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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Angiotensin receptor blocker in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with preserved left ventricular systolic function: prospective cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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To investigate the association between treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker and clinical outcomes in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with preserved left ventricular systolic function.
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Label-free biochemical analytic method for the early detection of adenoviral conjunctivitis using human tear biofluids.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Cell culture and polymerase chain reaction are currently regarded as the gold standard for adenoviral conjunctivitis diagnosis. They maximize sensitivity and specificity but require several days to 3 weeks to get the results. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a stand-alone analytical tool for clinical diagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis using human tear fluids. A drop-coating deposition surface enhanced Raman scattering (DCD-SERS) method was identified as the most effective method of proteomic analysis in tear biofluids. The proposed DCD-SERS method (using a 2-?L sample) led to Raman spectra with high reproducibility, noise-independence, and uniformity. Additionally, the spectra were independent of the volume of biofluids used and detection zones, including the ring, middle, and central zone, with the exception of the outer layer of the ring zone. Assessments with an intensity ratio of 1242-1342 cm(-1) achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the central zone. Principal component analysis assessments achieved 0.9453 in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as well as 93.3% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in the central zone. Multi-Gaussian peak assessments showed that the differences between these two groups resulted from the reduction of the amide III ?-helix structures of the proteins. The presence of adenovirus in tear fluids could be detected more accurately in the center of the sample than in the periphery. The DCD-SERS technique allowed for high chemical structure sensitivity without additional tagging or chemical modification, making it a good alternative for early clinical diagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis. Therefore, we are hopeful that the DCD-SERS method will be approved for use in ophthalmological clinics in the near future.
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Biochemical characterization of human gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement using Raman spectroscopy.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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This study used Raman spectroscopy to report the first human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biochemical characterization during the early phase of orthodontic tooth movement. This technique allows for label-free and noninvasive biochemical change monitoring in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Ten orthodontic patients (20.8 ± 2.5 years) participated in the study. GCF samples were obtained before (baseline, 0 days) and during orthodontic treatment at 1, 7 and 28 days. For Raman spectroscopic measurement, GCF samples (5 µl) were deposited onto a gold-coated substrate, then dried at room temperature. Raman spectra GCF analysis during orthodontic treatment indicated that the hydroxyapatite to primarily collagen-dominated matrix band (phosphate 984 cm(-1)/amide I 1667 cm(-1)) intensity ratio decreased at day 7 (P < 0.05). The carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite ratio (carbonate 1088 cm(-1)/phosphate 984 cm(-1)) was significantly higher on day 7 compared to day 0 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that demineralization occurs during the alveolar bone remodeling process. We also found notable peak shifts in the amide I range during orthodontic tooth movement. The 1658 cm(-1) in baseline red shifted to 1667 cm(-1) at orthodontic treatment day 7. Curve fitting in the amide I (1615-1725 cm(-1)) range demonstrated that increased random coil conformation was accompanied by a decrease in ?-sheet structure during orthodontic tooth movement. Thus, we suggest Raman spectroscopy could be used for label-free, non-invasive GCF quality assessment during orthodontic tooth movement. Furthermore, this method may prove to be a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool for monitoring orthodontic tooth movement in a clinical setting.
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Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic ?-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL) are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND), HFD (60 kcal% fat diet), EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt) EASL), and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt) pinitol) groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), paired box 4 (Pax4), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating ?-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.
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Evaluation of antibiotic effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We investigate the mode of action and classification of antibiotic agents (ceftazidime, patulin, and epigallocatechin gallate; EGCG) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) biofilm using Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis, including support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA). This method allows for quantitative, label-free, non-invasive and rapid monitoring of biochemical changes in complex biofilm matrices with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the biofilms were grown and treated with various agents in the microfluidic device, and then transferred onto gold-coated substrates for Raman measurement. Here, we show changes in biochemical properties, and this technology can be used to distinguish between changes induced in P. aeruginosa biofilms using three antibiotic agents. The Raman band intensities associated with DNA and proteins were decreased, compared to control biofilms, when the biofilms were treated with antibiotics. Unlike with exposure to ceftazidime and patulin, the Raman spectrum of biofilms exposed to EGCG showed a shift in the spectral position of the CH deformation stretch band from 1313 cm(-1) to 1333 cm(-1), and there was no difference in the band intensity at 1530 cm(-1) (C = C stretching, carotenoids). The PCA-SVM analysis results show that antibiotic-treated biofilms can be detected with high sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 98.33%. This method also discriminated the three antibiotic agents based on the cellular biochemical and structural changes induced by antibiotics with high sensitivity and specificity of 100%. This study suggests that Raman spectroscopy with PCA-SVM is potentially useful for the rapid identification and classification of clinically-relevant antibiotics of bacteria biofilm. Furthermore, this method could be a powerful approach for the development and screening of new antibiotics.
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Liposomal melatonin rescues methamphetamine-elicited mitochondrial burdens, proapoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration through the inhibition PKC? gene.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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We have demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative damage and PKC? overexpression contribute to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Although it is recognized that antioxidant melatonin is effective in preventing neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, its precise mechanism remains elusive. C57BL/6J wild type mice exhibited a similar degree of dopaminergic deficit when methamphetamine was administered during light and dark phases. Furthermore, dopaminergic neuroprotection by genetic inhibition of PKC? during the light phase was comparable to that during the dark phase. Thus, we have focused on the light phase in order to examine whether melatonin modulates PKC?-mediated neurotoxic signaling after multiple high doses of methamphetamine. To enhance the bioavailability of melatonin, we applied liposomal melatonin. Treatment with methamphetamine resulted in hyperthermia, mitochondrial translocation of PKC?, oxidative damage (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration, dopaminergic degeneration, and behavioral impairment in wild type mice. Treatment with liposomal melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation against degenerative changes induced by methamphetamine in wild type mice. Attenuation by liposomal melatonin might be comparable to that by genetic inhibition (using PKC?((-/-)) mice or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide). However, liposomal melatonin did not show any additional protective effects on the attenuation by genetic inhibition of PKC?. Our results suggest that the circadian cycle cannot be a key factor in modulating methamphetamine toxicity under the current experimental condition, and that PKC? is one of the critical target genes for melatonin-mediated protective effects against mitochondrial burdens (dysfunction), oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration induced by methamphetamine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Prognostic value of early acute kidney injury after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The pattern and prognostic impact of "early" acute kidney injury (AKI) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction have not been well established. From November 2005 to November 2011, 971 post-myocardial infarction patients who underwent primary PCI were analyzed. Early AKI was defined using absolute change in serum creatinine (SCr; SCr <24 hours after primary PCI minus admission SCr) as follows: no early AKI (SCr change <0.3 mg/dl), mild early AKI (SCr change 0.3 to <0.5 mg/dl), moderate early AKI (SCr change 0.5 to <1.0 mg/dl), and severe early AKI (SCr change ?1.0 mg/dl). One-year major adverse cardiac events were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularizations. Overall, 9.6% had early AKI, including 5.7% with mild, 2.5% with moderate, and 1.4% with severe early AKI. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.84, p = 0.042), the left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio 0.97, p = 0.042), and hemoglobin levels (odds ratio 0.84, p = 0.039) were independently associated with early AKI. Early AKI (adjusted hazard ratio 2.80, p = 0.005) was an independent predictor of 1-year major adverse cardiac events. The adjusted hazard ratios of 1-year major adverse cardiac events from the lowest (reference) to the highest quartile of early AKI were as follows: 1, 2.87 (p = 0.012), 3.22 (p = 0.021), and 5.83 (p = 0.004), respectively. In conclusion, early dynamic change in renal function after primary PCI can sensitively predict worse outcomes.
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Clinico-biochemical investigations of aging effects on normoglycemic and hyperglycemic murine retinal tissues.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study used five clinical assessments and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the age- and hyperglycemia-related properties of the murine retina over an eight-week experimental period.
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Association of beta-blocker therapy at discharge with clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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This study sought to investigate the association of beta-blocker therapy at discharge with clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Clinical outcome of successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion: results from the multicenter Korean Chronic Total Occlusion (K-CTO) registry.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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To investigate the impact of the success or failure of chronic total occlusion (CTO) interventions on the clinical outcomes in the current drug-eluting stent (DES) era.
