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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multifunctional tin dioxide materials: advances in preparation strategies, microstructure, and performance.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Tin oxide materials are a class of unique semiconductor materials with widespread technological applications because of their valuable semiconducting, gas sensing, electrical and optical properties in the fields of macro/mesoscopic materials and micro/nanodevices. In this review, we describe the efforts toward understanding the synthetic strategies and formation mechanisms of the micro/nanostructures of various tin dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser ablation, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the preparation and formation processes of tetragonal-phase tin dioxide thin films with interesting fractal clusters. In addition, the quantum-dot formation and dynamic scaling behavior in tetragonal-phase tin dioxide thin films induced by pulsed delivery will be discussed experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we emphasize the fabrication, properties and formation mechanism of orthorhombic-phase tin dioxide thin films by using pulsed laser deposition. This research may provide a novel approach to modulate their competent performance and promote rational design of micro/nanodevices. Once mastered, tin dioxide thin films with a variety of fascinating micro/nanostructures will offer vast and unforeseen opportunities in the semiconductor industry as well as in other fields of science and technology.
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COMPUTATIONAL DOSIMETRY FOR CHILD AND ADULT HUMAN MODELS DUE TO CONTACT CURRENT FROM 10 HZ TO 110 MHZ.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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This study computationally investigates in situ electric field due to low-frequency contact current and specific absorption rate (SAR) due to high-frequency contact currents in a realistic child model and compared with those in the adult model. The in situ electric fields and SAR in the child model are found to exceed the corresponding values in the adult. At the finger tip, the electric field and SAR due to contact currents, both at the ICNIRP reference levels and IEEE Maximum Permissible Exposures, are well beyond the corresponding basic restrictions. In the remaining part, the largest difference was observed in spinal tissue, and the smallest effect was in the heart. With respect to brain and skin conductivities, one needs to strongly consider which values of tissue properties are used to interpret one's results. The in situ electric fields resulting from contact with the metal plane are similar to those for contact with the wire.
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Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-Brevipolide H through Cyclopropanation of the ?,?-Unsaturated Ketone.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Brevipolides are 5,6-dihydro-?-pyrone derivatives, first reported in 2004 as the inhibitors of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and exhibiting cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Starting from the C2 symmetric diene-diol 2, ent-brevipolide H was synthesized for the first time in 11 steps. The anti-addition of the sulfur ylide to the ?,?-unsaturated enones was developed to give the key cyclopropane moiety. The synthetic (-)-brevipolide H showed an IC50 value of 7.7 ?M against PC-3 cells.
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Terfenadine induces anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer through histamine receptor-independent Mcl-1 cleavage and Bak up-regulation.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Although the results of several studies have underscored the regulatory effect of H1-histamine receptors in cell proliferation of some cancer cell types, its effect in prostate cancers remains unclear. We have therefore studied the effect of terfenadine (an H1-histamine receptor antagonist) in prostate cancer cell lines. Our data demonstrate that terfenadine was effective against PC-3 and DU-145 cells (two prostate cancer cell lines). In contrast, based on the sulforhodamine B assay, loratadine had less potency while fexofenadine and diphenhydramine had little effect. Terfenadine induced the cleavage of Mcl-1 cleavage into a pro-apoptotic 28-kDa fragment and up-regulation of Bak, resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor into the cytosol. The activation of caspase cascades was detected to be linked to terfenadine action. Bak up-regulation was also examined at both the transcriptional and translational levels, and Bak activation was validated based on conformational change to expose the N terminus. Terfenadine also induced an indirect-but not direct-DNA damage response through the cleavage and activation of caspase-2, phosphorylation and activation of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases, phosphorylation of RPA32 and acetylation of Histone H3; these processes were highly correlated to severe mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of caspase cascades. In conclusion, terfenadine induced apoptotic signaling cascades against HRPCs in a sequential manner. The exposure of cells to terfenadine caused the up-regulation and activation of Bak and the cleavage of Mcl-1, leading to the loss of ??m and activation of caspase cascades which further resulted in DNA damage response and cell apoptosis.
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Suppression of antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia with aripiprazole in an elderly patient with bipolar I disorder.
Acta Neuropsychiatr
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Aripiprazole has a low risk for causing extrapyramidal syndrome and can remit neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we presented a case in which TD was suppressed, but not cured, by long-term aripiprazole treatment.
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Trends in the incidence and management of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 to 2008: get with the guidelines performance measures in Taiwan.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The American Heart Association Get With the Guidelines (GWTG) program has improved care quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with important implications for other countries in the world. This study evaluated the incidence and care of AMI in Taiwan and assessed the compliance of GWTG in Taiwan.
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Estimating biological elementary flux modes that decompose a flux distribution by the minimal branching property.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically infeasible EFMs and the non-uniqueness of the decomposition, however, undermine the applicability of such methods. Efforts have been made to find biologically feasible EFMs by incorporating information from transcriptional regulation and thermodynamics. Yet, no attempt has been made to distinguish biologically feasible EFMs by considering their graphical properties. A previous study on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes found that distinct branches at a branch point metabolite usually belong to distinct metabolic pathways. This suggests an intuitive property of biologically feasible EFMs, i.e. minimal branching.
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Fatal systemic necrotizing infections associated with a novel paramyxovirus, anaconda paramyxovirus, in green anaconda juveniles.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 10(4) to 1.05 × 10(8) copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical "herringbone" appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3'-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5'. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission.
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Comparison of proton pump inhibitor and histamine-2 receptor antagonist in the prevention of recurrent peptic ulcers/erosions in long-term low-dose aspirin users: a retrospective cohort study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Proton pump inhibitor and histamine-2 receptor antagonist can prevent aspirin-related ulcers/erosions but few studies compare the efficacy of these two agents. Aims. We evaluated the efficacy of omeprazole and famotidine in preventing recurrent ulcers/erosions in low-dose aspirin users.
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Immunogenicity of intradermal trivalent influenza vaccine with topical imiquimod: a double blind randomized controlled trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Imiquimod, a synthetic Toll-like receptor 7 agonist enhanced immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in a mouse model. We hypothesized that topical imiquimod before intradermal influenza vaccination (TIV) would produce similar effect in human.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma.
