound. Twenty three target compounds were designed and synthesized. Their chemical structures were characterized by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Pharmacological test in vivo showed that target compounds 8, 4, 13 were more active than HEA on locomotor and gasping activities of mice. Structure-activity relationships showed that the ribose moiety at N-9 position of adenine base was critical for activity.
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A whole-genome DNA marker map for cotton based on the D-genome sequence of Gossypium raimondii L.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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We constructed a very-high-density, whole-genome marker map (WGMM) for cotton by using 18,597 DNA markers corresponding to 48,958 loci that were aligned to both a consensus genetic map and a reference genome sequence. The WGMM has a density of one locus per 15.6 kb, or an average of 1.3 loci per gene. The WGMM was anchored by the use of colinear markers to a detailed genetic map, providing recombinational information. Mapped markers occurred at relatively greater physical densities in distal chromosomal regions and lower physical densities in the central regions, with all 1 Mb bins having at least nine markers. Hotspots for quantitative trait loci and resistance gene analog clusters were aligned to the map and DNA markers identified for targeting of these regions of high practical importance. Based on the cotton D genome reference sequence, the locations of chromosome structural rearrangements plotted on the map facilitate its translation to other Gossypium genome types. The WGMM is a versatile genetic map for marker assisted breeding, fine mapping and cloning of genes and quantitative trait loci, developing new genetic markers and maps, genome-wide association mapping, and genome evolution studies.
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Endophytic Streptomyces sp. Y3111 from traditional Chinese medicine produced antitubercular pluramycins.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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As part of a search for antitubercular substances from natural sources, we screened a library of endophytic microbes (50 strains and 300 crude extracts in total) isolated from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for growth inhibitory activity against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). The crude extract of Streptomyces sp. strain Y3111, which was associated with the stems of Heracleum souliei, showed good anti-BCG activity with an MIC value of 12.5 ?g/mL. Bioassay-guided isolation led to four new pluramycin-type compounds, heraclemycins A-D (1-4). Their structures were determined by different spectroscopic techniques including HRMSESI, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR. This is the first report of pluramycin analogues produced by TCM endophytic microbes as well as the first example of BCG-selective pluramycins. Heraclemycin C (3) showed selective antitubercular activity against BCG with a MIC value of 6.25 ?g/mL and a potential new mode of action.
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Haemocyte Apoptosis of the Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon Exposed to Cadmium.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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This study investigated the effect of ambient Cadmium (Cd) on haemocyte apoptosis of the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Cellular response was determined in Cd-exposed (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1)) shrimp. Results showed that 0.05 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) had no significant effect on the haemocyte parameters during the 48 h exposure. Cadmium at doses of 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1) depressed the total haemocyte count (THC), and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in haemocytes. Esterase activity increased in shrimp exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) for 6 h, and decreased to the initial level later. Depressed esterase activity could be observed in shrimp after 24 and 48 h exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+). These results demonstrated that Cd(2+) modified esterase activity and induced ROS generation, which led to haemocyte apoptosis and THC reduction. Oxidative stress is one of the induction mechanisms for Cd-caused apoptosis of shrimp haemocytes.
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Expression and prognostic relevance of Cyclophilin A and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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To guide clinicians in selecting treatment options for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients, reliable markers predictive of clinical outcome are desirable. This study analyzed the correlation of cyclophilin A (CypA) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in ESCC and their relationships to clinicopathological features and survival.
