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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluating the Top Electrode Material for Achieving an Equivalent Oxide Thickness Smaller than 0.4 nm from an Al-doped TiO2 Film.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The effects of Pt and RuO2 top electrodes on the electrical properties of capacitors with Al-doped TiO2 (ATO) films grown on the RuO2 bottom electrode by an atomic layer deposition method were examined. The rutile phase ATO films with high bulk dielectric constant (> 80) were well grown due to the local epitaxial relationship with the rutile structured RuO2 bottom electrode. However, the interface between top electrode and ATO was damaged during the sputtering process of the top electrode, resulting in the decrease in the dielectric constant. Post-metallization annealing at 400 oC was performed to mitigate the sputtering damage. During the post-metallization annealing, the ATO layer near the RuO2 top electrode/ATO interface was well-crystallized because of the structural compatibility between RuO2 and rutile ATO, while the ATO layer near the Pt top electrode/ATO interface still exhibited an amorphous-like structure. Despite the same thickness of the ATO films, therefore, the capacitors with RuO2 top electrodes showed higher capacitance compared to the capacitors with Pt top electrodes. Eventually, an extremely low equivalent oxide thickness of 0.37 nm with low enough leakage current density (<10-7 A/cm2 at 0.8 V) and physical thickness of 8.7 nm for the next-generation dynamic random access memory was achieved from ATO films with RuO2 top electrodes.
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Antidepressant-emergent mood switch in korean adolescents with mood disorder.
Clin Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The objectives of this study were to compare clinical characteristics of children and adolescents who experienced antidepressant-emergent mood switch (AEMS) and those who did not, and to investigate the predictors of AEMS in a clinical sample of Korean children and adolescents.
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Effect of methylphenidate on height and weight in korean children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a retrospective chart review.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on growth in Korean children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
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Selection and Characterization of Cheonggukjang (Fast Fermented Soybean Paste)-Originated Bacterial Strains with a High Level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine Production and Probiotics Efficacy.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Abstract This study was executed to develop probiotics producing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction in animal cells. SAMe is an essential substance in the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. SAMe is also known as a nutritional supplement for improving human brain function. In this study, SAMe-producing strains were identified in six kinds of Cheonggukjang, and strains with excellent SAMe production were identified, with one strain in the Enterococcus genus and six strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAMe production included lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacillus genus. The SAMe-overproducing strains showed antibacterial activity against some harmful microbes, in addition to weak acid resistance and strong bile resistance, indicating characteristics of probiotics. Cheonggukjang-originated beneficial bacterial strains overproducing SAMe may be commercially useful for manufacturing SAMe-rich foods.
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Changes and recovery of voice quality after sinonasal surgery.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Changes in the configuration of sinonasal cavity after surgery have been assumed to cause changes in the voice quality. The purpose of this study was to know when the hypernasality will be recovered after sinonsal surgery in patients with nasal septal deviation or chronic rhinosinusitis by checking long-term and serially obtained nasalance scores using nasometer. Sixty-five patients underwent sinonasal surgery were included. We classified the subjects into three groups according to the different surgical interventions employed: septoplasty group, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) group, and ESS with septoplasty group. The nasalance scores were obtained using a nasometer preoperatively, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after surgery. The mean nasalance scores for vowels, nasal consonant, plosive consonant-vowel combinations, nasal consonant-vowel combinations, a hypernasality sentence, and hyponasality sentence increased significantly after sinonasal surgery. Hypernasality was most prominent in all groups for all acoustic parameters 1 month after surgery. Thereafter nasality decreased and returned to its preoperative level in all groups at 5 months in the [m], [ma], [mi], and hypernasality sentence, but at 6 months in the [a], [i], [u], [p(h)a], [p(h)i], and hyponasality sentence. Sinonasal surgery can change the acoustic characteristics of the vocal tract and produce a significant increase in nasality. After nasality showed the highest scores at 1-month post-surgery, it returned to its preoperative level at 5 or 6 months after surgery depending on the subtype of speech stimuli.
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Multicentric epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).
Vet Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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A 2-year-old female African hedgehog was presented with a 5-month history of pruritus, and diffuse spine and hair loss. A dermatologic examination revealed erythema, excoriation, scales, and crusting affecting the face, flanks, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and dorsal and ventral abdomen. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and skin biopsies were taken from several lesions for cytologic and histologic evaluation. The aspirates yielded smears characterized by a monomorphic population of medium-sized to large lymphocytes with scant to moderate amounts of clear to moderately basophilic cytoplasm and distinct nucleoli along with a low number of cytoplasmic fragments. On histopathologic examination, there were dense dermal lymphoid infiltrates invading the dermis and a monomorphic population of round cells that had infiltrated the overlying epidermis. Epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed based on morphologic features. Additional immunochemical analysis using anti-CD3 and anti-CD79a antibodies revealed strong CD3 expression by the tumor cells, which confirmed epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This is the first description of a multicentric pattern of epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog.
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Incidence and Survival of Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Comparison between Adults and Children.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Pediatric-type sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma (EWS), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT) are rare in adults, with limited studies on their prognosis and optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to examine the outcome of children and adult patients with RMS, EWS, PNET, and DSRCT and relevant prognostic factors.
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A laparoscopic gastrectomy approach decreases the incidence and severity of emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia.