Surv Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is a relatively new type of laser used in treating open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and is reported to be equally efficacious to a first-line medication and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT). We summarize available evidence for considering SLT as an alternative treatment in OAG through systematic review and meta-analysis. Among OAG patients who range from newly diagnosed to those on maximally tolerated medical therapy, SLT results in a 6.9-35.9% intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Complications are rare and include an IOP spike requiring surgery, persistent macular edema, and corneal haze and thinning. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials shows that SLT is non-inferior to ALT and medication in IOP reduction and also in achieving treatment success. Number of medications reduction is similar between SLT and ALT. More robust evidence is needed to determine its efficacy as a repeated procedure.
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Randomized controlled trial of monthly versus biweekly endoscopic variceal ligation for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is effective in preventing esophageal variceal rebleeding. However, the optimal EVL interval remains unclear.
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Hierarchical mesoporous MnO2 superstructures synthesized by soft-interface method and their catalytic performances.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To obtain a highly efficient and stable heterogeneous catalyst in catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation, we have successfully synthesized hierarchical mesoporous manganese dioxide (MnO2) superstructures by a facile and environmental friendly method on a soft-interface between CH2Cl2 and H2O without templates. The main crystal phase of as-prepared MnO2 was proved to be ?-MnO2 by X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure characterizations indicated that the hierarchical MnO2 superstructures were composed of urchin-like MnO2 hollow submicrospheres assembled by one-dimension nanorods building blocks with rich mesoporosity. The nitrogen sorption analysis confirmed that the as-synthesized MnO2 has an average pore diameter of 5.87 nm, mesoporous volume of 0.451 cm(3) g(-1), and specific surface area of 219.3 m(2) g(-1). Further investigations revealed that a possible formation mechanism of this unique hierarchical superstructure depended upon the synthesis conditions. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical mesoporous MnO2 superstructures were evaluated in catalytic degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H2O2 at neutral pH, which demonstrated highly efficient catalytic degradation of the organic pollutant methylene blue using hierarchical mesoporous MnO2 superstructures as catalyst at room temperature.
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Chickens host diverse picornaviruses originated from potential interspecies transmission with recombination.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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While chickens are an important reservoir for emerging pathogens such as avian influenza viruses, little is known about the diversity of picornaviruses in poultry. We discovered a previously unknown diversity of picornaviruses in chickens in Hong Kong. Picornaviruses were detected in 87 cloacal and 7 tracheal samples from 93 of 900 chickens by reverse transcription-PCR, with their partial 3D(pol) gene sequences forming five distinct clades (I to V) among known picornaviruses. Analysis of eight genomes from different clades revealed seven different picornaviruses, including six novel picornavirus species (ChPV1 from clade I, ChPV2 and ChPV3 from clade II, ChPV4 and ChPV5 from clade III, ChGV1 from clade IV) and one existing species (Avian encephalomyelitis virus from clade V). The six novel chicken picornavirus genomes exhibited distinct phylogenetic positions and genome features different from related picornaviruses, supporting their classification as separate species. Moreover, ChPV1 may potentially belong to a novel genus, with low sequence homologies to related picornaviruses, especially in the P1 and P2 regions, including the predicted L and 2A proteins. Nevertheless, these novel picornaviruses were most closely related to picornaviruses of other avian species (ChPV1 related to Passerivirus A, ChPV2 and ChPV3 to Avisivirus A and Duck hepatitis A virus, ChPV4 and ChPV5 to Melegrivirus A, ChGV1 to Gallivirus A). Furthermore, ChPV5 represented a potential recombinant picornavirus, with its P2 and P3 regions possibly originating from Melegrivirus A. Chickens are an important reservoir for diverse picornaviruses that may cross avian species barriers through mutation or recombination.
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Comparison of hemostatic efficacy of argon plasma coagulation with and without distilled water injection in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is useful to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but its hemostatic efficacy has received little attention. Aims. This investigation attempted to determine whether additional endoscopic injection before APC could improve hemostatic efficacy in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers.
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Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.
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Clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary antibody deficiency: a 20-year follow-up study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Primary antibody deficiency is the most common disorder among primary immunodeficiencies. Recurrent infection and chronic lung change often lead to mortality and morbidity.
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Incidence of influenza virus infections in children in Hong Kong in a 3-year randomized placebo-controlled vaccine study, 2009-2012.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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School-aged children suffer high rates of influenza virus infections and associated illnesses each year, and are a major source of transmission in the community. However, information on the cumulative incidence of infection in specific epidemics is scarce, and there are limited studies with sufficient follow-up to identify the strength and duration of protection against reinfection.
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The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalizations in children in Hong Kong, 2009-2013.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Influenza vaccination is widely recommended every year to protect individuals against influenza virus infection and illness. There are few published estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization in children or from subtropical regions.
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Characterization strategies for Mn2O3 nanomaterials.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Transition metal oxides belong to a class of versatile materials that are vitally important for developing new materials with functionality and smartness. Research on manganese oxides has been a key topic among studies on transition metal oxides. This is due to their potential applications in diverse areas, including rechargeable lithium ion batteries, catalysis, molecular adsorption, gas sensors, energy storage, and magnetics. In this review, we will elucidate in detail various characterization strategies, including temperature-dependent growth, micro/nanostructures, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance, for Mn2O3 nanocrystals, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. This review article mainly focuses on the wide-ranging research effort on the development of preparation methodologies and the assessment of various characterization strategies in Mn2O3 nanomaterials. The main purpose is to provide the readers a comprehensive understanding of the research progress of manganese oxides. This is an interdisciplinary work that integrates the areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology.
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Advances in fractal germanium micro/nanoclusters induced by gold: microstructures and properties.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Germanium materials are a class of unique semiconductor materials with widespread technological applications because of their valuable semiconducting, electrical, optical, and thermoelectric power properties in the fields of macro/mesoscopic materials and micro/nanodevices. In this review, we describe the efforts toward understanding the microstructures and various properties of the fractal germanium micro/nanoclusters induced by gold prepared by high vacuum thermal evaporation techniques, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the integer and non-integer dimensional germanium micro/nanoclusters such as nanoparticles, nanorings, and nanofractals induced by gold and annealing. In particular, the nonlinear electrical behavior of a gold/germanium bilayer film with the interesting nanofractal is discussed in detail. In addition, the third-order optical nonlinearities of the fractal germanium nanocrystals embedded in gold matrix will be summarized by using the sensitive and reliable Z-scan techniques aimed to determine the nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index. Finally, we emphasize the thermoelectric power properties of the gold/germanium bilayer films. The thermoelectric power measurement is considered to be a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system. This research may provide a novel insight to modulate their competent performance and promote rational design of micro/nanodevices. Once mastered, germanium thin films with a variety of fascinating micro/nanoclusters will offer vast and unforeseen opportunities in the semiconductor industry as well as in other fields of science and technology.