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Bufalin exerts antitumor effects by inducing cell cycle arrest and triggering apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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As one of the most aggressive human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and only about 4 % of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Eighty to approximately eighty-five percent of patients are diagnosed with an unresectable or metastatic disease, which is correlated with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Therefore, it is tremendously significant to exploit novel chemicals to prevent and treat pancreatic cancer. Previous research and clinical studies have demonstrated that many natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) such as camptothecin derivatives and vinca alkaloids could be effective antitumor compounds, hinting that TCM is a promising source for developing new antitumor drugs. In this report, we investigated the effects of bufalin, a primary active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan-Su, on pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 and studied the underlying molecular mechanism. We found that exposure to bufalin could suppress the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells time and dose dependently. We used flow cytometry to study the effects of bufalin on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 cells. The results indicated that bufalin could significantly induce both apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in pancreatic cancer cells. With western blotting, we found that the expression level of an antiapoptotic protein heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and its partner molecule p-Akt was decreased upon the treatment with bufalin. Besides, bufalin activated pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9 and modulated the expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax. These data suggested that bufalin may trigger apoptosis by targeting Hsp27, which could inhibit apoptosis by interfering with key apoptotic proteins. The influence on the level of cylinB1, CDK1, and p21 was also observed after bufalin treatment, and the relationship between Hsp27 and the cell cycle-related proteins mentioned above deserves much more research. In addition, our data showed that bufalin could enhance the growth inhibition effect of gemcitabine in above pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, bufalin might be worthy of further study for its potential as a therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer treatment.
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Curcumin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by regulating the expression of IkappaBalpha, c-Jun and androgen receptor.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Curcumin possesses chemopreventive properties against several types of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis of cancer cells and inhibits cancer cell proliferation are not clearly understood. To evaluate the antitumor activity of curcumin for prostate cancer, we used an androgen dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cell line and an androgen independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell line as experimental models. We treated these cells with curcumin and then evaluated the effects of curcumin on cell cycle profiling and apoptosis, as well as the activation of NF-kaapaB and c-jun in these cells. The results showed that the ratios of apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 cells were significantly elevated in a dose dependent manner after exposure to curcumin. In addition, curcumin induces the G2/M cell cycle arrest of LNCaP and PC-3 cells in a dose dependent manner. Mechanistically, we found that curcumin upregulated the protein level of NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha and downregulated protein levels of c-Jun and AR. These data suggest that curcumin is a promising agent for the treatment of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer.
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The robust hydrogel hierarchically assembled from a pH sensitive peptide amphiphile based on silk fibroin.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Supramolecular polymers can be formed by self-assembly of designed subunits to yield highly ordered materials. In this paper, hierarchically structured materials, from molecules to nanofibers to macroscopical hydrogel, were fabricated by pH-induced assembly of C(12)-GAGAGAGY, a peptide amphiphile (PA) based on silk fibroin. Due to the different acid dissociation constants of the carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups on tyrosine residue (Y), the PAs showed unique pH sensitive assembly and aggregation behaviors. It was found that not only the molecular-scale assemblies of these PAs gradually changed from cylindrical nanofibers to nanoribbons with the decreasing of pH value from 11 to 8 but also most of nanoribbons aggregated into parallel bundles in such a case. Further decrease of pH value resulted in a hierarchically structured robust and plastic hydrogel, of which the rheological moduli reached around 10(5) Pa. Moreover, noodle-like hydrogel fibers with bundles of nanoribbons aggregated parallel along the long axis in them could be steadily prepared under shear force. Taking the pH-sensitive reversible sol-gel transition, high modulus and plasticity into account, the hydrogel is believed to have significant potential applications in tissue engineering or as the biocompatible adhesives.
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A trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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The full-length cDNA sequence of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjaTPS) (Accession: KC578568) was isolated based on homologous cloning and RACE-PCR. It was 4,127 bp, with 320 bp 5-UTR, 21 bp 3-UTR, and open reading frame (ORF) of 3,786 bp. The deduced 1,261 amino acids characterized with predicted molecular weight of 137.84 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.12. The SjaTPS had one N-terminal CBM20 (family 20 carbohydrate-binding module) domain, one TPS domain (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) in the middle region and a single TPP (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase) domain near the C-terminus. Structural analysis suggested that the SjaTPS putatively functioned as trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, and might be related to laminaran metabolism in S. japonica. Homology analysis indicated that the SjaTPS shared 49-70 % similarities with the 13 known TPS sequences of other algae; only 55 % amino acid similarities were detected between SjaTPS and the previously reported TPS sequence of S. japonica (Accession: DQ666325). Phylogenetic analysis revealed close affinity between SjaTPS and TPS of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Accession: CBJ29609). Transcriptional analysis showed that desiccation greatly enhanced SjaTPS expression and the maximum appeared at 3 h, which was about 300-fold compared to that of the start, implied that SjaTPS was involved with drought adaption in kelp. In vitro expression of SjaTPS showed that one distinct band existed at ~115 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was positive to the anti-His antibody with high specificity. Our results increased the knowledge of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase properties in S. japonica and also important for better understanding the role trehalose plays in kelp abiotic tolerance for adaption to the sublittoral habitats.