J Anesth
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Compared to open gastrectomy (OG), laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has improved short-term outcomes and equivalent oncological outcomes. In this study, a potential short-term advantage of LG over OG, reduced risk of emergence agitation, was evaluated.
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Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components.
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Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
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Association of VARS2-SFTA2 Polymorphisms with the Risk of Chronic Hepatitis B in a Korean Population.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most serious risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified important variants associated with the risk of CHB in Asian populations. Specifically, our previous GWAS identified the VARS2-SFTA2 gene region as one of the genetic risk loci for CHB.
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Prioritization of the introduction of new vaccines to the national immunization program in the Republic of Korea.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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This study was performed to determine the priority of vaccine introduction for five vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcus (Spn), hepatitis A virus (HepA), rotavirus (RV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) to the future Korean National Immunization Program (NIP) and to suggest framework programs to assist decision makers on implementation of the NIP.
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Association analysis of melanocortin 3 receptor polymorphisms with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Melanocortin 3 Receptor (MC3R) is one of the families of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, and a recent study showed that MCR3 promoter polymorphism was significantly associated with the susceptibility of tuberculosis (TB) in South African population.
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Comprehensive variant screening of the UGT gene family.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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UGT1A1, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15 are well-known pharmacogenes that belong to the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase gene family. For personalized drug treatment, it is important to study differences in the frequency of core markers across various ethnic groups. Accordingly, we screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these three genes and analyzed differences in their frequency among five ethnic groups, as well as attempted to predict the function of novel SNPs.
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Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Significance of HER2 Expression in Gastric Cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Background: HER2 positivity is reported to be <20% in gastric cancer. Clinicopathological characteristics will be helpful to understand the biological features of HER2-positive gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 813 gastric cancer patients who underwent HER2 testing between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this study. Results: Ninety-five (11.7%) patients had HER2-positive gastric cancer. Elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration [odds ratio (OR), 5.629; p < 0.001] and differentiated histology (OR, 3.717; p = 0.002) were significant predictive factors for HER2 positivity in localized disease. For recurrent or metastatic disease, elevated serum CEA concentration (OR, 2.545; p < 0.001), differentiated histology (OR, 3.299; p < 0.001), pulmonary metastasis (OR, 3.321; p = 0.001), and distant lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.286; p = 0.002) were significant predictive factors. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was shorter in HER2-positive patients than in others, especially in stage I or II disease (24.7 vs. 49.2 months; p < 0.001). Among HER2-negative patients with stage II diseases, patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had longer DFS than others (42.2 vs. 30.7 months; p = 0.025). Conclusions: Clinicopathological factors may be useful in predicting the HER2 positivity of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of HER2-positive gastric cancer. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Vascular soft-tissue sarcomas: a prognostic model from a retrospective single-center study.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Vascular soft-tissue sarcomas are a rare form of sarcoma. Malignant subtypes exhibit a variety of biological behaviors. We describe the clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival outcomes of malignant vascular soft-tissue sarcomas.
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PTEN Deficiency as a Predictive Biomarker of Resistance to HER2-Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Background: To investigate the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy. Methods: We evaluated the predictive roles of PI3K, catalytic alpha (PIK3CA), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in HER2-based therapy (either trastuzumab or lapatinib). PTEN expression and PIK3CA mutation were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing. Results: Forty-eight patients received trastuzumab (n = 39) or lapatinib (n = 9) combination chemotherapy. PTEN loss was found in 47.9% (n = 23), but no PIK3CA mutations were identified. Twenty-six (54.1%) patients responded to HER2-based therapy, without a significant difference between patients with PTEN loss and those without (52.2 vs. 56.0%). Among the patients with responsive disease, time to best response did not differ by PTEN status, but the duration of response was significantly shorter for patients with PTEN loss (median 4.2 vs. 6.1 months, p = 0.04). In addition, patients with PTEN loss had a significantly shorter progression-free survival time (median 4.9 vs. 7.3 months, p = 0.047). Conclusions: PTEN deficiency is an important predictive marker for early resistance to HER2 inhibitor treatment in gastric cancer patients. This finding may be useful for the development of drug combinations and identification of patients who need a modified treatment strategy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Lamotrigine treatment of adolescents with unipolar and bipolar depression: a retrospective chart review.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary effectiveness and safety of lamotrigine for the treatment of depressive episodes in adolescents.
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Synthesis of highly elastic biocompatible polyurethanes based on bio-based isosorbide and poly(tetramethylene glycol) and their properties.
J Biomater Appl
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Bio-based high elastic polyurethanes were prepared from hexamethylene diisocyanate and various ratios of isosorbide to poly(tetramethylene glycol) as a diol by a simple one-shot bulk polymerization without a catalyst. Successful synthesis of the polyurethanes was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Thermal properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The glass transition temperature was -47.8?. The test results showed that the poly(tetramethylene glycol)/isosorbide-based elastomer exhibited not only excellent stress-strain properties but also superior resilience to the existing polyether-based polyurethane elastomers. The static and dynamic properties of the polyether/isosorbide-based thermoplastic elastomer were more suitable for dynamic applications. Moreover, such rigid diols impart biocompatible and bioactive properties to thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers. Degradation tests performed at 37? in phosphate buffer solution showed a mass loss of 4-9% after 8 weeks, except for the polyurethane with the lowest isosorbide content, which showed an initial rapid weight loss. These polyurethanes offer significant promise due to soft, flexible and biocompatible properties for soft tissue augmentation and regeneration.
