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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
3-Caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea attenuates high glucose-induced hepatic lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the liver kinase B1 and silent information regulator T1/AMPK-dependent pathway.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Increasing evidence indicates that polyphenols may protect against metabolic disease through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The aims of our study were to provide new data on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of the phenolic compound, 3-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ) from Salicornia herbacea, in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells.
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Silver-stained fibrin zymography: separation of proteases and activity detection using a single substrate-containing gel.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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A new zymogram method, silver-stained fibrin zymography, for separation of protease bands and activity detection using a single substrate gel, was developed. The method takes advantage of the nanoscale sensitivity of both zymography and silver staining. After SDS-PAGE in a gel containing fibrin, the gel was incubated in enzyme reaction buffer and the zymogram was silver-stained. Bands with protease activity were stained with silver in clear areas where the protein substrate had been degraded. The molecular sizes of proteases were accurately determined. Furthermore, proteases of high molecular weight were clearly and sharply resolved.
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Hypouricemic Effects of Anthocyanin Extracts of Purple Sweet Potato on Potassium Oxonate-induced Hyperuricemia in Mice.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Gout is a clinical syndrome in which tissue damage is induced by a chronic metabolic disorder associated with increased concentrations of uric acid in the blood. The study investigated the hypouricemic effects of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato (APSP), and allopurinol, on serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice. It was found that administration of a single oral dose of 100?mg/kg APSP to such animals reduced the serum uric acid concentration to 4.10?±?0.04?mg/dL, compared with a concentration of 10.25?±?0.63?mg/dL in the hyperuricemic control group. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A new fibrinolytic enzyme (55?kDa) from Allium tuberosum: purification, characterization, and comparison.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Chives have been used both as food and as medicine. Previously, two fibrinolytic enzymes, ATFE-I (90 kDa) and ATFE-II (55 kDa), were identified in chives (Allium tuberosum), a perennial herb. In the present work, ATFE-II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. In addition, the enzyme properties of ATFE-I and ATFE-II were compared. The molecular mass and isoelectric point (pI value) of ATFE-II were 55 kDa and pI 4.0, respectively, as revealed using one- or two-dimensional fibrin zymography. ATFE-II was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 45°C. ATFE-II degraded the A?-chain of human fibrinogen but did not hydrolyze the B?-chain or the ?-chain, indicating that the enzyme is an ?-fibrinogenase. The proteolytic activity of ATFE-II was completely inhibited by 1 mM leupeptin, indicating that the enzyme belongs to the cysteine protease class. ATFE-II was also inhibited by 1 mM Fe²(+). ATFE-II exhibited high specificity for MeO-Suc-Arg-Pro-Tyr-p-nitroaniline (S-2586), a synthetic chromogenic substrate of chymotrypsin. Thus proteolytic enzymes from A. tuberosum may be useful as thrombolytic agents.
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Regioselective deglycosylation of onion quercetin glucosides by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Bioconversion of quercetin glucosides using four generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organisms (Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was evaluated by measuring changes in the levels of quercetin compounds of onion. Of the four organisms, S. cerevisiae increased the content of quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside (III; isoquercitrin) and quercetin (IV), whereas decreasing quercetin-3,4-O-?-D-glucoside (I) and quercetin-4-O-?-D-glucoside (II). Also, S. cerevisiae converted authentic compound I to III, and II to IV, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae can be used to increase the levels of isoquercitrin (III), the most bioavailable quercetin compound in onion.
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3-Caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating protein kinase C-delta-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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In this study, we determined the effects of a novel chlorogenic acid, 3-caffeoyl, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ) isolated from Salicornia herbacea, on tumor invasion and migration in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells and investigated the possible mechanism(s) involved. CDCQ reduced the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 and inhibited cell invasion and migration. CDCQ suppressed PMA-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein by suppressing the transcription factor AP-1, without changing the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. CDCQ-inhibited PMA-induced MMP-2 expression by suppressing membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), but did not alter the TIMP-2 level. CDCQ also inhibited the PMA-induced nuclear translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos, which are upstream of PMA-induced MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, CDCQ strongly repressed PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK, which are dependent on the PKCdelta pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the anti-invasive effects of CDCQ occur through the inhibition of AP-1 and signaling pathways involving PKCdelta and three MAPKs, leading to the downregulation of MMP-9 expression. Thus, CDCQ is an effective anti-metastatic agent that functions by downregulating MMP-9 gene expression.
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Inhibitory effect of 3-caffeoyl-4-dicaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea against phorbol ester-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2009
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Salicornia herbacea (S. herbacea), an annual herb that grows in the salt marshes of the Korean peninsula, has been used as a folk medicine to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. However, the effect of S. herbacea on inflammation is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel chlorogenic acid, 3-caffeoyl-4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ), isolated from S. herbacea, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces COX-2 expression and production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). PMA-induced COX-2 protein, gene expression and PGE(2) production were significantly inhibited by CDCQ in a dose-dependent manner. Transfection of hCOX-2, as well as of deletion and mutation promoter constructs, revealed that the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) predominantly contributed to the effects of CDCQ. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transfection results showed that CDCQ directly inhibited PMA-induced C/EBP and AP-1 transcription and binding activity. CDCQ also remarkably reduced PMA-induced C/EBPbeta and c-jun protein expression. Furthermore, CDCQ significantly inhibited PMA-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases), JNK and p38. These findings demonstrate that CDCQ effectively attenuates COX-2 production, and enhance our understanding of the anti-inflammatory properties of CDCQ.
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Protective mechanisms of 3-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoyl quinic acid from Salicornia herbacea against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Salicornia herbacea has been used as a folk medicine for disorders such as constipation, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Recent studies have shown that S. herbacea has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antihyperglycemic, and antihyperlipidemic activities. In the present work, we investigated the protective effects of the chlorogenic acid derivative, 3-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoyl quinic acid (CDCQ), which was isolated from S. herbacea, against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with CDCQ significantly reduced t-BHP-induced generation of ROS, caspase-3 activation, and subsequent cell death. Also, CDCQ up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, CDCQ-induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is upstream of CDCQ-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K/Akt activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of CDCQ against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity may be due, at least in part, to its ability to scavenge ROS and to regulate the antioxidant enzyme HO-1 via the PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathways.
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