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Clinical and Genetic Identification of a Large Chinese Family with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.
Ophthalmic Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Abstract Background: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by night blindness, progressive peripheral visual field loss, and loss of central vision. Fifty-three RP pathogenic genes are responsible for RP. Pre-mRNA processing factor 31(PRPF31) gene is the third most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), and so far more than 40 mutations in PRPF31 have been detected. Purpose: To identify the underlying genetic defect in a five-generation Chinese family affected with adRP and to study the genotype-phenotype relationship of this family. Methods: Detailed clinical investigations were undertaken and peripheral blood samples were collected from 25 individuals. Microsatellite (STR) markers tightly linked to genes known to be responsible for adRP were selected for linkage analysis. Exons and adjacent splice junctions of the candidate gene were amplified and sequenced. Results: This adRP family exhibited an incomplete penetrance of the RP phenotype. In affected individuals, age of disease onset was from infancy to 4 years of age. Typical RP features were associated with this mutation. Linkage analysis identified a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.20 with D19S418, which is close to PRPF31. A mutation PRPF31: (c.358-359 del AA) was identified by linkage analysis. Conclusions: A PRPF31 mutation was identified to be responsible for adRP in a large Chinese family. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RP in the Chinese population.
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A Sensitive and Selective Method for Determination of Aesculin in Cortex Fraxini by Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Application in Pharmacokinetic Study.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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A rapid and sensitive method for determining aesculin of Cortex fraxini in rat was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) tandem mass (MS/MS). Rat plasma was pretreated by fourfold methanol to remove plasma proteins. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase column. A tandem mass spectrometric detection with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface was achieved using collision-induced dissociation (CID) under positive ionization mode. The MS/MS patterns monitored were m/z 341.2716 ? m/z 179.1043 for aesculin and m/z 248.3025 ? m/z 120.9130 for tinidazole (internal standard). The linear range was calculated to be 10.0-1500.0?ng/mL with a detection limit of 2.0?ng/mL. The inter- and intraday accuracy and precision were within ±7.0%. Pharmacokinetic study showed that aesculin was confirmed to be a one-compartment open model. The method is believed to have good linear range, high sensitivity and recoveries, and superior analytical efficiency. It will probably be an alternative for pharmacokinetic study of aesculin.
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Comparative pharmacokinetics studies of benzoylhypaconine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine and hypaconitine in rats by LC-MS method after administration of Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata extract and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of benzoylhypaconine (BHA), benzoylmesaconine (BMA), benzoylaconine (BAC) and hypaconitine (HA) in rat plasma for the first time. The analytes were separated on a Kromasil C18 column with a total running time of 11?min. The validation data demonstrated a sound feasibility for the newly developed method and it was then applied to the pharmacokinetic study of these analytes in rats. Pharmacokinetic behaviors of BHA, BMA, BAC and HA in rats were studied after oral administration of Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata extract (FZ) and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD). The main parameters for the two groups of subjects were compared, and significant differences between Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata extract group and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction group in calculated parameters, such as the area under the plasma concentration-time from zero to the last quantifiable time-point (AUC0-t ), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-? ), peak plasma concentration (Cmax ), half-life of elimination (T1/2 ), mean retention time (MRT0-t ), plasma clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vd ) and time to reach Cmax (Tmax ), were found. After oral administration of DFD, the AUC0-t , AUC0-? and Cmax of BHA, BMA, BAC and HA decreased remarkably (p?
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