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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effects of small interfering RNA silencing MACC-1 expression on cell proliferation, cell cycle and invasion ability of cervical cancer SiHa cells].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To investigate the expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC-1) mediated by siRNA, and to study the effects of its downregulation on cell proliferation, cell cycle and invasion ability of cervical cancer SiHa cells.
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Continual exposure to cigarette smoke extracts induces tumor-like transformation of human nontumor bronchial epithelial cells in a microfluidic chip.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Heavy cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an independent risk factor for lung squamous carcinoma. However, the mechanisms underlying the malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells are unclear.
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Evolutionary genetics of genotype H1 measles viruses in China from 1993 to 2012.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Virologic surveillance is a critical component of measles management. One of the criteria for verification of elimination of endemic measles is genetic analysis of wild-type viruses to demonstrate lack of an indigenous genotype. Measles is yet to be eliminated in China, and genotype H1 has been detected continuously since virologic surveillance was initiated in 1993. Virologic surveillance has been very active in China, providing a unique opportunity to conduct a detailed study of the evolution of a single, endemic genotype over a timespan of nearly two decades. Phylogenetic analysis performed on the 450 nt coding sequence for the C-terminal 150 amino acids of the nucleoprotein (N-450), fusion (F) gene and haemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the continued circulation of genotype H1 viruses for 19 years. No evidence of selective pressure for the H protein was found. The substitution rates ranged from 0.75×10(-3) substitutions site(-1) year(-1) for H to 1.65×10(-3) substitutions site(-1) year(-1) for N-450. The time of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for genotype H1 was estimated as approximately 1985 (95?% highest probability density, 1979-1989). Finally, the overall diversity of measles sequences from China decreased from 2005 to 2012, coincident with a substantial decrease in measles cases. The results suggest that detailed evolutionary analyses should facilitate the documentation of eventual measles elimination in China. Moreover, the molecular approaches used in this study can be applied in other countries approaching measles elimination.
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Cryptotanshinone inhibits lung tumorigenesis and induces apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Cryptotanshinone is one of the compounds extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Unlike other tanshinones, only a small number of studies have focused on cryptotanshinone for medical treatment. In the present study, the A549 lung cancer cell line and xenograft models of human lung tumors were used to assess the anti-cancer effect of cryptotanshinone. The effect of cryptotanshinone on human lung cancer, including growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis factors, were identified in vitro, and inhibition of tumor formation, improvement of body condition as well as pathological apoptotic effects were detected in vivo. These results suggested that cryptotanshinone is a potential drug for the treatment and prevention of human lung cancer.
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Histone modifications of the Crhr1 gene in a rat model of depression following chronic stress.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Multiple lines of evidence suggest a link between depression and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hormone dynamics, including altered regulation of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its main receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1). However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying depression remain poorly understood. In this study, we employed a model of depression in rats by subjecting animals to 21 days of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to study the mRNA and protein expression levels of CRHR1 in the hypothalamus. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to detect histone methylation at the Crhr1 gene promoter; the levels of histone H3 trimethylation at lysines 4 (H3K4) and 9 (H3K9) reflect active transcription and transcriptional repression, respectively. Rats exposed to CUMS exhibited significant reduction in locomotion and sucrose preference. These behavioral alterations were associated with elevated expression levels of CRHR1 mRNA and protein in the hypothalamus of rats in the CUMS group. We also found that the levels of H3K9 trimethylation at the Crhr1 gene promoter in the CUMS group were significantly lower than those in the control group, whereas H3K4 trimethylation levels were the same for both groups. Taken together, our findings suggest that the increase in CRHR1 expression in the hypothalamus of stressed rats correlates with a decrease in the repressive chromatin state caused by reduced H3K9 trimethylation levels. These data are the first in vivo evidence of a role for chromatin modifications in the regulation of Crhr1 gene expression in the hypothalamus, and may provide novel insight into therapeutic approaches to treat depression.