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A double-blind, randomized comparison study of efficacy and safety of intramuscular olanzapine and intramuscular haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia and acute agitated behavior.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Studies of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine in Asian and Taiwanese populations are limited. This study examined the efficacy and safety of IM olanzapine in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia and acute agitated behavior.This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel study comparing the efficacy and safety of 10 mg/d IM olanzapine (n = 25) against 7.5 mg/d haloperidol (n = 24). The primary objective was to assess the change of agitation from baseline to 2 hours after the first IM injection on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Excited Component Scale.The changes of Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Excited Component Scale score from baseline to 2 hours after the first IM injection did not show statistically significant difference between study groups (olanzapine -9.0 ± 5.7, haloperidol -7.9 ± 4.0, P = 0.254). Both groups reported insomnia as the most common treatment-emergent adverse event, and no serious adverse event was reported.Intramuscular olanzapine and IM haloperidol are similarly effective antipsychotic agents in treating agitated symptoms in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia. Both IM olanzapine and IM haloperidol were proven to be safe and well tolerated, which also provided alternative options in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia with agitation.
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Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in warfarin anticoagulated patients: incidence, risk factor, management, and outcome.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Warfarin reduces the incidence of thromboembolism but increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). GIB during warfarin anticoagulation is rarely evaluated in Asian patients.
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Celecoxib suppresses hepatoma stemness and progression by up-regulating PTEN.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can prevent several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we show that celecoxib suppressed the self-renewal and drug-pumping functions in HCC cells. Besides, celecoxib depleted CD44+/CD133+ hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSC). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and CD133 overexpression did not reverse the celecoxib-induced depletion of hCSC. Also, celecoxib inhibited progression of rat Novikoff hepatoma. Moreover, a 60-day celecoxib program increased the survival rate of rats with hepatoma. Histological analysis revealed that celecoxib therapy reduced the abundance of CD44+/CD133+ hCSCs in hepatoma tissues. Besides, the hCSCs depletion was associated with elevated apoptosis and blunted proliferation and angiogenesis in hepatoma. Celecoxib therapy activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and up-regulated PTEN, thereby inhibiting Akt and disrupting hCSC expansion. PTEN gene delivery by adenovirus reduced CD44/CD133 expression in vitro and hepatoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that celecoxib suppresses cancer stemness and progression of HCC via activation of PPAR?/PTEN signaling.
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The Potential Risk of Conical Implant-Abutment Connections: The Antirotational Ability of Cowell Implant System.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Conical implant-abutment connections are popular because of good antibending performance. However, the cross section is round, and the antirotational ability is questionable because restorations in the oral cavity also have to bear torsional moments resulting from chewing patterns.
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Novel betacoronavirus in dromedaries of the Middle East, 2013.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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In 2013, a novel betacoronavirus was identified in fecal samples from dromedaries in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Antibodies against the recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the virus, which we named dromedary camel coronavirus (DcCoV) UAE-HKU23, were detected in 52% of 59 dromedary serum samples tested. In an analysis of 3 complete DcCoV UAE-HKU23 genomes, we identified the virus as a betacoronavirus in lineage A1. The DcCoV UAE-HKU23 genome has G+C contents; a general preference for G/C in the third position of codons; a cleavage site for spike protein; and a membrane protein of similar length to that of other betacoronavirus A1 members, to which DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is phylogenetically closely related. Along with this coronavirus, viruses of at least 8 other families have been found to infect camels. Because camels have a close association with humans, continuous surveillance should be conducted to understand the potential for virus emergence in camels and for virus transmission to humans.
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A novel molecular test for influenza B virus detection and lineage differentiation.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Contemporary influenza B viruses are classified into two groups known as Yamagata and Victoria lineages. The co-circulation of two viral lineages in recent years urges for a robust and simple diagnostic test for detecting influenza B viruses and for lineage differentiation. In this study, a SYBR green-based asymmetric PCR assay has been developed for influenza B virus detection. Apart from identifying influenza B virus, the assay contains sequence-specific probes for lineage differentiation. This allows identifying influenza B virus and detecting influenza B viral lineage in a single reaction. The test has been evaluated by a panel of respiratory specimens. Of 108 influenza B virus-positive specimens, 105 (97%) were positive in this assay. None of the negative control respiratory specimens were positive in the test (N?=?60). Viral lineages of all samples that are positive in the assay (N?=?105) can also be classified correctly. These results suggest that this assay has a potential for routine influenza B virus surveillance. J. Med. Virol. 86:2171-2176, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Immunogenicity and safety of intradermal trivalent influenza vaccination in nursing home older adults: a randomized controlled trial.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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To compare the immunogenicity and safety between full-dose (15 ?g) intramuscular (i.m.) and full-dose (15 ?g) intradermal (i.d.) immunization of the trivalent influenza vaccine in nursing home older adults.
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Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants in depression with comorbid cardiovascular disease.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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There is a lack of clarity in the literature regarding the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of antidepressants for treating real-world patients. The impact of comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the economic evaluations of antidepressants remains to be determined.
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Role of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation in patients with recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is an established treatment for patients with choledocholithiasis or common bile duct stones (CBDS), but further management of patients after ES with recurrent CBDS remains controversial. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) has been used safely and effectively for stone removal in patients after ES with recurrent CBDS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of EPLBD in patients after complete ES with recurrent CBDS.
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Productive replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells modulates innate immune response.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) closely resembled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in disease manifestation as rapidly progressive acute pneumonia with multi-organ dysfunction. Using monocyte-derived-dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), we discovered fundamental discrepancies in the outcome of MERS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-infection. First, MERS-CoV productively infected Mo-DCs while SARS-CoV-infection was abortive. Second, MERS-CoV induced significantly higher levels of IFN-?, IP-10, IL-12, and RANTES expression than SARS-CoV. Third, MERS-CoV-infection induced higher surface expression of MHC class II (HLA-DR) and the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 than SARS-CoV-infection. Overall, our data suggests that the dendritic cell can serve as an important target of viral replication and a vehicle for dissemination. MERS-CoV-infection in DCs results in the production of a rich combination of cytokines and chemokines, and modulates innate immune response differently from that of SARS-CoV-infection. Our findings may help to explain the apparent discrepancy in the pathogenicity between MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.