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Association between HTR7 genetic polymorphisms and alcohol dependence, using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT).
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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A recent genome-wide association study has identified 5-hydroxytrytamine (serotonin) receptor 7, adenylate cyclase-coupled (HTR7) as a risk gene for alcohol dependence. In addition, the serotonergic system has been considered as a modulator that plays an important role in alcohol use disorders. Functional, pharmacological, and genetic studies of serotonin neurotransmission have revealed that serotonin receptors are potential targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate whether associations between HTR7 genetic polymorphisms and alcohol dependence could be replicated.
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Clinical features and treatment of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney from the korean cancer study group genitourinary and gynecology cancer committee.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of the kidney is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, accountings for less than 1% of all renal cancers. To date, no standard therapy for CDC has been established. The aim of this study is an investigation of clinicopathologic findings of CDC and correlation of the disease status with a prognosis.
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Public Acceptance and Willingness to Hepatitis A Vaccination in Children Aged 7-18 Years in Republic of Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Hepatitis A can cause serious illness among adolescents and adults with low vaccination coverage. Even though hepatitis A vaccine is one of the strong candidates for Korean national immunization program, adolescents aged older than 12 yr would not benefit. Our purpose was to assess the willingness and analyze the correlates of Korean mothers for hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination to develop strategies for HepA vaccination. A national telephone survey on 800 mothers with children aged 7-18 yr was conducted with random-digit dialing method. Sixty-two percent and 92% of the mothers reported that they were willing to HepA vaccination at current cost and at half of the current cost, respectively. However, at current cost, only 79% wished to vaccinate their child in an epidemic and 32% wished to vaccinate promptly. Having two or more children, not having future plans to send the child overseas, and low family income were significantly associated with not willing to HepA vaccination. Low perception of the susceptibility for hepatitis A and perception of the current cost as barrier increased the odds of unwillingness to vaccination at current cost and to prompt vaccination. The mothers' willingness to HepA vaccination for the children aged 7-18 yr in Korea was not very high at current cost and associated socioeconomic status and health-belief. Targeted intervention or strategies are needed to increase the HepA vaccination rate among children in Korea.
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Proper Timing of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Affects Survival in Patients with Stage 2 and 3 Gastric Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with gastric cancer. However, the relationship between the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival has not been investigated.
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Varicella and varicella vaccination in South Korea.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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With continuing occurrence of varicella despite increasing vaccine coverage for the past 20 years, a case-based study, a case-control study, and an immunogenicity and safety study were conducted to address the impact of varicella vaccination in South Korea. Varicella patients under the age of 16 years were enrolled for the case-based study. For the case-control study, varicella patients between 12 months and 15 years of age were enrolled with one control matched for each patient. For the immunogenicity and safety study, otherwise healthy children from 12 to 24 months old were immunized with Suduvax (Green Cross, South Korea). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody was measured before and 6 weeks after immunization. In the case-based study, the median age of the patients was 4 years. Among 152 patients between 1 and 15 years of age, 139 children received varicella vaccine and all had breakthrough infections. Clinical courses were not ameliorated in vaccinated patients, but more vaccinated patients received outpatient rather than inpatient care. In the case-control study, the adjusted overall effectiveness of varicella vaccination was 54%. In the immunogenicity and safety study, the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for FAMA antibody were 76.67% and 5.31. Even with increasing varicella vaccine uptake, we illustrate no upward age shift in the peak incidence, a high proportion of breakthrough disease, almost no amelioration in disease presentation by vaccination, and insufficient immunogenicity of domestic varicella vaccine. There is need to improve the varicella vaccine used in South Korea.
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Drug resistance via feedback activation of Stat3 in oncogene-addicted cancer cells.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Pathway-targeted cancer drugs can produce dramatic responses that are invariably limited by the emergence of drug-resistant cells. We found that many drug-treated "oncogene-addicted" cancer cells engage a positive feedback loop leading to Stat3 activation, consequently promoting cell survival and limiting overall drug response. This was observed in cancer cells driven by diverse activated kinases, including EGFR, HER2, ALK, and MET, as well as mutant KRAS. Specifically, MEK inhibition led to autocrine activation of Stat3 via the FGF receptor and JAK kinases, and pharmacological inhibition of MEK together with JAK and FGFR enhanced tumor regression. These findings suggest that inhibition of a Stat3 feedback loop may augment the response to a broad spectrum of drugs that target pathways of oncogene addiction.
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Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.
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Disease burden of pneumonia in Korean adults aged over 50 years stratified by age and underlying diseases.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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This study was conducted to assess the disease burden of pneumonia according to age and presence of underlying diseases in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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Randomized controlled trial of sodium phosphate tablets vs polyethylene glycol solution for colonoscopy bowel cleansing.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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To compare efficacy, patient compliance, acceptability, satisfaction, safety, and adenoma detection rate of sodium phosphate tablets (NaP, CLICOLON(TM)) to a standard 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel cleansing for adults undergoing colonoscopy.