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Differential expression of hippocampal EphA4 and ephrinA3 in anhedonic-like behavior, stress resilience, and antidepressant drug treatment after chronic unpredicted mild stress.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Stress exposure is one of the major risk factors of depression, but the mechanism is not understood. While some individuals show resilience to stress exposure, antidepressants only partially reduce stress-induced depression in both humans and rodents. Stress could dysregulate the remodeling of neuronal dendrites and spines in hippocampus while antidepressants could recover the deficiency induced by stress. EphA4 and its ligand ephrinA3 are critical in the remodeling of neuronal dendrites and spines, but the relationship between ephrinA3/EphA4, stress-induced depression and antidepressants treatment is largely unknown. Based on a rat chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) model, we investigated ephrinA3/EphA4 expression in stress susceptibility, stress resilience, treatment response and treatment resistance in rats. CUMS led to downregulation of EphA4 expression and upregulation of ephrinA3 expression in the hippocampus of stress-susceptible rats, but not in stress-resilient rats. Dysregulated EphA4 and ephrinA3 can be rescued by fluoxetine administration in drug responders, but not in fluoxetine resistant rats. These data provide insights into the potential role of EphA4 and ephrinA3 after stressor exposure, stress adaptation, fluoxetine response and drug treatment refraction.
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BDNF attenuates IL-1?-induced F-actin remodeling by inhibiting NF-?B signaling in hippocampal neurons.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To examine the effect of BDNF on F-actin during the stimulation of IL-1? in hippocampal neurons.
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Monitoring progress towards the elimination of measles in China: an analysis of measles surveillance data.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To analyse the epidemiology of measles in China and determine the progress made towards the national elimination of the disease.
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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor expression in peripheral blood of patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome and its clinical significance.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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This study was conducted was to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in peripheral blood of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) syndrome and to investigate VEGF correlation with PIH occurrence.
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Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH? yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH? g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR.
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Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic value of various histological types in advanced gastric cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The prognostic value of histological types in gastric cancer is not well defined. This study aims to clarify the clinicopathologic features of various WHO histological types and their prognostic significance in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We retrospectively reviewed 741 patients with gastric cancer in our hospital from 1997 to 2007. The AGC (741 cases) were divided into five histological types: well-differentiated carcinoma (WD), moderately differentiated carcinoma (MD), poorly differentiated carcinoma (PD), mucinous carcinoma (MC), and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC). The various AGC histological types presented significant differences in their clinical and tumor features. The five-year survival rates of patients with WD, MD, PD, MC, and SRC were 87.1%, 57.1%, 50.6%, 62.7%, and 43.4%, respectively (P=0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that cell differentiation, age, depth of invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors in AGC, whereas MC and SRC were not. Cell differentiation is related to tumor aggression or patient stage. Advanced stage SRC carcinoma had more aggressive features and worse prognosis than the other types. MC carcinoma survival is correlated with the stage at diagnosis. The degree of cell differentiation is an important predictor of survival in AGC.
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Pediatric colonoscopy in South China: a 12-year experience in a tertiary center.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate: 1) the demographics and clinical characteristics, 2) the findings, and 3) the safety and effectiveness in a cohort of Chinese pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy.
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Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII), the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65)% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.
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Incidence and risks of subarachnoid hemorrhage in China.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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To determine incidence and risks of subarachnoid hemorrhage in China.
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Preliminary investigation of the influence of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on cognitive dysfunction in Chinese patients with major depression.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Research has increasingly focused on the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein in learning and memory, particularly its role in cognitive disorders and neurodegeneration, such as Huntingtons disease, Alzheimers disease, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The cognitive dysfunction of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which is widely recognized, is not completely in accordance with depressive severity, and the dysfunction persists upon clinical remission in some patients. However, few studies have focused on the role of CREB on cognitive function in patients with MDD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of CREB1 polymorphism on cognitive function in patients with MDD. The current study comprised 113 patients with MDD. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and cognitive function was assessed using the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, verbal fluency test, and tests of immediate logical memory and visual reproduction. All subjects were genotyped with regard to CREB1 polymorphisms (rs10932201, rs2551645, rs2254137, rs6740584, and rs2551640). For the verbal fluency test, the results showed significant differences for all single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypic groups. For the Stroop color-word task, a significant difference was found only for rs6740584. No significant differences were found for the Stroop color task, the immediate logical memory test or the visual reproduction test. In conclusion, there was an effect of CREB1 polymorphism on selective attention and retrieval of long-term memory, but not on immediate memory.