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Structure-based discovery of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus fusion inhibitor.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A novel human coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has caused outbreaks of a SARS-like illness with high case fatality rate. The reports of its person-to-person transmission through close contacts have raised a global concern about its pandemic potential. Here we characterize the six-helix bundle fusion core structure of MERS-CoV spike protein S2 subunit by X-ray crystallography and biophysical analysis. We find that two peptides, HR1P and HR2P, spanning residues 998-1039 in HR1 and 1251-1286 in HR2 domains, respectively, can form a stable six-helix bundle fusion core structure, suggesting that MERS-CoV enters into the host cell mainly through membrane fusion mechanism. HR2P can effectively inhibit MERS-CoV replication and its spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion. Introduction of hydrophilic residues into HR2P results in significant improvement of its stability, solubility and antiviral activity. Therefore, the HR2P analogues have good potential to be further developed into effective viral fusion inhibitors for treating MERS-CoV infection.
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Liver injury is common among chronic abusers of ketamine.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Abuse of ketamine leads to liver injury. We investigated the histopathologic and radiologic features of ketamine abusers with significant liver injury in a cross-sectional survey of 297 consecutive chronic abusers of ketamine with urinary tract dysfunction. Liver biopsy and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography were performed in patients with liver injury (concentrations of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and/or alanine aminotransferase >2-fold the upper limit of normal). The prevalence of liver injury was 9.8% (all cases cholestatic). Bile duct injury was observed in all 7 patients assessed by liver biopsy. Two patients had bridging fibrosis despite their young age. Three of 6 patients who underwent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography examination were found to have prominent or dilated common bile ducts without obstructions or extrinsic compressions. Ketamine abuse therefore appears to lead to common bile duct dilatation, microscopic bile duct injury, and even significant liver fibrosis.
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Early entecavir treatment for chronic hepatitis B with severe acute exacerbation.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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A previous study found that lamivudine, if started early enough, may improve the chance of survival in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) with severe acute exacerbation (SAE). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early entecavir treatment before the bilirubin level exceeds 20 mg/dl for chronic HBV with SAE. Consecutive patients with chronic HBV with SAE and a serum bilirubin level of <20 mg/dl who received lamivudine or entecavir were enrolled. Short-term (4 months) survival was evaluated. One hundred fourteen patients received lamivudine, and 53 patients received entecavir. The baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups except that the entecavir group was older and had a lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Three patients (8.0%) in the entecavir group and 9 patients (7.9%) in the lamivudine group died (P=1.000). If only patients who started antiviral treatment before serum bilirubin level rose to more than 15 mg/dl were included, 3 patients (8.3%) in the entecavir group and 3 patients (3.0%) in the lamivudine group died (P=0.189). If only patients with an HBV DNA level higher than 10(5) copies/ml and a bilirubin level lower than 15 mg/dl were included, 5 out of 40 patients (12.5%) in the entecavir group died and 1 out of 59 patients (1.7%) in the lamivudine group died. Multivariate analysis found that entecavir treatment was associated with more mortality than lamivudine (P=0.035). Early entecavir treatment in patients with high viral load is associated with more short-term mortality than lamivudine for chronic HBV with severe acute exacerbation.
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Hospitalization risk of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic cases in Hong Kong.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Reliable assessment for the severity of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza is critical for evaluation of vaccination strategies for future pandemics. This study aims to estimate the age-specific hospitalization risks of the 2009 pandemic cases during the first wave in Hong Kong, by combining the findings from the serology and disease burden studies.
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?-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibits angiogenesis through attenuation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Gene therapy of proopiomelanocortin, the precursor of ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), suppresses the neovascularization in tumors. However, the roles of ?-MSH in angiogenesis remain unclear.
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Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with huge unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The optimal treatment for huge unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. The outcome of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for patients huge unresectable HCC is generally poor and the survival benefit of TACE in these patients is unclear. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) versus symptomatic treatment in patients with huge unresectable HCC.
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Population-based hospitalization burden of influenza a virus subtypes and antigenic drift variants in children in Hong Kong (2004-2011).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We aim to document and analyze influenza hospitalization burden in light of antigenic changes in circulating influenza viruses in Hong Kong.
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A robust parameter estimation method for estimating disease burden of respiratory viruses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Poisson model has been widely applied to estimate the disease burden of influenza, but there has been little success in providing reliable estimates for other respiratory viruses.
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Acetate kinase isozymes confer robustness in acetate metabolism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.
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Reevesioside A, a cardenolide glycoside, induces anticancer activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancers through suppression of c-myc expression and induction of G1 arrest of the cell cycle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the past decade, there has been a profound increase in the number of studies revealing that cardenolide glycosides display inhibitory activity on the growth of human cancer cells. The use of potential cardenolide glycosides may be a worthwhile approach in anticancer research. Reevesioside A, a cardenolide glycoside isolated from the root of Reevesia formosana, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancers. A good correlation (r²?=?0.98) between the expression of Na?/K?-ATPase ?? subunit and anti-proliferative activity suggested the critical role of the ?? subunit. Reevesioside A induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis in a thymidine block-mediated synchronization model. The data were supported by the down-regulation of several related cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDC25A. Reevesioside A also caused a profound decrease of RB phosphorylation, leading to an increased association between RB and E2F1 and the subsequent suppression of E2F1 activity. The protein and mRNA levels of c-myc, which can activate expression of many downstream cell cycle regulators, were dramatically inhibited by reevesioside A. Transient transfection of c-myc inhibited the down-regulation of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein expression to reevesioside A action, suggesting that c-myc functioned as an upstream regulator. Flow cytometric analysis of JC-1 staining demonstrated that reevesioside A also induced the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside A inhibits c-myc expression and down-regulates the expression of CDC25A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, leading to a profound decrease of RB phosphorylation. G1 arrest is, therefore, induced through E2F1 suppression. Consequently, reevesioside A causes mitochondrial damage and an ultimate apoptosis in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.
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Not only hysterectomy but also cesarean section can predict incomplete flexible sigmoidoscopy among patients with prior abdominal or pelvic surgery.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is a safe and effective method for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who have undergone surgery are at a greater risk of having incomplete FS. This study explored predictors of incomplete FS and reduced polyp detection rates for participants who had undergone abdominal or pelvic surgery.