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Diagnostic validity and reliability of a Korean version of the Parent and Adolescent General Behavior Inventories.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Korean version of the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10-item Mania Scale (P-GBI-10M) and the Adolescent General Behavior Inventory (A-GBI) for bipolar and depressive disorder in youths.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention impairment in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbidity in children with epilepsy and has a negative impact on behavior and learning. The purposes of this study were to quantify the prevalence of ADHD in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) and to identify clinical factors that affect ADHD or attention impairment in patients with BCECTS. The medical records of 74 children (44 males) with neuropsychological examination from a total of 198 children diagnosed with BCECTS at Asan Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Electroclinical factors were compared across patients with ADHD and those without ADHD. Mean T-scores of the continuous performance test were compared across patients grouped according to various epilepsy characteristics. Forty-eight (64.9%) patients had ADHD. A history of febrile convulsion was more common in patients with ADHD than in patients without ADHD (p=0.049). Bilateral centrotemporal spikes on electroencephalogram were more common in patients receiving ADHD medication than in patients with untreated ADHD (p=0.004). Male patients, patients with frequent seizures prior to diagnosis, and patients with a high spike index (?40/min) on sleep EEG at diagnosis had significantly lower visual selective attention (p<0.05). Children with BCECTS had a high prevalence of ADHD, and frequent seizures or interictal epileptiform abnormalities were closely related to impairment of visual selective attention in children with BCECTS, indicating the need for ADHD or attention impairment screening in children with BCECTS.
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Direct sequencing and comprehensive screening of genetic polymorphisms on CYP2 family genes (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1) in five ethnic populations.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Recently, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1 have been reported to play a role in the metabolic effect of pharmacological and carcinogenic compounds. Moreover, genetic variations of drug metabolism genes have been implicated in the interindividual variation in drug disposition and pharmacological response. To define the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these four CYP2 family genes and to discover novel SNPs across ethnic groups, 288 DNAs composed of 48 African-Americans, 48 European-Americans, 48 Japanese, 48 Han Chinese, and 96 Koreans were resequenced. A total of 143 SNPs, 26 in CYP2A6, 45 in CYP2B6, 29 in CYP2C8, and 43 in CYP2E1, were identified, including 13 novel variants. Notably, two SNPs in the regulatory regions, a promoter SNP rs2054675 and a nonsynonymous rs3745274 (p.172Q>H) in CYP2B6, showed significantly different minor allele frequencies (MAFs) among ethnic groups (minimum P = 4.30 × 10(-12)). In addition, rs2031920 in the promoter region of CYP2E1 showed a wide range of MAF between different ethnic groups, and even among other various ethnic groups based on public reports. Among 13 newly discovered SNPs in this study, 5 SNPs were estimated to have potential functions in further in silico analyses. Some differences in genetic variations and haplotypes of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1 were observed among populations. Our findings could be useful in further researches, such as genetic associations with drug responses.
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Elevation of PRKCDBP, A Novel Transcriptional Target of TNF-?, and Its Downregulation by Infliximab in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Protein kinase C delta binding protein (PRKCDBP/Cavin3/hSRBC) is a putative tumor suppressor that is downregulated in many human cancers. Recently, PRKCDBP was identified to be activated by nuclear factor-?B in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?.
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Sodium Picosulfate with Magnesium Citrate (SPMC) Plus Laxative Is a Good Alternative to Conventional Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol in Bowel Preparation: A Multicenter Randomized Single-Blinded Trial.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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We investigated whether sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC) plus bisacodyl compares favorably with conventional polyethylene glycol (PEG) with respect to bowel cleansing adequacy, compliance, and safety.
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Genome-wide association study identifies ALLC polymorphisms correlated with FEV? change by corticosteroid.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Asthma can be suppressed by inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, response to ICS shows marked inter-individual variability. This study is aimed to identify the genetic variants associated with the change in the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1second (%?FEV1) following ICS treatment.
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Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome with diabetes insipidus.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome is a rare complication that typically occurs in young patients due to a cumulative dose of ifosfamide > 40-60 g/m(2), a reduction in kidney mass, or concurrent cisplatin treatment. It is usually characterized by severe and fatal progression accompanied by type II proximal renal tubular dysfunction, as evidenced by glycosuria, proteinuria, electrolyte loss, and metabolic acidosis. Diabetes insipidus is also a rare complication of ifosfamide-induced renal disease. We herein describe a case involving a 61-year-old man who developed ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome accompanied by diabetes insipidus only a few days after the first round of chemotherapy. He had no known risk factors. In addition, we briefly review the mechanisms and possible therapeutic options for this condition based on other cases in the literature. Patients who receive ifosfamide must be closely monitored for renal impairment to avoid this rare but fatal complication.
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Exonic variants associated with development of aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is one phenotype of asthma, often occurring in the form of a severe and sudden attack. Due to the time-consuming nature and difficulty of oral aspirin challenge (OAC) for AERD diagnosis, non-invasive biomarkers have been sought. The aim of this study was to identify AERD-associated exonic SNPs and examine the diagnostic potential of a combination of these candidate SNPs to predict AERD. DNA from 165 AERD patients, 397 subjects with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA), and 398 normal controls were subjected to an Exome BeadChip assay containing 240K SNPs. 1,023 models (210-1) were generated from combinations of the top 10 SNPs, selected by the p-values in association with AERD. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was calculated for each model. SNP Function Portal and PolyPhen-2 were used to validate the functional significance of candidate SNPs. An exonic SNP, exm537513 in HLA-DPB1, showed the lowest p-value (p?=?3.40×10-8) in its association with AERD risk. From the top 10 SNPs, a combination model of 7 SNPs (exm537513, exm83523, exm1884673, exm538564, exm2264237, exm396794, and exm791954) showed the best AUC of 0.75 (asymptotic p-value of 7.94×10-21), with 34% sensitivity and 93% specificity to discriminate AERD from ATA. Amino acid changes due to exm83523 in CHIA were predicted to be "probably damaging" to the structure and function of the protein, with a high score of '1'. A combination model of seven SNPs may provide a useful, non-invasive genetic marker combination for predicting AERD.