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Papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibitory effects of cinnamic amides from Tribulus terrestris fruits.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Tribulus terrestris fruits are well known for their usage in pharmaceutical preparations and food supplements. The methanol extract of T. terrestris fruits showed potent inhibition against the papain-like protease (PLpro), an essential proteolylic enzyme for protection to pathogenic virus and bacteria. Subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to six cinnamic amides (1-6) and ferulic acid (7). Compound 6 emerged as new compound possessing the very rare carbinolamide motif. These compounds (1-7) were evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) PLpro inhibitory activity to identify their potencies and kinetic behavior. Compounds (1-6) displayed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range 15.8-70.1?µM. The new cinnamic amide 6 was found to be most potent inhibitor with an IC50 of 15.8?µM. In kinetic studies, all inhibitors exhibited mixed type inhibition. Furthermore, the most active PLpro inhibitors (1-6) were proven to be present in the native fruits in high quantities by HPLC chromatogram and liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS).
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Analysis of etoxazole in red pepper after major modification of QuEChERS for gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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A major modification to the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was developed for the analysis of etoxazole in red pepper using gas chromatography coupled with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. Etoxazole was extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned with magnesium sulfate and purified with a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The method showed good linearity with a determination coefficient (R(2) ) of 0.998 for the 0.02-2.0 mg/L concentration range. The method was validated using blank red pepper spiked at 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, and the average recovery rate was 74.4-79.1% with relative standard deviations <5% for intra- and inter-day precision. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.007 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to field-incurred samples, and the presence of etoxazole residues was confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
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Comparison of biolimus A9-eluting (Nobori) and everolimus-eluting (Promus Element) stents in patients with de novo native long coronary artery lesions: a randomized long drug-eluting stent V trial.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Procedural and clinical outcomes still remain unfavorable for patients with long coronary lesions who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. The current study, therefore, evaluated 2 innovative drug-eluting stents for the management of long-lesion coronary artery disease.
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Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.
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Usefulness of intravascular ultrasound guidance in percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents for chronic total occlusions (from the Multicenter Korean-Chronic Total Occlusion Registry).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Despite the usefulness of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the impact of IVUS guidance on clinical outcomes, particularly for chronic total occlusion (CTO) intervention, has rarely been studied. We sought to investigate the clinical usefulness of IVUS-guided CTO intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. From 2007 to 2009, a total of 2,568 patients were enrolled in the Korean-CTO registry and 534 patients with successful implantation of second-generation drug-eluting stents were analyzed. IVUS-guided PCI was performed on 206 patients (39%). Clinical outcomes at 2 years were compared between the IVUS-guidance group and the angiography-guidance group in 201 propensity score-matched pairs. The primary end point was the occurrence of definite or probable stent thrombosis. Clinical characteristics were similar between both groups after matching. At 2 years, the IVUS-guidance group showed significantly less stent thrombosis than the angiography-guidance group (0% vs 3.0%, p = 0.014) and a lesser trend toward myocardial infarction (1.0% vs 4.0%, p = 0.058). Target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiovascular event rates were similar. However, a significant interaction was observed between the use of IVUS and lesion length for predicting the TLR (p = 0.037), suggesting usefulness of IVUS in long-lesion (?3 cm) relative to short-lesion CTO. In conclusion, although IVUS-guided CTO PCI was not associated with a reduction in overall major adverse cardiovascular events, IVUS guidance appears to be associated with a reduction of stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction compared with angiography-guided CTO PCI. Additionally, TLR occurred less frequently in the IVUS-guidance group, especially for long lesions.
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Anti-rotavirus effects by combination therapy of stevioside and Sophora flavescens extract.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Anti-rotaviral activities of Sophora flavescens extract (SFE) and stevioside (SV) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni either singly or in various combinations were examined in vitro and in vivo using a porcine rotavirus G5[P7] strain. Combination of SFE and SV inhibited in vitro virus replication more efficiently than each single treatment. In the piglet model, SV had no effect on rotavirus enteritis, whereas SFE improved but did not completely cure rotaviral enteritis. Interestingly, combination therapy of SFE and SV alleviated diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. Acute toxicity tests including the piglet lethal dose 50, and body weight, organ weight and pathological changes for the combination therapy did not show any adverse effect on the piglets. These preliminary data suggest that the combination therapy of SV and SFE is a potential curative medication for rotaviral diarrhea in pigs. Determination of the efficacy of this combination therapy in other species including humans needs to be addressed in the future.
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Predictors and clinical implications of minimal ST-segment elevation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Some patients with suspected ST-segment elevation (STE) myocardial infarction (STEMI) show STE that does not fulfill the current criteria for STEMI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and prognoses of patients with minimal STEMI.
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White blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet distribution width as short-term prognostic markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of combined use of white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and platelet distribution width (PDW) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study included 1,332 consecutive patients with AMI. Patients were categorized into complete blood cell (CBC) group 0 (n=346, 26.0%), 1 (n=622, 46.7%), 2 (n=324, 24.3%), and 3 (n=40, 3.0%) according to the sum of the value defined by the cut-off levels of WBC (1, ? 14.5 × 10(3)/µL; 0, <14.5 × 10(3)/µL), Hb (1, <12.7 g/dL; 0, ? 12.7 g/dL), and PDW (1, ? 51.2%; 0: <51.2%). In-hospital death occurred in 59 (4.4%) patients. Patients who died during index hospitalization had higher WBC and PDW and lower Hb. The patients could be stratified for in-hospital mortality according to CBC group; 1.2%, 2.7%, 9.0%, and 22.5% in CBC groups 0, 1, 2, and 3 (P<0.001), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, CBC group ? 2 (odds ratio, 3.604; 95% confidence interval, 1.040-14.484, P=0.043) was an independent predictor for in-hospital death. The prognostic impact of the combined use of CBC markers remained significant over 12 months. In conclusions, combination of WBC, Hb, and PDW, a cheap and simple hematologic marker, is useful in early risk stratification of patients with AMI.
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Structural basis of sialidase in complex with geranylated flavonoids as potent natural inhibitors.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Sialidase catalyzes the removal of a terminal sialic acid from glycoconjugates and plays a pivotal role in nutrition, cellular interactions and pathogenesis mediating various infectious diseases including cholera, influenza and sepsis. An array of antiviral sialidase agents have been developed and are commercially available, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir for treating influenza. However, the development of bacterial sialidase inhibitors has been much less successful. Here, natural polyphenolic geranylated flavonoids which show significant inhibitory effects against Cp-NanI, a sialidase from Clostridium perfringens, are reported. This bacterium causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The crystal structure of the Cp-NanI catalytic domain in complex with the best inhibitor, diplacone, is also presented. This structure explains how diplacone generates a stable enzyme-inhibitor complex. These results provide a structural framework for understanding the interaction between sialidase and natural flavonoids, which are promising scaffolds on which to discover new anti-sialidase agents.
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Quantitative analysis of phenolic metabolites from different parts of Angelica keiskei by HPLC-ESI MS/MS and their xanthine oxidase inhibition.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Angelica keiskei is used as popular functional food stuff. However, quantitative analysis of this plant's metabolites has not yet been disclosed. The principal phenolic compounds (1-16) within A. keiskei were isolated, enabling us to quantify the metabolites within different parts of the plant. The specific quantification of metabolites (1-16) was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a quadruple tandem mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were calculated as 0.4-44 ?g/kg and 1.5-148 ?g/kg, respectively. Abundance and composition of these metabolites varied significantly across different parts of plant. For example, the abundance of chalcones (12-16) decreased as follows: root bark (10.51 mg/g)>stems (8.52 mg/g)>leaves (2.63 mg/g)>root cores (1.44 mg/g). The chalcones were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition shown by this plant. The most potent inhibitor, xanthoangelol inhibited XO with an IC50 of 8.5 ?M. Chalcones (12-16) exhibited mixed-type inhibition characteristics.