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Quantitative elastography of liver fibrosis and spleen stiffness in chronic hepatitis B carriers: comparison of shear-wave elastography and transient elastography with liver biopsy correlation.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To document utility of shear-wave (SW) elastography for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and to compare its performance with that of transient elastography. Materials and Methods Ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained. Patients with liver biopsy correlation (n = 226) and healthy patients (n = 171) were analyzed. Results of SW elastography of liver, SW elastography of spleen, and transient elastography of liver were compared and correlated according to METAVIR scores. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs), binary logistic regression, and Delong test were used. Results AUC for SW elastography of liver, transient elastography of liver, and SW elastography of spleen was, respectively, 0.86, 0.80, and 0.81 for fibrosis (?F1 stage); 0.88, 0.78, and 0.82 for moderate fibrosis (?F2 stage); 0.93, 0.83, and 0.83 for severe fibrosis (?F3 stage); and 0.98, 0.92, and 0.84 for cirrhosis (F4 stage). SW elastography of liver showed significantly higher accuracy than transient elastography of liver and SW elastography of spleen in all fibrosis stages (P = .01-.04). SW elastography of spleen showed similar accuracy with transient elastography of liver (P = .21-.99). Combination SW elastography of liver and SW elastography of spleen to predict fibrosis staging showed diagnostic accuracy not further improved compared with SW elastography of liver alone (similar AUC; ?F1, P = .87; ?F2, P = .81; ?F3, P = .84; ?F4, P = .88). SW elastography of liver had higher successful rate than transient elastography of liver (98.9% vs 89.6%). Prevalence of discordance in at least two stages with liver histologic staging was 10.2% (23 of 226) for SW elastography of liver and 28.2% (58 of 206) for SW elastography of spleen. Conclusion SW elastography provides more accurate correlation of liver elasticity with liver fibrosis stage compared with transient elastography, especially in identification of stage F2 or greater. © RSNA, 2013.
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An open-label, randomized, controlled trial of zotepine and risperidone for acutely ill, hospitalized, schizophrenic patients with symptoms of agitation.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Acutely ill, schizophrenic patients frequently require management of agitation. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of oral zotepine and risperidone in hospitalized, acutely ill schizophrenic patients with symptoms of agitation.This was a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible dosing study. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) who met the criteria of a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of greater than or equal to 60 points, PANSS-excitement component (EC) score of greater than or equal to 14 points, and at least 1 PANSS-EC score of greater than or equal to 4 were randomly assigned to either the zotepine or risperidone group. The primary outcome was a comparison of the change in the PANSS-EC total score from baseline to the end of the study between groups.There was no significant between-group difference in dropout rates (zotepine, 15.8% [3/19]; risperidone, 20.0% [4/20]). The mean (SD) daily dose of zotepine from baseline to study end point ranged from 127.6 (62.3) to 236.8 (74.2) mg/d; the corresponding values for risperidone ranged from 3.3 (1.6) to 4.8 (1.7) mg/d. There were no statistically significant differences in patient characteristics, PANSS total score, and PANSS-EC total score between the zotepine and risperidone groups at baseline. Both groups showed significant reductions in the PANSS-EC total scores (zotepine, -10.1 [4.7], P < 0.001; risperidone, -8.0 [5.3], P < 0.001) and PANSS total scores (zotepine, -34.7 [15.8], P < 0.001; risperidone, -28.6 [14.3], P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in PANSS-EC total score (P = 0.265) and PANSS total score (P = 0.125) changes from baseline to study end point between the 2 treatment groups. Serum uric acid and prolactin decreased more in the zotepine group than the risperidone group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.018, respectively).Zotepine seemed to be as effective as risperidone in treating hospitalized, acutely ill, schizophrenic patients with agitation, and had the advantages of lowering hyperuricemia and hyperprolactinemia. Double-blind, fixed dose studies with a larger sample size of acutely ill, schizophrenic patients with agitation are needed to confirm the study results.
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Baseline high viral load and unfavorable patterns of alanine aminotransferase change predict virological relapse in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 or 2 obtaining rapid virological response during antiviral therapy.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Rapid virological response (RVR) strongly predicts sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and abbreviates antiviral therapy in some patients.
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Delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokines and suppression of innate antiviral response by the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: implications for pathogenesis and treatment.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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The high mortality associated with the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has raised questions about the possible role of a cytokine storm in its pathogenesis. Although recent studies showed that MERS-CoV infection is associated with an attenuated IFN response, no induction of inflammatory cytokines was demonstrated during the early phase of infection. To study both early and late cytokine responses associated with MERS-CoV infection, we measured the mRNA levels of eight cytokine genes [TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, transforming growth factor-? and IFN-?-induced protein (IP)-10] in cell lysates of polarized airway epithelial Calu-3 cells infected with MERS-CoV or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV up to 30 h post-infection. Among the eight cytokine genes, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 induced by MERS-CoV were markedly higher than those induced by SARS-CoV at 30 h, whilst TNF-?, IFN-? and IP-10 induced by SARS-CoV were markedly higher than those induced by MERS-CoV at 24 and 30 h in infected Calu-3 cells. The activation of IL-8 and attenuated IFN-? response by MERS-CoV were also confirmed by protein measurements in the culture supernatant when compared with SARS-CoV and Sendai virus. To further confirm the attenuated antiviral response, cytokine response was compared with human HCoV-229E in embryonal lung fibroblast HFL cells, which also revealed higher IFN-? and IP-10 levels induced by HCoV-229E than MERS-CoV at 24 and 30 h. Whilst our data supported recent findings that MERS-CoV elicits attenuated innate immunity, this represents the first report to demonstrate delayed proinflammatory cytokine induction by MERS-CoV. Our results provide insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of MERS-CoV infections.
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Broad-spectrum antivirals for the emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged to cause fatal infections in patients in the Middle East and traveler-associated secondary cases in Europe and Africa. Person-to-person transmission is evident in outbreaks involving household and hospital contacts. Effective antivirals are urgently needed.