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Vitamin E facilitates the inactivation of the kinase Akt by the phosphatase PHLPP1.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Tocopherols are the predominant form of vitamin E found in the diet and in supplements and have garnered interest for their potential cancer therapeutic and preventive effects, such as the dephosphorylation of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase with a pivotal role in cell growth, survival, and metabolism. Dephosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 substantially reduces its catalytic activity and inhibits downstream signaling. We found that the mechanism by which ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopherol facilitate this site-specific dephosphorylation of Akt was mediated through the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-dependent recruitment of Akt and PHLPP1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase, isoform 1) to the plasma membrane. We structurally optimized these tocopherols to obtain derivatives with greater in vitro potency and in vivo tumor-suppressive activity in two prostate xenograft tumor models. Binding affinities for the PH domains of Akt and PHLPP1 were greater than for other PH domain-containing proteins, which may underlie the preferential recruitment of these proteins to membranes containing tocopherols. Molecular modeling revealed the structural determinants of the interaction with the PH domain of Akt that may inform strategies for continued structural optimization. By describing a mechanism by which tocopherols facilitate the dephosphorylation of Akt at Ser473, we provide insights into the mode of antitumor action of tocopherols and a rationale for the translational development of tocopherols into novel PH domain-targeted Akt inhibitors.
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Negative life events and corticotropin-releasing-hormone receptor1 gene in recurrent major depressive disorder.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a long-term, recurrent condition that often takes a chronic course. It seems imperative that research should be focused on gaining a better understanding of what predicts recurrent MDD. As a major mediator of the stress response, corticotropin-releasing-hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) has been demonstrated to be an important contributor to the pathogenesis of MDD. In this study, we show a significant increase in the G-allele (rs242939) of the CRHR1 gene in the recurrent MDD group compared with the control group, and an overrepresentation of G-G-T hyplotype of the CRHR1 gene in recurrent MDD. We also demonstrate the interaction of the CRHR1 gene and negative life events in recurrent MDD. These results suggest that the CRHR1 gene could modify the susceptibility to developing recurrent MDD following negative life events in adulthood.
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F-actin may play an important role in IL-1?-stimulated hippocampal neurons.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-1? treatment affects F-actin in hippocampal neurons.
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Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies.
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PDLIM5 gene polymorphisms and short term antidepressant response in Chinese major depressive disorders.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Several investigations have suggested that PDLIM5 plays a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), and that PDLIM5 might be a therapeutic target for the action of antidepressant. In this study, we sought to investigate whether variations of PDLIM5 gene sequence could predict response to antidepressants in MDD patients. We selected 3 SNPs (rs10008257, rs2433320, 2452600) of PDLIM5 gene, and performed an association analysis of PDLIM5 and the efficacy of fluoxetine treatment in 185 Han Chinese MDD patients. The results show that the rs2433320 of PDLIM5 gene are associated with fluoxetine therapeutic response in MDD patients (X(2) = 8.2960, df = 2, P = 0.0145) after correction with the Bonferroni multiple test, the HAMD score of the GG genotype group was significantly lower than that of the AA and AG genotype group at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The results support the idea that the PDLIM5 gene is likely to be involved in the antidepressant response in MDD.
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[Study on sub-chronic toxicity of powered milk containing transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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To investigate the potential toxic or adverse effect of transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin powered milk on rats.
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Interaction between CRHR1 and BDNF genes increases the risk of recurrent major depressive disorder in Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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An important etiological hypothesis about depression is stress has neurotoxic effects that damage the hippocampal cells. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression through influencing cAMP and Ca2+ signaling pathways during the course. The aim of this study is to examine the single and combined effects of CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) and BDNF genes in recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD).
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Emergence and transmission pathways of rapidly evolving evolutionary branch C4a strains of human enterovirus 71 in the Central Plain of China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred repeatedly in the Central Plain of China (Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces) from 2007 until now. These epidemics have increased in size and severity each year and are a major public health concern in mainland China.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion restored astrocytic plasticity in the hippocampus of a rat model of depression.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is closely associated with hippocampal plasticity in psychiatric disorders. Glial cells (particularly astrocytes) are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated that distinct alterations of astrocytes are associated with major depressive disorder, but there is a paucity of data describing whether such alterations of astrocytic plasticity are present in depressive-like rat hippocampus after BDNF administration. In this paper, we investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and BDNF infusion on astrocyte immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus using sucrose preference test, open field test, and Western blot analysis. Results revealed that CUMS induced anhedonic-like behaviors in sucrose consumption and open field performances, which were partially reversed by BDNF infusion. Moreover, CUMS produced decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and increased s100 calcium binding protein b (s100b) expression in rat hippocampus, which were partially rescued by BDNF administration. Therefore, BDNF might restore astrocyte immunoreactivity in depressive-like rat hippocampus, providing insights into the potential pharmacological role of BDNF in stress-related disorders.