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Therapeutic strategies for well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is an uncommon subtype of mesothelioma with a frequently indolent course, although it occasionally manifests in a more aggressive form. To establish a treatment strategy for this rare disease, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 15 patients with well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma.
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Modified opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing assays to measure potentially protective antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein A.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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The standard opsonophagocytosis killing assay (OPKA) for antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide was modified to permit an evaluation of the protection-mediating antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). We found that by increasing the incubation time with the complement and phagocytes from 45 min to 75 min, the protective activity was readily detected. In another modification, we used a capsule type 2 target strain that expressed PspA but not pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC). With these modifications separately or in combination, rabbit antisera to the recombinant ?-helical or proline-rich domains of PspA mediated >50% killing of the target strain. The ability of normal human sera to mediate the killing of pneumococci in this modified OPKA correlated with their levels of antibodies to PspA and their ability to protect mice against fatal infection with a type 3 strain. Passive protection of mice against pneumococci and killing in the modified OPKA were lost when normal human sera were adsorbed with recombinant PspA (rPspA) on Sepharose, thus supporting the potential utility of the modified OPKA to detect protective antibodies to PspA. In the standard OPKA, monoclonal antibodies to PspA were strongly protective in the presence of subprotective amounts of anti-capsule. Thus, the currently established high-throughput OPKA for antibodies to capsule could be modified in one of two ways to permit an evaluation of the opsonic efficacy of antibodies to PspA.
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Prognostic implications of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene aberrations in rhabdomyosarcoma; an immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridisation study.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression in Asian rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) patients.
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Close observation of gastric mucosal pattern by standard endoscopy can predict Helicobacter pylori infection status.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Common endoscopic findings in stomachs with Helicobacter pylori infections include antral nodularity, thickened gastric folds, and visible submucosal vessels. These findings are suggestive but not diagnostic of H.?pylori infection. Magnifying endoscopy can reveal more precisely the abnormal mucosal patterns in an H.?pylori-infected stomach; however, it requires more training, expertise, and time. We aimed to establish a new classification for predicting H.?pylori-infected stomachs by non-magnifying standard endoscopy alone.
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Interfacial dead-layer effects in Hf-silicate films with Pt or RuO2 gates.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The interfacial dead-layer (DL) effects at the interfaces between Hf-silicate films and Pt or RuO2 gate metals are examined. The Si content in the Hf-silicate film was controlled to vary the dielectric constant (k). The DL effect was strongly dependent on the k value of the Hf-silicate layer, and was suppressed when the Si content was increased to ?80% (k ? 6). This Si content also coincides with the Fermi level pinning-free composition. Therefore, the optimum high-k gate dielectric structure could be a higher-k layer HfO2 capped with a lower-k layer (k ? 6) with minimum thickness (?1 nm) for the best dielectric performance.
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STAT6 Expression and IL-13 Production in Association with Goblet Cell Hyperplasia and Worm Expulsion of Gymnophalloides seoi from C57BL/6 Mice.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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In intestinal helminth infections, Th2 immune respones are generally associated with mucin secretion for worm expulsion from the host intestine. In particular, IL-4 and IL-13 are the important cytokines related with intestinal mucus production via STAT6 signalling in nematode infections. However, this perspective has never been studied in Gymnophalloides seoi infection. The present study aimed to observe the STAT6 signalling and cytokine responses in C57BL/6 mice, a mouse strain resistant to infection with this trematode. The results showed that worm expulsion occurred actively during days 1-2 post-infection (PI), when goblet cells began to proliferate in the small intestine. The STAT6 gene expression in the mouse spleen became remarkable from day 2 PI. Moreover, G. seoi infection induced a significant increase of IL-13 from day 4 PI in the spleen of infected mice. Our results suggested that goblet cell hyperplasia and worm expulsion in G. seoi-infected mice should be induced by STAT6 signalling, in which IL-13 may be involved as a dominant triggering cytokine.
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Efficacy and safety of everolimus in Korean patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Few studies have investigated the effects of everolimus therapy in Asian populations. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of everolimus in Korean patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
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Prognostic significance of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and platelet lymphocyte ratio in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Several inflammatory response materials could be used for prediction of prognosis of cancer patients. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been introduced for prognostic scoring system in various cancers. The objective of this study was to determine whether the NLR or the PLR would predict the clinical outcomes in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin/ 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX).
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Efficacy, safety, and predictors of response to infliximab therapy for ulcerative colitis: A Korean multicenter retrospective study.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Infliximab is currently used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC) with an inadequate response to conventional agents. The efficacy and safety of infliximab in Korean patients with UC were assessed.