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Active Replication of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication and Aberrant Induction of Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Human Macrophages: Implications for Pathogenesis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection caused severe pneumonia and multiorgan dysfunction and had a higher crude fatality rate (around 50% vs 10%) than SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. To understand the pathogenesis, we studied viral replication, cytokine/chemokine response, and antigen presentation in MERS-CoV-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) versus SARS-CoV-infected MDMs. Only MERS-CoV can replicate in MDMs. Both viruses were unable to significantly stimulate the expression of antiviral cytokines (interferon ? [IFN-?] and IFN-?) but induced comparable levels of tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6. Notably, MERS-CoV induced significantly higher expression levels of interleukin 12, IFN-?, and chemokines (IP-10/CXCL-10, MCP-1/CCL-2, MIP-1?/CCL-3, RANTES/CCL-5, and interleukin 8) than SARS-CoV. The expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and costimulatory molecules were significantly higher in MERS-CoV-infected MDMs than in SARS-CoV-infected cells. MERS-CoV replication was validated by immunostaining of infected MDMs and ex vivo lung tissue. We conclusively showed that MERS-CoV can establish a productive infection in human macrophages. The aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines could be important in the disease pathogenesis.
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A unique and conserved neutralization epitope in H5N1 influenza viruses identified by an antibody against the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 hemagglutinin.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Despite substantial efforts to control and contain H5N1 influenza viruses, bird flu viruses continue to spread and evolve. Neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes on the viral hemagglutinin (HA) could confer immunity to the diverse H5N1 virus strains and provide information for effective vaccine design. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody, H5M9, to most H5N1 clades and subclades that was elicited by immunization with viral HA of A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1), the immediate precursor of the current dominant strains of H5N1 viruses. The crystal structures of the Fab fragment of H5M9 in complexes with H5 HAs of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 reveal a conserved epitope in the HA1 vestigial esterase subdomain that is some distance from the receptor binding site and partially overlaps antigenic site C of H3 HA. Further epitope characterization by selection of escape mutants and epitope mapping by flow cytometry analysis of site-directed mutagenesis of HA with a yeast cell surface display identified four residues that are critical for H5M9 binding. D53, Y274, E83a, and N276 are all conserved in H5N1 HAs and are not in H5 epitopes identified by other mouse or human antibodies. Antibody H5M9 is effective in protection of H5N1 virus both prophylactically and therapeutically and appears to neutralize by blocking both virus receptor binding and postattachment steps. Thus, the H5M9 epitope identified here should provide valuable insights into H5N1 vaccine design and improvement, as well as antibody-based therapies for treatment of H5N1 infection.
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Antipsychotic Discontinuation in Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Published Randomized Controlled Studies.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Background: There is a lack of clarity in the literature on the impact of antipsychotic discontinuation in dementia. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled studies comparing the effects of antipsychotic discontinuation versus continuation in dementia. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched. Severity change of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) was the primary outcome. Results: Ten studies were included in the systematic review and 9 studies in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the antipsychotic discontinuation group had no statistically significant difference in BPSD severity change compared to the continuation group (n = 214, standardized mean difference: 0.19, 95% CI: -0.20 to 0.58). Secondary outcome analyses revealed that the discontinuation group included a statistically significantly higher proportion of subjects whose BPSD severity worsened (n = 366, risk ratio: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.31-2.41). Although not statistically significant, the discontinuation group appeared to have higher early study termination rates and a lower mortality during follow-up. Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that antipsychotic discontinuation resulted in no statistically significant difference in BPSD severity change, early study terminations and mortality. However, a statistically significantly higher proportion of subjects with BPSD worsened in this group compared to the continuation group. Further studies are needed to explore the effects of antipsychotic discontinuation on BPSD. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Reevesioside F induces potent and efficient anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities through Na?/K?-ATPase ?3 subunit-involved mitochondrial stress and amplification of caspase cascades.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Reevesioside F, isolated from Reevesia formosana, induced anti-proliferative activity that was highly correlated with the expression of Na?/K?-ATPase ?? subunit in several cell lines, including human leukemia HL-60 and Jurkat cells, and some other cell lines. Knockdown of ?? subunit significantly inhibited cell apoptosis suggesting a crucial role of the ?? subunit. Reevesioside F induced a rapid down-regulation of survivin protein, followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Further examination demonstrated the mitochondrial damage in leukemic cells through Mcl-1 down-regulation, Noxa up-regulation and an increase of the formation of truncated Bid, tBim and a 23-kDa cleaved Bcl-2 fragment. Furthermore, reevesioside F induced an increase of mitochondria-associated acetyl ?-tubulin that may also contribute to apoptosis. The caspase cascade was profoundly activated by reevesioside F. Notably, the specific caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk significantly blunted reevesioside F-induced loss of ??m and apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-3 activation may further amplify mitochondrial damage and apoptotic signaling cascade. In spite of being a cardiac glycoside, reevesioside F did not increase the intracellular Ca²? levels. Moreover, CGP-37157 which blocked Na?/Ca²? exchanger on plasma membrane and mitochondria did not modify reevesioside F-mediated effect. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside F induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of survivin and Mcl-1, and the formation of pro-apoptotic fragments from Bcl-2 family members. The loss of ??m and mitochondrial damage are responsible for the activation of caspases. Moreover, the amplification of caspase-3-mediated signaling pathway contributes largely to the execution of apoptosis in leukemic cells.
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Identification and characterization of a novel paramyxovirus, porcine parainfluenza virus 1, from deceased pigs.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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We describe the discovery and characterization of a novel paramyxovirus, porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1), from swine. The virus was detected in 12 (3.1?%) of 386 nasopharyngeal and two (0.7?%) of 303 rectal swab samples from 386 deceased pigs by reverse transcription-PCR, with viral loads of up to 10(6) copies ml(-1). Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that PPIV-1 represented a novel paramyxovirus within the genus Respirovirus, being most closely related to human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1) and Sendai virus (SeV). In contrast to HPIV-1, PPIV-1 possessed a mRNA editing function in the phosphoprotein gene. Moreover, PPIV-1 was unique among respiroviruses in having two G residues instead of three to five G residues following the A6 run at the editing site. Nevertheless, PPIV-1, HPIV-1 and SeV share common genomic features and may belong to a separate group within the genus Respirovirus. The presence of PPIV-1 in mainly respiratory samples suggests a possible association with respiratory disease, similar to HPIV-1 and SeV.
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Estimation of the association between antibody titers and protection against confirmed influenza virus infection in children.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Antibody titers measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) correlate with protection against influenza virus infection and are used to specify criteria for vaccine licensure. In a randomized, controlled trial of seasonal influenza vaccination in 773 children aged 6-17 years, we estimated that HAI titers of 1:40 against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B(Victoria lineage) were associated with 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-62%) and 55% (95% CI, 32%-70%) protection against PCR-confirmed infection with each strain. Our analysis accounted for waning in antibody titers over time, and could be particularly useful in settings where influenza activity is delayed or prolonged relative to measurement of antibody titers.