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Rapid identification of cholinesterase inhibitors from the seedcases of mangosteen using an enzyme affinity assay.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Enzyme binding affinity has been recently introduced as a selective screening method to identify bioactive substances within complex mixtures. We used an assay which identified small molecule binders of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using the following series of steps: incubation of enzyme with extract; centrifugation and filtration; identification of small molecule content in the flow through. The crude extract contained 10 peaks in the UPLC chromatogram. However, after incubation the enzyme, six peaks were reduced, indicating these compounds bound AChE. All these isolated compounds (2, 3, and 5-8) significantly inhibited human AChE with IC??s = 5.4-15.0 ?M and butyrylcholinsterase (IC??s = 0.7-11.0 ?M). All compounds exhibited reversible mixed kinetics. Consistent with the binding screen and fluorescence quenching, ?-mangostin 6 had a much higher affinity for AChE than 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone 9. This validates this screening protocol as a rapid method to identify inhibitors of AChE.
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Structural basis of a novel activity of bacterial 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase homologues distinct from mammalian 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase activity.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Escherichia coli 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase (eCTPS), a homologue of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS), possesses a much stronger catalytic activity to cleave the side chain of sepiapterin in vitro compared with genuine PTPS activity and catalyzes the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin in vivo. Crystal structures of wild-type apo eCTPS and of a Cys27Ala mutant eCTPS complexed with sepiapterin have been determined to 2.3 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. The structures are highly conserved at the active site and the Zn(2+) binding site. However, comparison of the eCTPS structures with those of mammalian PTPS homologues revealed that two specific residues, Trp51 and Phe55, that are not found in mammalian PTPS keep the substrate bound by stacking it with their side chains. Replacement of these two residues by site-directed mutagenesis to the residues Met and Leu, which are only found in mammalian PTPS, converted eCTPS to the mammalian PTPS activity. These studies confirm that these two aromatic residues in eCTPS play an essential role in stabilizing the substrate and in the specific enzyme activity that differs from the original PTPS activity. These aromatic residues Trp51 and Phe55 are a key signature of bacterial PTPS enzymes that distinguish them from mammalian PTPS homologues.
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Ginsenoside Re rescues methamphetamine-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and dopaminergic degeneration by inhibiting the protein kinase C? gene.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Ginsenoside Re, one of the main constituents of Panax ginseng, possesses novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the pharmacological mechanism of ginsenoside Re in dopaminergic degeneration remains elusive. We suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) ? mediates methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Treatment with ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration in vivo by inhibiting impaired enzymatic antioxidant systems, mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase C?, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory microglial activation, and apoptosis. These protective effects were comparable to those observed with genetic inhibition of PKC? in PKC? knockout (-/-) mice and with PKC? antisense oligonucleotides, and ginsenoside Re did not provide any additional protective effects in the presence of PKC? inhibition. Our results suggest that PKC? is a critical target for ginsenoside Re-mediated protective activity in response to dopaminergic degeneration induced by MA.
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Inhibition of tyrosinase activity by polyphenol compounds from Flemingia philippinensis roots.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Flemingia philippinensis is used as a foodstuff or medicinal plant in the tropical regions of China. The methanol (95%) extract of the roots of this plant showed potent tyrosinase inhibition (80% inhibition at 30?g/ml). Activity-guided isolation yielded six polyphenols that inhibited both the monophenolase (IC50=1.01-18.4?M) and diphenolase (IC50=5.22-84.1?M) actions of tyrosinase. Compounds 1-6 emerged to be three new polyphenols and three known flavanones, flemichin D, lupinifolin and khonklonginol H. The new compounds (1-3) were identified as dihydrochalcones which we named fleminchalcones (A-C), respectively. The most potent inhibitor, dihydrochalcone (3) showed significant inhibitions against both the monophenolase (IC50=1.28?M) and diphenolase (IC50=5.22?M) activities of tyrosinase. Flavanone (4) possessing a resorcinol group also inhibited monophenolase (IC50=1.79?M) and diphenolase (IC50=7.48?M) significantly. In kinetic studies, all isolated compounds behaved as competitive inhibitors. Fleminchalcone A was found to have simple reversible slow-binding inhibition against monophenolase.
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Binding mode analyses and pharmacophore model development for stilbene derivatives as a novel and competitive class of ?-glucosidase inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stilbene urea derivatives as a novel and competitive class of non-glycosidic ?-glucosidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. The main purposes of our molecular modeling study are to explore the most suitable binding poses of stilbene derivatives with analyzing the binding affinity differences and finally to develop a pharmacophore model which would represents critical features responsible for ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae ?-glucosidase was built by homology modeling method and the structure was used for the molecular docking study to find out the initial binding mode of compound 12, which is the most highly active one. The initial structure was subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for protein structure adjustment at compound 12-bound state. Based on the adjusted conformation, the more reasonable binding modes of the stilbene urea derivatives were obtained from molecular docking and MD simulations. The binding mode of the derivatives was validated by correlation analysis between experimental Ki value and interaction energy. Our results revealed that the binding modes of the potent inhibitors were engaged with important hydrogen bond, hydrophobic, and ?-interactions. With the validated compound 12-bound structure obtained from combining approach of docking and MD simulation, a proper four featured pharmacophore model was generated. It was also validated by comparison of fit values with the Ki values. Thus, these results will be helpful for understanding the relationship between binding mode and bioactivity and for designing better inhibitors from stilbene derivatives.
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Usefulness of Surgical Parameters as Predictors of Postoperative Cardiac Events in Patients Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Background:?Postoperative cardiac events are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Predictive values of surgical parameters with respect to development of postoperative cardiac events have not been well investigated. Methods and Results:?This study included 1,016 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac consultation prior to elective non-cardiac surgery. A major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and pulmonary edema within 30 days of surgery. There were 95 postoperative MACEs (9.4%). Patients with postoperative MACE were significantly older, and had significantly higher revised cardiac risk index than those without. ST-T change on electrocardiogram (ECG) was significantly higher in patients with postoperative MACE. Of the surgical parameters, significant differences in surgery time (317±211min vs. 189±112min, P<0.001), postoperative hemoglobin (10.7±1.9g/dl vs. 11.3±1.8g/dl, P=0.007), risk of surgery (P<0.001), and transfusion (37.6% vs. 6.6%, P<0.001) were observed between the 2 groups. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, surgery time (odds ratio [OR], 1.004; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.003-1.006, P<0.001) and need for transfusion (OR, 4.578; 95% CI: 2.599-8.065, P<0.001), as well as age and ST-T change on ECG were independent predictors of postoperative MACE. Conclusions:?Surgical parameters, including surgery time and transfusion, can strongly predict development of postoperative MACE in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.
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Molecular and chemical investigations and comparisons of biomaterials for ocular surface regeneration.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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This study investigated and compared the ultrastructural and chemical properties of representative biomaterials for ocular surface regeneration: a human amniotic membrane (AM) in a basal plate, a human AM in reflected chorion, a preserved AM, and a human corneo-scleral tissue. Assessments of the morphological differences in the extracellular matrices were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Massons trichrome (for total collagen), and picrosirius-red (for newly synthesized collagen) staining. Assessments of the changes in the molecular structures and chemical compositions of the biomaterials for ocular surface regeneration were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. A placental AM (52 %) was a dense and thick collagenous structure compared to a reflected AM (23 %). The spectroscopy did not obtain any structural information for a preserved AM. The cornea group (100 %, control) and sclera group (104 %) showed the collagen lamellae and interfibrillar spacing, and a slight inflammatory reaction with more fibrous and granulomatous tissues. There was a formation of newly synthesized collagen in a placental AM, while there were few collagen components in a reflected AM. Human AM tissues showed consistent Raman spectra and the characteristic collagen bands, similar to the corneal and scleral tissues. Therefore, these findings suggest that human placental AM and reflected AM are structurally suitable for scleral and corneal surface regeneration, respectively, while human placental or preserved AM and reflected AM are molecularly and chemically suitable for corneal and scleral surface regeneration, respectively. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Nanostructural and nanomechanical responses of collagen fibrils in the collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis rat model.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Achilles tendons are vulnerable to acute or chronic injuries that lead to inflammation. We investigated nanostructural and nanomechanical changes in collagen fibrils from rat Achilles tendons over a period of 9 weeks after injury using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To evaluate the nanostructural changes in Achilles tendons, we measured the diameter and D-banding of collagen fibrils by AFM. And the adhesion forces, which were related to cross-linking of collagen, were calculated from the retraction process of a force-distance curve. We successfully observed the time course of changes in collagen fibrils during healing using AFM. The diameters and D-banding in healed tendons were similar to those of uninjured tendons at 9 weeks after injury, but the adhesion forces remained different from those of uninjured tendons. Our AFM results depicted the minute changes in Achilles tendon surface by natural healing quite well, even drawbacks to naturally healed tendon. Understanding changes in collagen cross-linking and structure while healing will lead to better understanding of healing mechanisms and subsequent improvements in treatment. And AFM can be applied as powerful tool to evaluate structural and property changes in collagen fibrils before and after injury and/or treatment in Achilles tendon.