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[Clinical outcome of treatment with infliximab in Crohns disease: a single-center experience].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Our aim was to assess the long-term data regarding efficacy and safety of infliximab (IFX) treatment for refractory Crohns disease (CD) patients in our tertiary teaching hospital.
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A genome-wide association study identified new variants associated with the risk of chronic hepatitis B.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the predominant risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of CHB identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci, including HLA-DP and HLA-DQ in Asian populations, as being associated with the risk of CHB. To confirm and identify the host genetic factors related to CHB infection, we performed another GWAS using a higher-density chip in Korean CHB carriers. We analyzed 1400 samples from Korean population (400 CHB cases and 1000 population controls) using a higher-density GWAS chip [1 140 419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. In subsequent replication analysis, we further analyzed in an independent study of a Korean CHB cohort consisting of 2909 Korean samples (971 cases and 1938 controls). Logistic regression methods were used for statistical analysis adjusting for age and sex as covariates. This study identified two new risk-associated loci for CHB on the HLA region of chromosome 6, e.g. rs652888 on euchromatic histone-lysine-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2, P = 7.07 × 10(-13)) and rs1419881 on transcription factor 19 (TCF19, P = 1.26 × 10(-18)). Conditional analysis with nearby HLA CHB loci that were previously known, confirmed the independent genetic effects of these two loci on CHB. Conclusion: The GWAS and the subsequent validation study identified new variants associated with the risk of CHB. These findings may advance the understanding of genetic susceptibility to CHB.
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Screening of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase genetic variants by direct sequencing in different ethnic groups.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) is an enzyme that regulates the rate-limiting step in pyrimidine metabolism, especially catabolism of fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer. In order to determine the genetic distribution of DPYD, we directly sequenced 288 subjects from five ethnic groups (96 Koreans, 48 Japanese, 48 Han Chinese, 48 African Americans, and 48 European Americans). As a result, 56 polymorphisms were observed, including 6 core polymorphisms and 18 novel polymorphisms. Allele frequencies were nearly the same across the Asian populations, Korean, Han Chinese and Japanese, whereas several SNPs showed different genetic distributions between Asians and other ethnic populations (African American and European American). Additional in silico analysis was performed to predict the function of novel SNPs. One nonsynonymous SNP (+199381A > G, Asn151Asp) was predicted to change its polarity of amino acid (Asn, neutral to Asp, negative). These findings would be valuable for further research, including pharmacogenetic and drug responses studies.
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Efficacy of infliximab in intestinal Behçets disease: a Korean multicenter retrospective study.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Although infliximab is widely accepted as a therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease, its therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of intestinal Behçets disease (BD) is unknown. We investigated the short-term and long-term response rates to infliximab in intestinal BD and predictive factors of sustained treatment response following infliximab treatment.
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Association analysis of IL7R polymorphisms with inflammatory demyelinating diseases.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), which are referred to as inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs), are autoimmune diseases affecting the central nervous system. Interleukin?7 receptor (IL7R) encodes for a receptor protein that is important in the development of immune cells. Several studies have reported significant associations between IL7R polymorphisms and MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible association between IL7R polymorphisms and IDDs such as MS and NMO. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on their linkage disequilibrium (LD), minor allele frequency (MAF) and location, and were genotyped in 178 IDD patients and 237 healthy controls. The association of SNPs with IDD risk was analyzed by logistic regression. A meta?analysis on the association between rs6897932 and the risk of MS was also performed. Statistical analyses revealed that a common SNP, rs6897932, was marginally associated with IDD in a recessive model (P=0.003, Pcor.=0.03), which had shown significant associations with MS in previous studies. The results replicated the significant association found between rs6897932 and IDD. In addition, the meta?analysis of rs6897932 clearly demonstrates a higher magnitude of risk in Asian populations than in Caucasian populations. Although there are certain limitations to our study, the results indicate that the genetic variation of IL7R may be associated with IDDs such as MS and NMO in the population studied.
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Septic pylephlebitis as a rare complication of Crohns disease.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system (PVS) with superimposed bacterial infection (septic pylephlebitis) is an extremely rare complication of Crohns disease (CD), and therefore diagnosis of septic pylephlebitis is difficult without high clinical suspicion. A 16-year old male patient who was diagnosed with CD 3 months earlier was admitted with recurrent fever and abdominal pain. CD activity had been well controlled with conventional medical treatment during a follow-up period. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed massive thrombosis in the PVS without evidence of intra-abdominal infection, and blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus viridians. There was no evidence of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism, and all laboratory tests for thrombophilia were normal. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with septic pylephlebitis complicated with CD, and was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy combined with anticoagulation. This case suggests that early comprehensive evaluation is crucial for immediate diagnosis and proper treatment of septic pylephlebitis in patients with CD who present with fever and abdominal pain of unknown origin, even with stable disease activity and absence of other intra-abdominal infections.
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Association Study of DKK2 Polymorphisms with Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol-Related Harm.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Alcohol dependence (AD) is a common disorder with both environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have shown that the genomic region from chromosome 4q22-q32 is closely associated with AD. Furthermore, a study with Irish subjects revealed that the polymorphisms of Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor (DKK2), located at 4q25, showed a significant association with AD.