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High-affinity peptide against MT1-MMP for in vivo tumor imaging.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a key member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. It participates in pericellular proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules and is essential for many biological and pathological processes, such as tumor development, angiogenesis and metastasis. A ligand that specifically binds to MT1-MMP may facilitate the labeling of this molecule, allow imaging at the cellular and organism levels, and provide a means for targeted drug delivery specific to MT1-MMP. A non-substrate MT1-MMP binding peptide was identified by screening a Ph.D.-12™ phage display peptide library and conjugated with near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye Cy5.5 for tumor imaging. Peptide HWKHLHNTKTFL (denoted as MT1-AF7p) showed high MT1-MMP binding affinity. Computer modeling verified that MT1-AF7p binds to the MT-loop region of MT1-MMP and interacts with MT1-MMP through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. MDA-MB-435 xenografts with high MT1-MMP expression had significantly higher tumor accumulation and better tumor contrast than the low MT1-MMP expressing A549 xenografts after intravenous injection of Cy5.5-MT1-AF7p. Using NIRF imaging, we have demonstrated specific targeting of MT1-AF7p to MT1-MMP-expressing tumors. Thus, MT1-AF7p is an important tool for noninvasive monitoring of MT1-MMP expression in tumors, and it shows great potential as an imaging agent for MT1-MMP-positive tumors.
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Down-regulation of P-glycoprotein is associated with resistance to cisplatin and VP-16 in human lung cancer cell lines.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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To investigate whether down-regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is correlated to resistance to cisplatin and VP-16 in four histopathological subtype cell lines of lung cancer (SK-MES-1, SPCA-1, NCI-H-460 and NCI-H-446).
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Atrogin-1 affects muscle protein synthesis and degradation when energy metabolism is impaired by the antidiabetes drug berberine.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Defects in insulin/IGF-1 signaling stimulate muscle protein loss by suppressing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Since an herbal compound, berberine, lowers blood levels of glucose and lipids, we proposed that it would improve insulin/IGF-1 signaling, blocking muscle protein losses.
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New measles virus genotype associated with outbreak, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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To determine the origin of the virus associated with a measles outbreak in Menglian County, Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, in 2009, we conducted genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) gene sequences showed that these Menglian viruses were not closely related to sequences of any World Health Organization (WHO) reference strains representing the 23 currently recognized genotypes. The minimum nucleotide divergence between the Menglian viruses and the most closely related reference strain, genotype D7, was 3.3% for the N gene and 3.0% for the H gene. A search of the databases of GenBank, WHO, and the Health Protection Agency Measles Nucleotide Surveillance showed that the Menglian viruses, together with the 2 older non-Menglian viruses, could be members of a new proposed measles genotype, d11. The new genotype designation will allow for better description of measles transmission patterns, especially in the Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions.
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Reduced prefrontal activation during Tower of London in first-episode schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Cognitive impairments are considered as a core feature of schizophrenia and have been reported in associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The Tower of London (TOL) task is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess the planning ability and the PFC function. In the present study, we examined functional changes in the PFC of 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls by means of multi-channel Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during performance of the TOL task. NIRS is a noninvasive optical method that can measure relative changes in oxygenated ([oxy-Hb]) and deoxygenated ([deoxy-Hb]) hemoglobin in cortical tissue. Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited a significant decreased activation in the left PFC and poorer TOL performance. The results confirm the functional deficits of the PFC and impaired planning ability in first-episode schizophrenia patients and suggest that NIRS may be a useful clinical tool for evaluating PFC activation in psychiatric disorders.