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A simple and rapid detection of tissue adhesive-induced biochemical changes in cells and DNA using Raman spectroscopy.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We demonstrate a cytotoxicity evaluation of tissue adhesive using Raman spectroscopy. This method allows for quantitative, label-free, non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the biochemical changes of cells following tissue adhesive treatment. Here, we show the biochemical property changes in mouse fibroblast L929 cells and cellular DNA following tissue adhesive (Dermabond) treatment using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman band intensities were significantly decreased when the cells were treated with Dermabond as compared to control cells. These results suggest denaturation and conformational changes in proteins and degradation of DNA related to cell death. To support these conclusions, conventional cytotoxicity assays such as WST, LIVE/DEAD, and TUNEL were carried out, and the results were in agreement with the Raman results. Thus, Raman spectroscopy analysis not only distinguishes between viable and damaged cells, but can also be used for identification and quantification of a cytotoxicity of tissue adhesive, which based on the cellular biochemical and structural changes at a molecular level. Therefore, we suggest that this method could be used for cytotoxic evaluation of tissue adhesives by rapid and sensitive detection of cellular changes.
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Ischemic postconditioning during primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the effects of postconditioning on myocardial reperfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (POST) randomized trial.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Ischemic postconditioning has been reported to reduce infarct size in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. However, cardioprotective effects of postconditioning have not been demonstrated in a large-scale trial.
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Inflammatory effect of monopolar radiofrequency treatment on collagen fibrils in rabbit skins.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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This study quantitatively examined the effects of monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment on the progressive nanostructural changes in the inflammatory effect of in vivo rabbit dermal collagen fibrils during postoperative 7 days. Conventional histologic analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to assess the nanostructural dermal response in 6 RF groups that underwent 2 passes of RF treatments (10 and 20 W), and 1 untreated control rabbit. After monopolar RF treatment, the rabbit skin clearly showed changes in the collagen network structure. The RF-treated group showed regular parallel arrangement of collagen fibrils whereas normal group showed tangled nanostructures. This phenomenon was remarkable at postoperative 7 days. Therefore, monopolar RF treatment leads to underlying collagen contracture and promotes new collagen formation. A multi-pass treatment of low-energy RF led to the highest contraction of collagen fibrils at the nanostructural level, compared to a single pass of high-energy RF.
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Nanostructural response of mitomycin C application on human scleral tissues.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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This study quantitatively examined short-term effects of 0.02% Mitomycin C (MMC) treatment on the nanostructural changes in human scleral collagen fibrils. Histologic analysis and non-contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to assess the ultrastructural changes in the morphological characteristics of human sclera before and after 0.02% MMC application for 1 and 3 min. The scleral collagen fibrils treated with 0.02% MMC for 1 min showed no significant change in the morphology of collagen fibrils, and a significant change (p < 0.05) in the thickness of scleral tissues and collagen density, compared to the controls. 0.02% MMC application for 3 min led to a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the mean fibril diameter (185.43 +/- 22.64 nm vs. 140.72 +/- 18.06 nm), thickness (0.81 +/- 0.03 mm vs. 0.54 +/- 0.05 mm) and collagen density (1.16 times), compared to the controls This study examined the nanostructural changes in the scleral collagen fibrils before and after MMC application by AFM technique combined with conventional histological analysis (Hematoxylin-eosin and Massons trichrome). This result indirectly suggests that long-term MMC application might increase the incidence of complications like a scleromalcia.
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Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome and Relative Importance of Five Components as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome: 5-Year Follow-up Study in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome and to identify five components as metabolic syndrome predictors. The final study included 1,095 subjects enrolled in a rural part of Daegu Metropolitan City, Korea for a cohort study in 2003. Of these, 762 (69.6%) subjects had participated in the repeat survey. During the five-year follow-up, incidence density was significantly higher for women than for men (men, 30.0/1,000 person-years; women, 46.4/1,000 person-years). In both men and women, incidence of metabolic syndrome showed a significant increase with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components at baseline. Compared with individuals presenting none of components at baseline, relative risks were increased 1.22 (men; 95% CI, 0.43-3.51), 2.21 (women; 95% CI, 0.98-4.97) times more for individuals with one component of metabolic syndrome and 5.30 (men; 95% CI, 2.31-12.13), 5.53 (women; 95% CI, 2.78-11.01) times more for those who had two components. In multivariate analysis, the most powerful risk factor for metabolic syndrome was abdominal obesity in men and low HDL-cholesterol in women (adjusted relative risk, 3.28, 2.53, respectively). Consequently, finding a high risk group for metabolic syndrome according to gender and prevention of metabolic syndrome through lifestyle modification are essential.
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Changes in Follow-Up ECG and Signal-Averaged ECG in Patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Electrocardiogram (ECG) and signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) are important as diagnostic tools in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in follow-up ECGs and SAECGs in patients with ARVC.
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Incremental predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for incident hypertension: the Hypertension-Diabetes Daegu Initiative study.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the association between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and incident hypertension. Study subjects were 452 Koreans who were enrolled in a cohort study. Log-transformed hs-CRP (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.39; p?=?0.035) was an independent predictor of incident hypertension. Inclusion of hs-CRP showed significant increase in the area under the curve from 0.697 to 0.720 (p?=?0.042), the net reclassification improvement (0.394, p?
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Bacterial neuraminidase inhibitory effects of prenylated isoflavones from roots of Flemingia philippinensis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Bacterial neuraminidase (NA) is one of the key enzymes involved in pathogenesis of inflammation during infection. The organic extract of the roots of Flemingia philippinensis showed high bacterial NA inhibitory activity with an IC50 of around 5?g/mL. Activity-guided separation of the methanol extract yielded nine prenylated isoflavones together with the novel species isoflavone (2) which was given the name flemingsin. Isolated prenylated isoflavones (1-9) were evaluated for NA inhibition and their IC50 values were determined to range between 0.30 and 56.8?M. The most potent inhibitor 4 (IC50=300nM, Ki=130nM) features a catechol motif in the B-ring and a furan in the A-ring. Structure-activity analysis also showed a 4-hydroxyl group within the B-ring was essential for NA inhibitory activity, because isoflavone (9) having protected 4-hydroxyl group was much less potent than its hydroxylated counterpart. All neuraminidase compounds screened were found to be reversible noncompetitive inhibitors. Furthermore, the most active NA inhibitors (1-9) were proven to be present in the native roots in high quantities by HPLC and LC-DAD-ESI/MS.
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Structural and biomechanical effects of photooxidative collagen cross-linking with photosensitizer riboflavin and 370 nm UVA light on human corneoscleral tissues.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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This study quantitatively investigated the immediate effects of a photooxidative collagen cross-linking treatment with photosensitizer riboflavin (RF) and 370 nm UVA light in in vitro human corneoscleral collagen fibrils using histology, thickness, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy analyses. Twenty 8 x 2 mm corneoscleral strips were dissected sagittally from donor tissue using a scalpel. Four parameters were investigated, including the density, thickness, adhesion force, and stiffness of corneoscleral tissues before and after the collagen cross-linking treatment. The RFUVA-catalyzed collagen cross-linking treatment led to an increase in the density of both corneal (8%) and scleral (23%) stromal collagens. However, there was no difference in corneoscleral thickness. Furthermore, RFUVA-catalyzed collagen cross-linking treatment led to an increased biomechanical response of corneosclera: 25 and 8% increases in corneoscleral stiffness, and 24 and 22% increases in corneoscleral adhesion force. The collagen cross-linking treatment through RF-sensitized photoreaction may cause structural and biomechanical changes in the collagen fibril network of the cornea and the sclera. This is due to narrowing of the interfibrillar spacing and the stromal edema.