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Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: the Korean Pediatric Society, 2013.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This article contains the recommended immunization schedule by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society, updated in March 2013, when Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine is now included in the National Immunization Program in Korea. It also includes catch-up immunization schedule for children and adolescents who are behind the recommended schedule. These schedules are a minor revision of the corresponding parts of Immunization Guideline, 7th edition, of the Korean Pediatric Society, released in 2012. Pediatricians should be aware of these schedules to provide adequate immunization to Korean children and adolescents.
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Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ ameliorates experimental mouse colitis by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cytokines.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the antioxidant ubiquinone, with antioxidant and anti-apoptotic functions. Reactive oxygen species are involved in many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of MitoQ in a mouse model of experimental colitis and investigated the possible mechanisms underlying its effects on intestinal inflammation.
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Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Healthy Korean Children Younger than 5 Years Old: Focus on Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Even after pneumococcal vaccination introduction, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumoccocus) is still an important cause of respiratory and invasive severe infection. Pneumococcus is resided in nasal mucosa and local or systemic infection begins with the nasal mucosa damage. We studied the indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage rates, serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility between vaccinate and non-vaccinated children.
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The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D in children.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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We investigated the immune response to serogroup 6 with the opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPKA) in children aged 12-23 months of age after immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing serotype 6B.
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Environmental impact assessment and eco-friendly decision-making in civil structures.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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This study develops two useful procedures in performing an environmental-impact assessment. One is the advanced life-cycle assessment (LCA) method, which effectively tracks the flow of materials and considers the recycling and demolition of a civil structure. The other is an eco-friendly decision-making procedure, which may effectively apply when determining the prototype of a civil structure. The advanced LCA method differs from traditional LCA procedure, as it classifies the input material prior to the impact assessment. Classification work is performed to establish independent life-cycle stages for each material. The processes of recycling and demolition are appropriately added to the life-cycle stages. The impact assessment is performed separately for the materials, and results are aggregated at the end of the analysis. The eco-friendly decision-making procedure enables designers to choose an economical, and environmentally friendly, alternative during the planning phase of the construction project. This procedure rationally amalgamates economical value and environmental effects into a single indicator. The life cycle cost (LCC) of a structure can be analysed by using conventional LCC tools, whereas the environmental impact is estimated by LCA. The results from LCC and LCA are then integrated by using either a CO2 conversion method or an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The CO2 conversion method presents the result as a monetary value, whereas the AHP presents the result as a non-dimensional value. A practical example using a steel box girder bridge and a pre-stressed concrete (PSC) box-girder bridge is also given in order to aid the understanding of the presented procedure.
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Genome-wide association study of ulcerative colitis in Koreans suggests extensive overlapping of genetic susceptibility with Caucasians.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Recent genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses have identified 47 susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis (UC) in Caucasian populations. A previous genome-wide association study of UC in a Japanese population suggested marginal sharing of susceptibility loci between Caucasian and Asian populations. We performed a genome-wide association studies to identify UC susceptibility loci in a Korean population and further comparative study.
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A girl with sternal malformation/vascular dysplasia association.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Sternal malformation/vascular dysplasia association is a rare congenital dysmorphology, which has not yet been reported in Korea. Its typical clinical features include a sternal cleft covered with atrophic skin, a median abdominal raphe extending from the sternal defect to the umbilicus, and cutaneous craniofacial hemangiomata. We report a case of a full-term newborn who presented with no anomalies at birth, except for a skin defect over the sternum and a supraumbilical raphe. Multiple hemangiomas appeared subsequently on her chin and upper chest wall, and respiratory distress due to subglottic hemangioma developed during the first 2 months of life. Her symptoms were controlled with oral prednisolone administration. No respiratory distress have recurred during the 3-year follow-up period.
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Pharmacogenetic determinants associated with sunitinib-induced toxicity and ethnic difference in Korean metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacogenetic determinants of sunitinib-related toxicity and ethnic difference in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) among Korean patients.
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Putative association of GPC5 polymorphism with the risk of inflammatory demyelinating diseases.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs) are severe inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that cause loss of myelin in the nerve sheaths and axonal degeneration. IDDs include multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). MS affects the axons of the brain and spinal cord, while NMO primarily affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Glypican 5 (GPC5) is known to be one of the susceptible genes for the risk of IDD, especially MS, based on genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replication studies in Caucasians and African Americans. In the present study, in order to investigate the replicable genetic effects of GPC5 polymorphisms on the risk of IDD in Korean subjects, nine genetic variants were selected and genotyped in 237 normal controls and 178 IDD patients (including 79 MS and 99 NMO). Statistical analysis revealed that rs9523762 was associated with IDD and the association was retained even after correction for multiple testing (OR=1.68, P(corr)=0.03). Marginal association was also observed in rs1411751 (OR=0.54, P=0.02). In a subgroup analysis, rs1411751 was found to be associated with NMO (OR=0.36, P(corr)=0.03), and rs9523762 was marginally associated with both NMO and MS. These results indicate that GPC5 polymorphisms would be useful genetic indicators for IDDs, including NMO and MS.