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Polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of cannulated pedicle screws for fixation in osteoporotic spines and comparison of its clinical results and biomechanical characteristics with the needle injection method.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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This is a retrospective study carried out to evaluate the clinical results of patients with osteoporosis and various spinal diseases treated surgically with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-augmented cannulated pedicle screws, and to compare this method with the needle injection technique in terms of the clinical results and fixation strength.
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Recombinant coxsackievirus A2 and deaths of children, Hong Kong, 2012.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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A natural recombinant of coxsackievirus A2 was found in 4 children with respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong, China, during the summer of 2012. Two of these children died. Vigilant monitoring of this emerging recombinant enterovirus is needed to prevent its transmission to other regions.
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Factors for hepatitis B vaccination and abnormal liver function in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a single center experience.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic and past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to determine the risk factors associated with having received no vaccination for HBV and abnormal liver function among our patients.
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Computational dosimetry for grounded and ungrounded human models due to contact current.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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This study presents the computational dosimetry of contact currents for grounded and ungrounded human models. The uncertainty of the quasi-static (QS) approximation of the in situ electric field induced in a grounded/ungrounded human body due to the contact current is first estimated. Different scenarios of cylindrical and anatomical human body models are considered, and the results are compared with the full-wave analysis. In the QS analysis, the induced field in the grounded cylindrical model is calculated by the QS finite-difference time-domain (QS-FDTD) method, and compared with the analytical solution. Because no analytical solution is available for the grounded/ungrounded anatomical human body model, the results of the QS-FDTD method are then compared with those of the conventional FDTD method. The upper frequency limit for the QS approximation in the contact current dosimetry is found to be 3 MHz, with a relative local error of less than 10%. The error increases above this frequency, which can be attributed to the neglect of the displacement current. The QS or conventional FDTD method is used for the dosimetry of induced electric field and/or specific absorption rate (SAR) for a contact current injected into the index finger of a human body model in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 MHz. The in situ electric fields or SAR are compared with the basic restrictions in the international guidelines/standards. The maximum electric field or the 99th percentile value of the electric fields appear not only in the fat and muscle tissues of the finger, but also around the wrist, forearm, and the upper arm. Some discrepancies are observed between the basic restrictions for the electric field and SAR and the reference levels for the contact current, especially in the extremities. These discrepancies are shown by an equation that relates the current density, tissue conductivity, and induced electric field in the finger with a cross-sectional area of 1 cm(2).
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Comparison of pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and melting curve analysis for detection of low-frequency macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae quasispecies in respiratory specimens.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) is emerging worldwide and has been associated with treatment failure. In this study, we used pyrosequencing to detect low-frequency MRMP quasispecies in respiratory specimens, and we compared the findings with those obtained by Sanger sequencing and SimpleProbe PCR coupled with a melting curve analysis (SimpleProbe PCR). Sanger sequencing, SimpleProbe PCR, and pyrosequencing were successfully performed for 96.7% (88/91), 96.7% (88/91), and 93.4% (85/91) of the M. pneumoniae-positive specimens, respectively. The A-to-G transition at position 2063 was the only mutation identified. Pyrosequencing identified A2063G MRMP quasispecies populations in 78.8% (67/88) of the specimens. Only 38.8% (26/67) of these specimens with the A2063G quasispecies detected by pyrosequencing were found to be A2063G quasispecies by Sanger sequencing or SimpleProbe PCR. The specimens that could be detected by SimpleProbe PCR and Sanger sequencing had higher frequencies of MRMP quasispecies (51% to 100%) than those that could not be detected by those two methods (1% to 44%). SimpleProbe PCR correctly categorized all specimens that were identified as wild type or mutant by Sanger sequencing. The clinical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different when they were grouped by the presence or absence of MRMP quasispecies, while patients with MRMP identified by Sanger sequencing more often required a switch from macrolides to an alternative M. pneumoniae-targeted therapy. The clinical significance of mutant quasispecies should be investigated further with larger patient populations and with specimens obtained before and after macrolide therapy.
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Genetic characterization of Betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel Middle East respiratory sy
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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While the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is closely related to Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5 (Pi-BatCoV HKU5) in bats from Hong Kong, and other potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in bats from Africa, Europe, and America, its animal origin remains obscure. To better understand the role of bats in its origin, we examined the molecular epidemiology and evolution of lineage C betacoronaviruses among bats. Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5 were detected in 29% and 25% of alimentary samples from lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and Japanese pipistrelle (Pipistrellus abramus), respectively. Sequencing of their RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes revealed that MERS-CoV is more closely related to Pi-BatCoV HKU5 in RdRp (92.1% to 92.3% amino acid [aa] identity) but is more closely related to Ty-BatCoV HKU4 in S (66.8% to 67.4% aa identity) and N (71.9% to 72.3% aa identity). Although both viruses were under purifying selection, the S of Pi-BatCoV HKU5 displayed marked sequence polymorphisms and more positively selected sites than that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4, suggesting that Pi-BatCoV HKU5 may generate variants to occupy new ecological niches along with its host in diverse habitats. Molecular clock analysis showed that they diverged from a common ancestor with MERS-CoV at least several centuries ago. Although MERS-CoV may have diverged from potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in European bats more recently, these bat viruses were unlikely to be the direct ancestor of MERS-CoV. Intensive surveillance for lineage C betaCoVs in Pipistrellus and related bats with diverse habitats and other animals in the Middle East may fill the evolutionary gap.
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Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of a glycosyl library of [Formula: see text]-acetylglucosamine-bearing oleanolic acid.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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N-Acetylglucosamine-bearing triterpenoid saponins (GNTS) were reported to be a unique type of saponins with potent anti-tumor activity. In order to study the structure-activity relationship of GNTS, 24 oleanolic acid saponins with ([Formula: see text])-linked, ([Formula: see text])-linked, ([Formula: see text])-linked [Formula: see text]-acetylglucosamine oligosaccharide residues were synthesized in a combinatorial and concise method. The cytotoxicity of these compounds toward the leukemia cell line HL-60 and the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 could not be improved. Half maximal inhibition below [Formula: see text] was achieved in one single case. The study revealed that the activity decreased following the order of [Formula: see text] glycosyl modifications. GNTS that incorporated (D/L)-xylose and L-arabinose at positions [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were more potent than those bearing other sugars.