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Simultaneous, real-time measurement of nitric oxide and oxygen dynamics during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion of the rat utilizing sol-gel-derived electrochemical microsensors.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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In this study, we simultaneously measured nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2) dynamics in the myocardium during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) utilizing sol-gel modified electrochemical NO and O2 microsensors. In addition, we attempted to clarify the correlation between NO release in the ischemic period and O2 restoration in the myocardium after reperfusion, comparing a control heart with a remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC)-treated heart as an attractive strategy for myocardial protection. Rat hearts were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (n=5) and an RIPC group (n=5, with RIPC treatment). Myocardia that underwent RIPC treatment (182±70 nM, p<0.05) released more NO during the ischemic period than those of the control group (63±41 nM). The restoration value of oxygen tension (pO2) in the RIPC group significantly increased and was restored to pre-ischemic levels (92.6±36.8%); however, the pO2 of the control group did not increase throughout the reperfusion period (5.7±7.5%, p=0.001). Myocardial infarct size measurements revealed a significant decrease in cell death in the myocardium region of the RIPC group (41.44±6.42%, p=0.001) compared with the control group (60.05±10.91%). As a result, we showed that the cardioprotective effect of RIPC could be attributed to endogenous NO production during the ischemic period, which subsequently promoted reoxygenation in post-ischemic myocardia during early reperfusion. Our results suggest that the promotion of endogenous formation during an ischemic episode might be helpful as a therapeutic strategy for protecting the myocardium from IR injury. Additionally, our NO and O2 perm-selective microsensors could be utilized to evaluate the effect of drug or treatment.
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Complication rate of transfemoral endomyocardial biopsy with fluoroscopic and two-dimensional echocardiographic guidance: a 10-year experience of 228 consecutive procedures.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is one of the reliable methods for the diagnosis of various cardiac diseases. However, EMB can cause various complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the complication of transfemoral EMB with both fluoroscopic and two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiographic guidance. A total of 228 patients (148 men; 46.0±14.6 yr-old) who underwent EMB at Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 2002 to June 2012 were included. EMB was performed via the right femoral approach with the guidance of both echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Overall, EMB-related complications occurred in 21 patients (9.2%) including one case (0.4%) with cardiac tamponade requiring emergent pericardiocentesis, four cases (1.8%) with small pericardial effusion without pericardiocentesis, two cases (0.9%) with hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT), one case (0.4%) with nonsustained VT, one case (0.4%) with tricuspid regurgitation, twelve cases (5.3%) with right bundle branch block. There was no occurrence of either EMB-related death or cardiac surgery. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (32.0±18.7% vs 42.0±19.1%, P=0.023) and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension was larger (60.0±10.0 mm vs 54.2±10.2 mm, P=0.013) in patients with EMB related complications than in those without. It is concluded that transfemoral EMB with fluoroscopic and 2-D echocardiographic guidance is a safe procedure with low complication rate.
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Recurrent syncope episodes and exercise intolerance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy combined with atrioventricular conduction disturbance.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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A 30-year-old female patient with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) was admitted for recurrent syncope episodes. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed 2 : 1 atrioventricular (AV) block. Stress echocardiography with bicycle showed high grade AV block at high stage of the exercise associated with exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Twenty-four hour ECG monitoring also revealed high grade AV block and 1 episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Implantable cardioverter/defibrillator-pacemaker (ICD-P) was inserted. After implantation of ICD-P, conduction disturbance and exercise intolerance were improved. AV block is a rare complication HCMP. There are just a few case reports that present symptoms caused by conduction disturbance in HCMP. This case describes repeated syncope episodes and exercise intolerance caused by conduction disturbance during exercise in HCMP patient. For evaluating the cause of syncope in HCMP, stress echocardiography can be helpful to understand the probable mechanism of syncope.
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6-Acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from Chelidonium majus L. triggers proinflammatory cytokine production via ROS-JNK/ERK-NF?B signaling pathway.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Chelidonium majus L. is an herbal plant that is commonly used in Western phytotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine for diuretic, antitussive, eye-regenerative, anti-osteoporotic, and radioprotective purposes. In this study, we purified 6-acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from C. majus and investigated its immune-stimulatory effect. We found that ADS has the potential to induce the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-8 in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), that NF?B activation is a critical mediator of ADS-induced cytokine production, and that the activation of NF?B was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). ADS induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which was also associated with NF?B activation; phosphorylarion and cytokine production were inhibited by ROS scavenger and by specific MAPK inhibitors. Taken together, the results suggest that ADS from C. majus, as a positive immune modulator, induces inflammatory cytokines that might improve immunity, via the ROS-ERK/JNK-NF?B pathway.
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Depletion of abundant plant RuBisCO protein using the protamine sulfate precipitation method.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is the most abundant plant leaf protein, hampering deep analysis of the leaf proteome. Here, we describe a novel protamine sulfate precipitation (PSP) method for the depletion of RuBisCO. For this purpose, soybean leaf total proteins were extracted using Tris-Mg/NP-40 extraction buffer. Obtained clear supernatant was subjected to the PSP method, followed by 13% SDS-PAGE analysis of total, PS-supernatant and -precipitation derived protein samples. In a dose-dependent experiment, 0.1% w/v PS was found to be sufficient for precipitating RuBisCO large and small subunits (LSU and SSU). Western blot analysis confirmed no detection of RuBisCO LSU in the PS-supernatant proteins. Application of this method to Arabidopsis, rice, and maize leaf proteins revealed results similar to soybean. Furthermore, 2DE analyses of PS-treated soybean leaf displayed enriched protein profile for the protein sample derived from the PS-supernatant than total proteins. Some enriched 2D spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis and were successfully assigned for their protein identity. Hence, the PSP method is: (i) simple, fast, economical, and reproducible for RuBisCO precipitation from the plant leaf sample; (ii) applicable to both dicot and monocot plants; and (iii) suitable for downstream proteomics analysis.
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Etiologies and predictors of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Rapid diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is essential for the appropriate management of patients. We investigated the prevalence, etiologies and predictors of false-positive diagnosis of STEMI and subsequent inappropriate catheterization laboratory activation in patients with presumptive diagnosis of STEMI.
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Geranylated flavonoids displaying SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) is an important antiviral target due to its key roles in SARS virus replication. The MeOH extracts of the fruits of the Paulownia tree yielded many small molecules capable of targeting PLpro. Five of these compounds were new geranylated flavonoids, tomentin A, tomentin B, tomentin C, tomentin D, tomentin E (1-5). Structure analysis of new compounds (1-5) by NMR showed that they all contain a 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran moiety. This chemotype is very rare and is derived from cyclization of a geranyl group with a phenol functionality. Most compounds (1-12) inhibited PLpro in a dose dependent manner with IC50s raging between 5.0 and 14.4 ?M. All new compounds having the dihydro-2H-pyran group showed better inhibition than their parent compounds (1 vs 11, 2 vs 9, 4 vs 12, 5 vs 6). In kinetic studies, 1-12 emerged to be reversible, mixed inhibitors.