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Expression and tissue and subcellular localization of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) in grapevine.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in grapevine. Although substantial researches have investigated ANS gene expression and regulation at the transcriptional level, little is yet known about protein expression and distribution in grapevine. Here, the expression and tissue and subcellular localization of ANS in different Cabernet sauvignon grapevine tissues were investigated by using the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immuno-electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. The results showed that the ANS was expressed in the grape berries, leaves, stems, petioles, and leaf buds. In grape berry skin and flesh, ANS expression is developmental dependent. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ANS is primarily distributed in the exocarp, mesocarp, and seed of the fruit; in palisade and spongy tissues of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; and in the growth point and leaf primordium of the leaf buds. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the ANS was mainly localized in the cytoplasm regardless of cell types and some ANS were also found in the nucleus in the mesocarp vascular bundle and leaf bud cells. This research will give further insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of different flavonoid compounds in grapevine.
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PTEN inhibition improves muscle regeneration in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Mechanisms impairing wound healing in diabetes are poorly understood. To identify mechanisms, we induced insulin resistance by chronically feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD). We also examined the regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) during muscle regeneration because augmented IGF-1 signaling can improve muscle regeneration.
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Satellite cell dysfunction and impaired IGF-1 signaling cause CKD-induced muscle atrophy.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) begins with impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling, causing abnormal protein metabolism. In certain models of muscle atrophy, reduced satellite cell function contributes to atrophy, but how CKD affects satellite cell function is unknown. Here, we found that isolated satellite cells from mice with CKD had less MyoD, the master switch of satellite cell activation, and suppressed myotube formation compared with control mice. In vivo, CKD delayed the regeneration of injured muscle and decreased MyoD and myogenin expression, suggesting that CKD impairs proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. In isolated satellite cells from control mice, IGF-1 increased the expression of myogenic genes through an Akt-dependent pathway. CKD impaired Akt phosphorylation in satellite cells after muscle injury. To test whether impaired IGF-1 signaling could be responsible for decreased satellite cell function in CKD, we created an inducible IGF-1 receptor knockout mouse and found impaired satellite cell function and muscle regeneration. In addition, both CKD and IGF-1 receptor knockout mice developed fibrosis in regenerating muscles. Taken together, impaired IGF-1 signaling in CKD not only leads to abnormal protein metabolism in muscle but also impairs satellite cell function and promotes fibrosis in regenerating muscle. These signaling pathways may hold potential therapeutic targets to reduce CKD-related muscle wasting.
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[Chromatographic fingerprints of triterpenoid constituents of Ganoderma lucidum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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To establish chromatographic fingerprints of triterpenoid compounds in ganoderma RP-HPLC for the quality control of ganoderma.
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Electro-acupuncture versus sham electro-acupuncture for auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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To compare the efficacy of electro-acupuncture with that of sham electro-acupuncture for auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia partially responsive or non-responsive to risperidone.
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Cytoskeletal alterations in rat hippocampus following chronic unpredictable mild stress and re-exposure to acute and chronic unpredictable mild stress.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The intrinsic dynamic instability of the cytoskeletal microtubular system is essential for neuronal development and organization. The modulation of microtubule dynamics depends on the phosphorylation of neuronal microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) affects hippocampal structure and function in the rat. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible alteration of cytoskeleton in the hippocampus of rats exposed to CUMS and re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression of human. We investigated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine and re-exposure to CUMS on alpha-tubulin isoforms associated with microtubule dynamics, MAP-2 and phospho-MAP-2 in the hippocampus of rats. Our results showed that rats submitted to CUMS once showed a significant reduction in locomotion and sucrose preference which indicate a state of anhedonia. These behavioral alterations were accompanied by specific alterations in hippocampal alpha-tubulin isoforms and phospho-MAP-2 expression, indicating less microtubule dynamics and the possible mechanism. Treatment of fluoxetine could reverse CUMS-induced impairment. Moreover, there were more dramatically changes in behaviors, alpha-tubulin isoforms and phospho-MAP-2 of rats re-exposed to CUMS compared to the rats exposed to CUMS once. These findings provide evidence that rats exposed to CUMS and re-exposed to CUMS showed impairment of microtubule dynamics accompanied with the decreased level of phospho-MAP-2, providing insight into the role of cytoskeleton in the depression and recurrent of depression.