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Human infections with the emerging avian influenza A H7N9 virus from wet market poultry: clinical analysis and characterisation of viral genome.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus emerged in eastern China in February, 2013, and has been associated with exposure to poultry. We report the clinical and microbiological features of patients infected with influenza A H7N9 virus and compare genomic features of the human virus with those of the virus in market poultry in Zhejiang, China.
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Risk factors for falling in psychiatric inpatients: a prospective, matched case-control study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Falling is one the most common types of inpatient adverse events. Most fall-related research was conducted retrospectively and focused on elderly population in general hospital settings. This study aimed to timely identify all potential risk factors associated with falls and fall-related injury in a psychiatric inpatient setting. We recruited 145 fall events and 145 sex- and room-matched psychiatric control inpatients without fall in a 1002-bed psychiatric teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. In addition to medical records, the study variables included patient characteristics, circumstances and medications, which were collected from the patients and/or their families within 24 h of receiving reports right after obtaining written informed consent. A psychiatrist and three head nurses conducted a comprehensive assessment of risk factors immediately after falls occurred. A conditional logistic regression model revealed four variables significantly associated with an increased risk of falling: the clinical global impression-severity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.19; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.13-4.24), the parkinsonism scores of the extrapyramidal syndrome rating scale (aOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08-1.21), equivalent dosage of benzodiazepines use (aOR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.03-1.30), and medication changes within 24 h (aOR = 10.3; 95% CI = 1.37-76.8). Acute settings (aORs = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.01-4.18), a fall history in the past six months and a lack of history of medical problems (aORs = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.46-6.33) were associated with fall-related injury (aOR = 2.70; 95% CI = 1.29-5.69). Our study identified the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, medications usage and other several specific measures for prevention of falls in psychiatric inpatient settings.
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The role of nonsense-mediated decay in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), commonly referred to as Batten disease, is a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative diseases of childhood characterized by seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Currently, there are over 400 known mutations in 14 different genes, leading to five overlapping clinical variants of NCL. A large portion of these mutations lead to premature stop codons (PTCs) and are predicted to predispose mRNA transcripts to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Nonsense-mediated decay is associated with a number of other genetic diseases and is an important regulator of disease pathogenesis. We contend that NMD targets PTCs in NCL gene transcripts for degradation. A number of PTC mutations in CLN1, CLN2 and CLN3 lead to a significant decrease in mRNA transcripts and a corresponding decrease in protein levels and function in patient-derived lymphoblast cell lines. Inhibiting NMD leads to an increased transcript level, and where protein function is known, increased activity. Treatment with read-through drugs also leads to increased protein function. Thus, NMD provides a promising therapeutic target that would allow read-through of transcripts to enhance protein function and possibly ameliorate Batten disease pathogenesis.
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Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012: implications for disease pathogenesis and clinical manifestation.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) was recently isolated from patients with severe pneumonia and renal failure and was associated with an unexplained high crude fatality rate of 56%. We performed a cell line susceptibility study with 28 cell lines. HCoV-EMC was found to infect the human respiratory tract (polarized airway epithelium cell line Calu-3, embryonic fibroblast cell line HFL, and lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549), kidney (embryonic kidney cell line HEK), intestinal tract (colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2), liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7), and histiocytes (malignant histiocytoma cell line His-1), as evident by detection of high or increasing viral load in culture supernatants, detection of viral nucleoprotein expression by immunostaining, and/or detection of cytopathic effects. Although an infected human neuronal cell line (NT2) and infected monocyte and T lymphocyte cell lines (THP-1, U937, and H9) had increased viral loads, their relatively lower viral production corroborated with absent nucleoprotein expression and cytopathic effects. This range of human tissue tropism is broader than that for all other HCoVs, including SARS coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63, which may explain the high mortality associated with this disease. A recent cell line susceptibility study showed that HCoV-EMC can infect primate, porcine, and bat cells and therefore may jump interspecies barriers. We found that HCoV-EMC can also infect civet lung fibroblast and rabbit kidney cell lines. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and transmission of HCoV-EMC.
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Assembling tin dioxide quantum dots to graphene nanosheets by a facile ultrasonic route.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Nanocomposites have significant potential in the development of advanced materials for numerous applications. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is a functional material with wide-ranging prospects because of its high electronic mobility and wide band gap. Graphene as the basic plane of graphite is a single atomic layer two-dimensional sp(2) hybridized carbon material. Both have excellent physical and chemical properties. Here, SnO2 quantum dots/graphene composites have been successfully fabricated by a facile ultrasonic method. The experimental investigations indicated that the graphene was exfoliated and decorated with SnO2 quantum dots, which was dispersed uniformly on both sides of the graphene. The size distribution of SnO2 quantum dots was estimated to be ranging from 4 to 6 nm and their average size was calculated to be about 4.8 ± 0.2 nm. This facile ultrasonic route demonstrated that the loading of SnO2 quantum dots was an effective way to prevent graphene nanosheets from being restacked during the reduction. During the calcination process, the graphene nanosheets distributed between SnO2 nanoparticles have also prevented the agglomeration of SnO2 nanoparticles, which were beneficial to the formation of SnO2 quantum dots.
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Hyperimmune IV immunoglobulin treatment: a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial for patients with severe 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Experience from influenza pandemics suggested that convalescent plasma treatment given within 4 to 5 days of symptom onset might be beneficial. However, robust treatment data are lacking.
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Linear echoendoscope-guided ERCP for the diagnosis of occult common bile duct stones.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Less than 67% of patients with intermediate risk for common bile duct (CBD) stones require therapeutic intervention. It is important to have an accurate, safe, and reliable method for the definitive diagnosis of CBD stones before initiating therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Few publications detail the diagnostic efficacy of linear echoendoscopy (EUS) for CBD stones.
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Use of nasopharyngeal aspirate for diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Quantitative PCR on nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) can achieve high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) compared to microscopic examination of bronchoscopic specimens in a population with low HIV prevalence. Since NPA is a minimally invasive procedure, it is ideal as a screening test for PCP.
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Persistence of antidepressant treatment for depressive disorder in Taiwan.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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We sought to explore factors associated with persistence of antidepressant treatment in Taiwan and to compare persistence rates across various antidepressants.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.