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Short-term response of mitomycin C on the human rectus muscle following strabismus surgery: histological, ultrastructural, and biomechanical evaluation.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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This study investigated the inflammatory effect of intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC) on adhesion reformation in human rectus muscles. Ten consecutive patients who underwent medial rectus resection had their postoperative rectus muscles divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and MMC group (n = 10). In the MMC group, the muscle was soaked for 2 min with MMC, prepared as a 0.2 mg/mL (0.02%) solution. The 0.02% MMC reactions were examined using histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammatory response) and Massons trichrome (collagen fibrils), immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-II (inflammatory response), and collagen type I and III, scanning electron microscopy analysis to quantify the diameter and D-periodicity of collagen fibrils, and atomic force microscopy analysis to quantify the diameter, D-periodicity, and adhesion force of collagen fibrils. The rectus muscles treated with 0.02% MMC showed a significantly increased inflammatory response (p < 0.05), increased collagen density (p < 0.0001), increased fibril diameter (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05), and decreased fibril adhesion force (p < 0.005) compared to the rectus muscles in the control group. MMC simultaneously caused an inflammatory response as well as nanostructural and biomechanical property changes in the collagen fibril network.
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Label-free and quantitative evaluation of cytotoxicity based on surface nanostructure and biophysical property of cells utilizing AFM.
Micron
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In this study, the four commonly used cytotoxicity assays and the mechanical properties as evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were compared in a cellular system. A cytotoxicity assay is the first and most essential test to evaluate biocompatibility of various toxic substances. Many of the cytotoxicity methods require complicated and labor-intensive process, as well as introduce experimental error. In addition, these methods cannot provide instantaneous and quantitative cell viability information. AFM has become an exciting analytical tool in medical, biological, and biophysical research due to its unique abilities. AFM-based force-distance curve measurements precisely measure the changes in the biophysical properties of the cell. Therefore, we observed the morphological changes and mechanical property changes in L929 cells following sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treatment utilizing AFM. AFM imaging showed that the toxic effects of SLS changed not only the spindle-like shape of L929 cells into a round shape, but also made a rough cell surface. As the concentration of SLS was increased, the surface roughness of L929 cell was increased, and stiffness decreased. We confirmed that inhibition of proliferation clearly increased with increases in SLS concentration based on results from MTT, WST, neutral red uptake, and LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity assays. The estimated IC?? value by AFM analysis was similar to those of other conventional assays and was included within the 95% confidence interval range. We suggest that an AFM quantitative analysis of the morphological and biophysical changes in cells can be utilized as a new method for evaluating cytotoxicity.
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A new revised cardiac risk index incorporating fragmented QRS complex as a prognostic marker in patients undergoing noncardiac vascular surgery.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a new Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) that includes consideration of QRS fragmentation (fQRS) as a predictor of cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac vascular surgery. Four hundred sixty-seven consecutive patients admitted for noncardiac vascular surgery were studied. Patients were allocated to RCRI 0, 1, 2, or ?3 groups according to the sum of diabetes, renal insufficiency, and histories of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, and cerebrovascular disease. They were then reallocated to fragmented RCRI (fRCRI) 0, 1, 2, or ?3 groups after including a score of 1 or 0 corresponding to the presence or absence of fQRS. A major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and percutaneous coronary intervention before noncardiac vascular surgery. During index hospitalization, MACE developed in 38 patients (8.1%). fQRS was present in 169 (36.2%), and it was significantly greater in patients with MACE than in those without MACE (63.2% vs 34.3%, p <0.001). The proportions of RCRI 0, 1, 2, and ?3 were 46.9% (n = 219), 35.3% (n = 165), 12.4% (n = 58), and 5.4% (n = 25), respectively. When fRCRI data were included, 28 patients (48.3%) in RCRI 2 were reclassified as fRCRI ?3. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, fRCRI (odds ratio 1.529, 95% confidence interval 1.035 to 2.258, p = 0.033) and a left ventricular ejection fraction <50% independently predicted in-hospital MACE. In conclusion, fRCRI is an independent predictor of in-hospital MACE in patients undergoing noncardiac vascular surgery.
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Rapid characterisation and comparison of saponin profiles in the seeds of Korean Leguminous species using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) analysis.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The present work was reported on investigation of saponin profiles in nine different legume seeds, including soybean, adzuki bean, cowpea, common bean, scarlet runner bean, lentil, chick pea, hyacinth bean, and broad bean using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) technique. A total of twenty saponins were characterised under rapid and simple conditions within 15min by the 80% methanol extracts of all species. Their chemical structures were elucidated as soyasaponin Ab (1), soyasaponin Ba (2), soyasaponin Bb (3), soyasaponin Bc (4), soyasaponin Bd (5), soyasaponin ?g (6), soyasaponin ?g (7), soyasaponin ?a (8), soyasaponin ?g (9), soyasaponin ?a (10), azukisaponin VI (11), azukisaponin IV (12), azukisaponin II (13), AzII (14), AzIV (15), lablaboside E (16), lablaboside F (17), lablaboside D (18), chikusetusaponin IVa (19), and lablab saponin I (20). The individual and total saponin compositions exhibited remarkable differences in all legume seeds. In particular, soyasaponin ?a (8) was detected the predominant composition in soybean, cowpea, and lentil with various concentrations. Interestingly, soybean, adzuki bean, common bean, and scarlet runner bean had high saponin contents, while chick pea and broad bean showed low contents.
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Dissipation pattern and pre-harvest residue limit of abamectin in perilla leaves.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL) of abamectin (abamectin B1a and B1b) in Perilla frutescens leaves grown under greenhouse conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified through a solid phase extraction procedure. Then the purified extract was derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride and N-methylimidazole to form a strong stable fluorescent derivative of abamectin. Finally, derivatized abamectins were conveyed to the detector via an Atlantis C18 column, with water and methanol as a mobile phase. Calibration curves were linear over the calibration ranges with coefficients of determinants r (2) ? 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.0033 and 0.01 mg kg(-1) for abamectin B1a and B1b, respectively. Recovery was assessed in a control matrix at two different fortification concentrations, with three replicates for each concentration. Good recoveries were obtained for the target analytes and ranged from 82.11 to 93.03%, with relative standard deviations of less than 8%. The rate of disappearance of total abamectin on perilla leaves for recommended and double the recommended doses was described as first-order kinetics with a half-life of 0.7 days. Using the PHRL curve, we could predict the residue level of total abamectin to be 0.92 mg kg(-1) at 7 days before harvest or 0.26 mg kg(-1) at 4 days before harvest, which would be below the provisional MRL designed by the Korea Food and Drug Administration.
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Effect of the growth stage and cultivar on policosanol profiles of barley sprouts and their adenosine 5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Adenosine 5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular sensor that can regulate glucose levels within the cell. For this reason, it is well-known to be a target for drugs against diabetes and obesity. AMPK was activated significantly by the hexane extract of barley sprouts. This AMPK activation emerges across the growth stages of the sprout, becoming most significant (3 times above the initial stages) 10 days after sprouting. After this time, the activation decreased between 13 and 20 days post-sprouting. Analysis of the hexane extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the amounts of policosanols (PCs, which are linear, primary aliphatic alcohols with 20-30 carbons) in the plant dramatically increased between 5 days (109.7 mg/100 g) and 10 days (343.7 mg/100 g) post-sprouting and then levels fell back down, reaching 76.4 mg/100 g at 20 days post-sprouting. This trend is consistent with PCs being the active ingredient in the barley plants. We validate this by showing that hexacosanol is an activator of AMPK. The richest cultivar for PCs was found to be the Daejin cultivar. Cultivars had a significant effect on the total PC content (113.2-183.5 mg/100 g) within the plant up to 5 days post-sprouting. However this dependence upon the cultivar was not so apparent at peak stages of PC production (10 days post-sprouting). The most abundant PC in barley sprout, hexacosanol, contributed 62-80% of the total PC content at every stage. These results are valuable to determine the optimal times of harvest to obtain the highest yield of PCs.
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Phenolic phytochemical displaying SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) is a key enzyme that plays an important role in SARS virus replication. The ethanol extract of the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia showed high activity against the SARS-CoV PLpro with an IC(50) of value of 15?µg/ml. Due to its potency, subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract led to six aromatic compounds (1-6), which were identified as bavachinin (1), neobavaisoflavone (2), isobavachalcone (3), 4-O-methylbavachalcone (4), psoralidin (5) and corylifol A (6). All isolated flavonoids (1-6) inhibited PLpro in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) ranging between 4.2 and 38.4?µM. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots and their secondary replots indicated that inhibitors (1-6) were mixed inhibitors of PLpro. The analysis of K(I) and K(IS) values proved that the two most promising compounds (3 and 5) had reversible mixed type I mechanisms.