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[Effect of yizhi jiannao granules on the expression of Pin1 and HMGB1 mRNA in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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To investigate the effect of yizhi jiannao granule concentration fluid (YCF) on the expression of peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase A (Pin1) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mRNA in the hippocampus of senescence accelerated mice Senile-Prone8(SAMP8).
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Endogenous glucocorticoids and impaired insulin signaling are both required to stimulate muscle wasting under pathophysiological conditions in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Muscle wasting is associated with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including metabolic acidosis, diabetes, sepsis, and high angiotensin II levels. Under these conditions, activation of muscle protein degradation requires endogenous glucocorticoids. As the mechanism(s) underlying this dependence on glucocorticoids have not been identified, we analyzed the effects of glucocorticoids on muscle wasting in a mouse model of acute diabetes. Adrenalectomized, acutely diabetic mice given a physiologic dose of glucocorticoids exhibited decreased IRS-1-associated PI3K activity in muscle and progressive muscle atrophy. These responses were related to increased association of PI3K with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In mice with muscle-specific GR deletion (referred to as MGRKO mice), acute diabetes minimally suppressed IRS-1-associated PI3K activity in muscle and did not cause muscle atrophy. However, when a physiologic dose of glucocorticoids was given to mice with muscle-specific IR deletion, muscle protein degradation was accelerated. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and an in vitro competition assay revealed that activated GRs competed for PI3K, reducing its association with IRS-1. Reexpression of WT GRs or those with a mutation in the nuclear localization signal in the muscle of MGRKO mice indicated that competition for PI3K was a prominent mechanism underlying reduced IRS-1-associated PI3K activity. This nongenomic influence of the GR contributes to activation of muscle protein degradation. We therefore conclude that stimulation of muscle proteolysis requires 2 events, increased glucocorticoid levels and impaired insulin signaling.
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Human parainfluenza virus-associated respiratory tract infection among children and genetic analysis of HPIV-3 strains in Beijing, China.
PLoS ONE
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The relevance of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) to the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in China is unclear. From May 2008 to September 2010, 443 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from hospitalized pediatric patients (age from 1 to 93 months) in Beijing were collected and screened for HPIVs and other common respiratory viruses by real-time RT-PCR. Sixty-two of 443 samples were positive for HPIVs with 4 positive for HPIV-2 and 58 positive for HPIV-3, indicating that HPIV-3 was the predominant virus present during the study period. A phylogenetic tree based on all the available HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) sequences of HPIV-3 indicated that three distinct clusters (A,B, and C) were circulating with some temporal and regional clustering. Cluster C was further divided into sub-clusters, C1, C2, C3 and C4. HPIV-3 from Beijing isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3, and were grouped with the isolates from two Provinces of China and the neighboring country of Japan. Genetic analysis based on entire HN gene revealed that the HPIV-3 isolates from Beijing were highly similar with 97.2%-100% identity at the nucleotide level and these could be divided into two closely related lineages, C3a and C3b. These findings suggested that there was co-circulation of multiple lineages of HPIV-3 in the Beijing region during the study period. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology and molecular characterization of HPIVs in China.
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Single endemic genotype of measles virus continuously circulating in China for at least 16 years.
PLoS ONE
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The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%-100% and 84.7%-100%, H1b were 97.1%-100% and 95.3%-100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.
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Quercetin suppresses NF-?B and MCP-1 expression in a high glucose-induced human mesangial cell proliferation model.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is characterized by mesangial cell proliferation, is a common complication observed in diabetic patients. The protective effects of quercetin for DN have been reported; however, the mechanism has yet to be determined. We aimed to identify the underlying mechanism for quercetin protection against DN. High glucose (HG)-induced human mesangial cell (HMC) proliferation, a feature of the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, was employed as an in vitro model. Cells were grown in normal glucose (5.6 mM), high glucose (30 mM) or high glucose with various concentrations of quercetin. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and expression of NF-?B and MCP-1 were examined by MTT assay, DNA staining, immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. HMCs cultured in high glucose had signficantly greater proliferation, accumulation in the G1 phase, upregulated NF-?B and MCP-1 expression. Quercetin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Cotreatment of quercetin with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-?B activation, suggest that the effects of quercetin are partially mediated by NF-?B signaling. Quercetin partially suppresses the effects of high glucose in HMC cultures, which are mediated at least in part through the suppression of NF-?B.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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