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Extended genetic effects of ADH cluster genes on the risk of alcohol dependence: from GWAS to replication.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Alcohol dependence (AD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder involving complex gene-to-gene and gene-to-environment interactions. Several genome-wide association studies have reported numerous risk factors for AD, but replication results following these studies have been controversial. To identify new candidate genes, the present study used GWAS and replication studies in a Korean cohort with AD. Genome-wide association analysis revealed that two chromosome regions on Chr. 4q22-q23 (ADH gene cluster, including ADH5, ADH4, ADH6, ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH7) and Chr. 12q24 (ALDH2) showed multiple association signals for the risk of AD. To investigate detailed genetic effects of these ADH genes on AD, a follow-up study of the ADH gene cluster on 4q22-q23 was performed. A total of 90 SNPs, including ADH1B rs1229984 (H47R), were genotyped in an additional 975 Korean subjects. In case-control analysis, ADH1B rs1229984 (H47R) showed the most significant association with the risk of AD (p = 2.63 × 10(-21), OR = 2.35). Moreover, subsequent conditional analyses revealed that all positive associations of other ADH genes in the cluster disappeared, which suggested that ADH1B rs1229984 (H47R) might be the sole functional genetic marker across the ADH gene cluster. Our findings could provide additional information on the ADH gene cluster regarding the risk of AD, as well as a new and important insight into the genetic factors associated with AD.
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Controlling work function and damaging effects of sputtered RuO? gate electrodes by changing oxygen gas ratio during sputtering.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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RuO? metal gates were fabricated by a reactive sputtering method under different O? gas ratios. For the given sputtering power of 60 W, a ?13% O? ratio was the critical level below or over which RuO? film has hyperstoichiometric and stoichiometric compositions, which resulted in a difference in the effective work function by ?0.2 eV. The stoichiometric RuO? film imposes almost no damaging effect to the underlying SiO? and HfO? gate dielectrics. The RuO? gate decreased the equivalent oxide thickness by ?0.5 nm and leakage current by around two orders of magnitude compared to the Pt-gated samples.
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Screening of Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 Genes.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Given the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5s impact on the efficacy of drugs, the genetic backgrounds of individuals and populations are regarded as an important factor to be considered in the prescription of personalized medicine. However, genetic studies with Korean population are relatively scarce compared to those with other populations. In this study, we aimed to identify CYP3A4/5 polymorphisms and compare the genotype distributions among five ethnicities. To identify CYP3A4/5 SNPs, we first performed direct sequencing with 288 DNA samples which consisted of 96 Koreans, 48 European-Americans, 48 African-Americans, 48 Han Chinese, and 48 Japanese. The direct sequencing identified 15 novel SNPs, as well as 42 known polymorphisms. We defined the genotype distributions, and compared the allele frequencies among five ethnicities. The results showed that minor allele frequencies of Korean population were similar with those of the Japanese and Han Chinese populations, whereas there were distinct differences from European-Americans or African-Americans. Among the pharmacogenetic markers, frequencies of CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) and CYP3A5*3C (rs776742) in Asian groups were different from those in other populations. In addition, minor allele frequency of CYP3A4*18 (rs28371759) was the highest in Korean population. Additional in silico analysis predicted that two novel non-synonymous SNPs in CYP3A5 (+27256C>T, P389S and +31546T>G, I488S) could alter protein structure. The frequency distributions of the identified polymorphisms in the present study may contribute to the expansion of pharmacogenetic knowledge.
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Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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This study was designed to assess the immune status of the Korean population against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) through a seroepidemiologic study. Residual blood samples were collected from diagnostic laboratories throughout Korea. Samples were collected in October 2009 to March 2010 from persons 0-79 yr of age and were tested by ELISA (Enzygnost®; Dade Behring, Schwalbach, Germany). Total seroprevalence in subjects 1-79 yr of age was 89.6%. Seroprevalence increased as age increased from 67.3% in subjects 1-4 yr of age to 94.2% in subjects 10-14 yr of age and in subjects over 20 yr of age seroprevalence ranged from 98.0% to 100%. In children under 1 yr of age, passive immunity waned after birth with none of the subjects having antibodies from 7 months of age and over. Among subjects 1-79 yr of age, susceptible subjects to VZV were mainly under 20 yr of age. These results provide information in understanding the dynamics of varicella disease in Korea, which is important in building up strategies for disease control.
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A case of early gastric cancer with solitary metastasis to the pleura.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The incidence of early gastric cancer (EGC) has increased to >50% in Korea owing to a higher detection rate caused by rapid advances in diagnostic instrumentation. EGC with distant metastasis has been rarely reported. Here, we report the case of a 76-year-old woman in whom general EGC was initially diagnosed by endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. She subsequently underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Histological examination of the ESD specimen revealed that neoplastic cells were located predominantly in the submucosal layer and submucosal lymphatic channels. Metastatic cancer cells were also found in the pleural effusion. After conducting all analyses, including immunohistochemical staining, we concluded that the patient had primary EGC with pleural metastasis.
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Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and ?-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, ?-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and ?-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.
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Acid suppression therapy as a risk factor for Candida esophagitis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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As the prevalence of reflux esophagitis increases, so does the use of gastric acid suppressants. This study aimed to document the prevalence of Candida esophagitis (CE) at a single Korean university hospital over the last 5 years and to evaluate its risk factors.
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Randomized controlled trial of standardized education and telemonitoring for pain in outpatients with advanced solid tumors.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Previous studies have not defined the role of telemonitoring with educational tools in outpatients with advanced cancers. We tested the effectiveness of standardized education and telemonitoring for improving pain, distress, anxiety, depression, quality of life (QoL), and performance in outpatients with advanced cancers.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.