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Profiling of neuraminidase inhibitory polyphenols from the seeds of Paeonia lactiflora.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Bacterial neuraminidase (NA) is a lynch pin enzyme in the formation of biofilms. Thus NA continues to be one of the key enzymes targeted by bacterial infection. The purpose of this manuscript is to communicate four new naturally derived inhibitors of neuraminidase (IC50s 3.7-24.4?M). All these active species (1-4) contained a resveratrol chemotype, however resveratrol itself was inactive (IC50>100?M). 1-4 were isolated from the 60% aqueous ethanol extract of seeds of Paeonia lactiflora, which exhibited potent neuraminidase inhibition. Purification of the extracts yielded four chiral polyphenols, suffruticosol A (1), suffruticosol B (2), trans-?-viniferin (3), and trans-gnetin H (4). Mechanistic analysis of 1-4s inhibition showed that they were all reversible, noncompetitive inhibitors. Trans-?-viniferin (3) underwent trans-cis isomerization, which led to a reduction in inhibition potency. This correlates with the fact that the cis-isomer is a weaker inhibitor of neuraminidase than the trans-isomer. Importantly, significantly different optical rotations ([?]D) compared to previous reports were found for suffruticosols A (+95 vs -34) and B (+136 vs +13). These two species are the most important standard metabolites in the whole paeoniaceae family and therefore correction of this error is important.
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Characterization of ultrastructure and collagen composition of the teratoma membrane: comparison to the amniotic membrane.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The structural and morphological properties of the teratoma membrane were investigated to better understand the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas. A mature cystic teratoma and amnion were obtained from patients who underwent laparoscopic cystectomy and uncomplicated delivery, respectively. The teratoma membrane was divided into three layers according to the results of the histological analysis. Each layer showed distinct morphological properties, including an outer layer that was uniformly arranged, a middle layer with an irregular pattern of fibers, and an inner layer that was structurally dense with a wavy pattern of fibers. The morphology of the layers of the amniotic membrane was the reverse that of the teratoma membrane. In the teratoma membrane, the outer layer was primarily composed of type III collagen and the inner layer had a large amount of type III and IV collagen. The amniotic membrane showed a small amount of type III collagen in the outer layer, whereas the inner layer had large amounts of type I, III, and IV collagen. In the teratoma membrane, the collagen fibrils were arranged regularly in the outer layer, but irregularly in the inner layer. In the amniotic membrane, the arrangement of collagen fibrils was the reverse that of the teratoma membrane. Additionally, the collagen fibrils in the teratoma membrane were thinner than those of the amniotic membrane and had slightly shorter d-spacing. Two membranes showed the differences in collagen fibril arrangement, which may caused by the different functional roles.
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Quantifying fenobucarb residue levels in beef muscles using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and QuEChERS sample preparation.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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This paper describes a comparison of the properties of the three versions of the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) - the original (unbuffered), acetate-buffered, and citrate-buffered methods - for the determination of fenobucarb residues in beef muscles via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS). The recovery results were good for all the versions; however, the acetate-buffered version gave higher and more consistent recoveries for fenobucarb than the other versions. Performance characteristics, such as linearity, accuracy, and precision were determined. Matrix-matched standard calibration was used for quantification, obtaining recoveries in the range of 83.7-93.4% with relative standard deviations of <5%, at two spiking levels: 10 and 40 ?g/kg. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were estimated to be 1.5 and 5 ?g/kg, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 15 market samples, and no residues were found over the limit of quantification. The method developed was found able to determine the analyte with satisfactory intensity and accuracy.
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Incremental predictive value of red cell distribution width for 12-month clinical outcome after acute myocardial infarction.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The incremental predictive value of red cell distribution width (RDW) for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) has not been fully investigated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm(-1) to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm(-1) were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm(-1), from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.
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Biocompatibility of a novel cyanoacrylate based tissue adhesive: cytotoxicity and biochemical property evaluation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cyanoacrylate (CA) is most widely used as a medical and commercial tissue adhesive because of easier wound closure, good cosmetic results and little discomfort. But, CA-based tissue adhesives have some limitations including the release of cytotoxic chemicals during biodegradation. In previous study, we made prepolymerized allyl 2-CA (PACA) based tissue adhesive, resulting in longer chain structure. In this study, we investigated a biocompatibility of PACA as alternative tissue adhesive for medical application, comparing with that of Dermabond® as commercial tissue adhesive. The biocompatibility of PACA was evaluated for short-term (24 hr) and long-term (3 and 7 days) using conventional cytotoxicity (WST, neutral red, LIVE/DEAD and TUNEL) assays, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome (MT) staining. Besides we examined the biochemical changes in cells and DNA induced by PACA and Dermabond® utilizing Raman spectroscopy which could observe the denaturation and conformational changes in protein, as well as disintegration of the DNA/RNA by cell death. In particular, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, PACA and Dermabond® tissue adhesive treated cells and tissues showed no difference of the cell viability values, histological analysis and Raman spectral intensity. Also, the classification analysis by means of PCA-SVM classifier could not discriminate the difference between the PACA and Dermabond® treated cells and DNA. Therefore we suggest that novel PACA might be useful as potential tissue adhesive with effective biocompatibility.
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Internal-specific morphological analysis of sciatic nerve fibers in a radiofrequency-induced animal neuropathic pain model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment at 42 °C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Massons trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF). An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82 °C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the A? and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.
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Effect of cross-linking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A on the chemical bonds and ultrastructure of human sclera.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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This study examined the effect of the cross-linking with riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the chemical bonds and ultrastructural changes of human sclera tissues using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Raman spectroscopy of the normal and cross-linked human sclera tissue revealed different types of the riboflavin-UVA and collagen interactions, which could be identified from their unique peaks, intensity, and shape. Raman spectroscopy can prove to be a powerful tool for examining the chemical bond of collagenous tissues at the molecular level. After riboflavin-UVA treatment, unlike a regular parallel arrangement of normal collagen fibrils, the AFM image revealed interlocking arrangements of collagen fibrils. The observed changes in the surface topography of the collagen fibrils, as well as in their chemical bonds in the sclera tissue, support the formation of interfibrilar cross-links in sclera tissues.
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AFM study for morphological and mechanical properties of human scleral surface.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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This study examined the structures and the elastic and viscous properties of human scleral collagen fibrils by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Sample preparation was performed to minimize the sources of artifacts for further imaging. To observe the morphological and property characteristics of human scleral surfaces, AFM was used as a microscopic tool. The AFM topography, phase shift and deflection images of the dehydrated scleral collagen fibrils were obtained. The visco-elasticity of collagen fibrils was determined from the force-distance curves of the AFM. Inspection of the fibril surface in high resolution showed that the D-period spacing along the collagen fibrils was clearly evident. The fibril diameter over a scan size of 5 x 5 microm2 was 145.22 +/- 17.78 nm (n = 178) ranging from 98 to 220 nm, and the D-periodicity was 69.14 +/- 14.15 nm (n = 189), which is similar to the normal 67 nm D-periodicity. Force-distance analysis indicated that human scleral collagen had comparatively high adhesion force and elasticity, to protect the eye from external trauma and to withstand the expansive force made by the intraocular pressure.
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Pterocarpan profiles for soybean leaves at different growth stages and investigation of their glycosidase inhibitions.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Soybean leaves are eaten as seasonal edible greens in Korea. Analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of these leaves showed that it exhibited potent and selective neuraminidase inhibition, which began at the R3 stage and peaked at R7. Ten pterocarpans, including the new 6a-hydroxypterocarpan 10, were isolated from soybean leaves and their inhibition activities tested against a range of glycosidases. The relationship between structure and enzyme inhibition was investigated: 6a-hydroxypterocarpans exhibited much higher inhibition against neuraminidase (IC(50) = 2.4-89.4 ?M) than ?-glucosidase (IC(50) = 90.4-?>100 ?M). Glyceollin VII (7) displayed 40-fold greater activity (IC(50) = 2.4 ?M) against neuraminidase than ?-glucosidase (IC(50) = 90.4 ?M). On the other hand, coumestanes (1-3) were good ?-glucosidase inhibitors (IC(50) = 6.0-42.6 ?M). In kinetic analysis, the most potent neuraminidase inhibitors (5-10) were noncompetitive. HPLC analysis indicated that most pterocarpan synthesis began from the R3 stage, and a rapid change of pterocarpan concentrations was observed between the R4 and R7 stages.
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Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the cell death process in Candida albicans treated by antifungal agents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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The death process of Candida albicans was investigated after treatment with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B by assessing morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. C. albicans was treated varying time periods (from 6 to 48 hours) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM images clearly showed changes in morphology and biophysical properties. After drug treatment, the membrane of C. albicans was perforated, deformed, and shrunken. Compared to the control, C. albicans treated with flucytosine was softer and initially showed a greater adhesive force. Conversely, C. albicans treated with amphotericin B was harder and had a lower adhesive force. In both cases, the surface roughness increased as the treatment time increased. The relationships between morphological changes and the drugs were observed by AFM clearly; the surface of C. albicans treated with flucytosine underwent membrane collapse, expansion of holes, and shrinkage, while the membranes of cells treated with amphotericin B peeled off. According to these observations, the death process of C. albicans was divided into 4 phases, CDP(0), CDP(1), CDP(2), and CDP(4), which were determined based on morphological changes. Our results could be employed to further investigate the antifungal activity of compounds derived from natural sources.
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Short-term nanostructural effects of high radiofrequency treatment on the skin tissues of rabbits.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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The aim of this study is to quantitatively investigate the short-term effects of RF tissue-tightening treatment in in vivo rabbit dermal collagen fibrils. These effects were measured at different energy levels and at varying pass procedures on the nanostructural response level using histology and AFM analysis. Each rabbit was divided into one of seven experimental groups, which included the following: control group, and six RF group according to RF energy (20 W and 40 W) and three RF pass procedures. The progressive changes in the diameter and D-periodicity of rabbit dermal collagen fibrils were investigated in detail over a 7-day post-treatment period. The dermal tissues treated with the RF tissue-tightening device showed more prominent inflammatory responses with inflammatory cell ingrowth compared to the control. This effect showed more prominent with the passage of day after treatment. Although an increase in the diameter and D-periodicity of dermal collagen fibrils was identified immediately after the RF treatment, a decrease in the morphology of dermal collagen fibrils continued until post-operative day 7. Furthermore, RF treatment led to the loss of distinct borders. Increases in RF energy with the same pass procedure, as well as an increase in the number of RF passes, increased the occurrence of irreversible collagen fibril injury. A multiple-pass treatment at low energy rather than a single-pass treatment at high energy showed a large amount of collagen fibrils contraction at the nanostructural level.
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Development of a joint space width measurement method based on radiographic hand images.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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This study presents a novel algorithm to measure joint space widths (JSWs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using radiographic hand images. Radiographic images were first preprocessed, and then phalangeal regions corresponding to the bone structures of each finger were extracted using step-wedge functions. Phalangeal branch paths were also extracted. Each of the five extracted phalangeal branch paths matched the bone structures of each finger exactly and ran through the center of each finger. The algorithm automatically detected 14 joints, which were identified as sharp changes in gray scale intensity along phalangeal branch paths through the profile plot. The regions of interest corresponding to the 14 joints were subsequently extracted. A total of 35 radiographic images from three groups were tested. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated by measuring joint location percentage errors and mean JSWs for three joints in the phalanges. The algorithm correctly detected 94.69% of total joints and had a low detection rate in RA patients with severe deformities or ankylosis. The mean JSW in the control group was significantly greater than that in the RA group (p<0.05). In contrast, the standard deviation of JSW in the control group was lower than that in the RA groups (p<0.005). Control and seropositive RA groups showed significant symmetry in JSW values.
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Aseptic Endocarditis in Behçets Disease Presenting as Tricuspid Valve Stenosis.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Aseptic endocarditis is an uncommon complication of Behçets disease (BD). We describe a rare case of a 39-year-old female who had BD with aseptic endocarditis of the tricuspid valve (TV) presenting as tricuspid stenosis. She was diagnosed with BD four years ago. The mucocutaneous lesions were well-controlled with colchicine and short courses of corticosteroids. She remained free of signs and symptoms of BD for one year without any medication. Three months before admission, she gradually developed dyspnea on exertion and peripheral edema. Echocardiography revealed dilated right atrium and markedly thickened TV with severe stenosis. TV replacement was performed. Pathologic examination of the valve showed fibrinoid necrotic material and inflammatory cell infiltration. Blood cultures and cultures of the excised valve were negative for microorganisms.
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Effects of atopic dermatitis on the morphology and water content of scalp hair.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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The effects of atopic dermatitis (AD) on scalp hair properties, such as morphology and water content, were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermogravimetric analyzer. Hairs from lesional and nonlesional scalp regions of eight patients with AD were investigated. The severity of the disease, which was evaluated using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index, was 48.75 (range, 40-80). Hairs from 15 normal adults were also examined as controls. The surface images were taken in an area of 20 × 20 ?m(2) with 512 × 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. AD affected the cuticle structures and scales of scalp hair. The edges of cuticles were torn and collapsed, and the scales were very thick. The water contents of both types of AD hair were less than the control: 12% ± 0.7%, 11.7% ± 0.4%, and 13% ± 0.8% for lesional AD hair, nonlesional AD hair, and control hair, respectively. The scalp hair of patients with AD can be characterized by thick and globular scale patterns. The hair of patients with AD has less water content than normal hair showing a good agreement with the property of skin having AD.
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Potent inhibition of bacterial neuraminidase activity by pterocarpans isolated from the roots of Lespedeza bicolor.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Bacterial neuraminidase has been highlighted as a key enzyme for pathogenic infection and sepsis. Six pterocarpans displaying significant levels of neuraminidase inhibitory activity were isolated from the root bark of Lespedeza bicolor. The isolated compounds were identified as three new pterocarpans (1-3) together with known compounds erythrabyssin II (4), lespebuergine G4 (5), and 1-methoxyerythrabyssin II (6). The new compounds were characterized as bicolosin A (1), bicolosin B (2), and bicolosin C (3). All compounds inhibited bacterial neuraminidase in a dose-dependent manner with significant inhibition (IC(50)=0.09-3.25 ?M). All neuraminidase inhibitors screened were found to exhibit noncompetitive kinetics. The three most potent neuraminidase inhibitors (1, 3 and 6) feature a methoxy substitution on C-1.
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Protective potential of IL-6 against trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity in vivo.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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We investigated the role of cytokines in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced convulsive neurotoxicity. Evaluation of TNF-?, interferon-?, and interleukin (IL)-6 knockout (-/-) mice showed that the IL-6(-/-) mice had the greatest susceptibility to TMT-induced seizures. In both wild-type and IL-6(-/-) mice, TMT treatment increased glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and levels of reactive oxygen species in the hippocampus. These effects were more pronounced in the IL-6(-/-) mice than in wild-type controls. In addition, the ability of TMT to induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and ?-glutamylcysteine ligase was significantly decreased in IL-6(-/-) mice. Treatment of IL-6(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-6 protein (rIL-6) restored these effects of TMT. Treatment with rIL-6 also significantly attenuated the TMT-induced inhibition of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, thereby increasing phosphorylation of Bad (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein), expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and the interaction between p-Bad and 14-3-3 protein and decreasing Bax expression and caspase-3 cleavage. Furthermore, in IL-6(-/-) mice, rIL-6 provided significant protection against TMT-induced neuronal degeneration; this effect of rIL-6 was counteracted by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. These results suggest that activation of Nrf2-dependent glutathione homeostasis and PI3K/Akt signaling is required for the neuroprotective effects of IL-6 against TMT.
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Threshold level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for the short-term benefit of statin therapy in the acute phase of myocardial infarction.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Little is known about the threshold level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for statin therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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