Tiglium seed is a seed of mature Croton Tiglium Linne containing croton oils, which have been traditionally used as laxative or purgative. As it contains phorbol derivatives, we investigated the mutagenicity and tumor-promoting activity of Tiglium seed. Tiglium seed extract produced the mutagenic responses in five Salmonella typhimurium strains in Ames assay, whereas it did not alter the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations or micronuclei, indicating that it exerted the mutagenic potential, not clastogenicity. Accompanied with phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), Tiglium seed extract inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) associated with tumor-promoting potential. Importantly, these effects were blocked by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) inhibitors, suggesting that Tiglium seed-induced GJIC inhibition was regulated by phosphorylation of Cx43 via PKC and MAPKs signaling. In conclusion, Tiglium seed has mutagenicity, possibly linking to tumor-promoting potential through the dysfunction of GJIC.
A molar-incisor malformation (MIM) is a newly discovered type of dental anomaly of the permanent first molars, deciduous second molars, and permanent maxillary central incisors. MIM anomalies of the permanent first molars and deciduous second molars may include normal crowns with a constricted cervical region and thin, narrow, and short roots, whereas the affected maxillary central incisors may exhibit a hypoplastic enamel notch near the cervical third of the clinical crown. Although the etiology of MIM remains to be determined, it is thought to be attributable to an epigenetic factor linked to brain- and central nervous system-related systemic diseases at around age 1 to 2 years. MIM teeth are associated with clinical problems such as impaction, early exfoliation, space loss, spontaneous pain, periapical abscess, and poor incisor esthetics. Children with MIM teeth should be observed closely with respect to their medical history, and dentists should formulate a wider-ranging treatment plan.
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are a good source of dental tissue for regeneration therapy, and can be obtained using different primary culture methods. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the in vitro and in vivo characteristics between SHED isolated via enzymatic disaggregation (e-SHED) and outgrowth (o-SHED) primary culture methods.
The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, on human and mouse osteoblasts remain controversial. This study investigated the direct effects of EGCG on human alveolar bone-derived cells (hABCs) both in vitro and in vivo.
The transient receptor potential melastatin type 7 (TRPM7) channel is a widely expressed non-selective cation channel with fusion to the C-terminal alpha kinase domain and regarded as a key regulator of whole body Mg(2+) homeostasis in mammals. However, the roles of TRPM7 during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs) are not clear. In the present study, we investigate the roles of TRPM7 in osteoclastogenesis using methods of small interfering RNA (siRNA), RT-PCR, patch-clamp, and calcium imaging. RANKL (receptor activator of NF-?B ligand) stimulation did not affect the TRPM7 expression and TRPM7-mediated current was activated in HEK293, RAW264.7, and BMM cells by the regulation of Mg(2+). Knock-down of TRPM7 by siTRPM7 reduced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increases by 0 mM [Mg(2+)](e) in HEK293 cells and inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in RAW264.7 cells. Finally, knock-down of TRPM7 suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis such as activation and translocation of NFATc1, formation of multinucleated cells, and the bone resorptive activity, sequentially. These results suggest that TRPM7 plays an essential role in the RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations that triggers the late stages of osteoclastogenesis.
There are histological and functional differences between human deciduous and permanent periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between these two types of tissue at the molecular level by comparing their gene expression patterns. PDL samples were obtained from permanent premolars (n = 38) and anterior deciduous teeth (n = 31) extracted from 40 healthy persons. Comparative cDNA microarray analysis revealed several differences in gene expression between the deciduous and permanent PDL tissues. These findings were verified by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis, and the areas where genes are expressed were revealed by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of 21 genes were up-regulated in deciduous relative to PDL tissues, and those of 30 genes were up-regulated in permanent relative to deciduous PDL tissues. The genes that were up-regulated in deciduous PDL tissues were those involved in the formation of the extracellular matrix (LAMC2, LAMB3, and COMP), tissue development (IGF2BP, MAB21L2, and PAX3), and inflammatory or immune reactions leading to tissue degradation (IL1A, CCL21, and CCL18). The up-regulated genes in permanent PDL tissues were related to tissue degradation (IL6 and ADAMTS18), myocontraction (PDE3B, CASQ2, and MYH10), and neurological responses (FOS, NCAM2, SYT1, SLC22A3, DOCK3, LRRTM1, LRRTM3, PRSS12, and ARPP21). The analysis of differential gene expressions between deciduous and permanent PDL tissues aids our understanding of histological and functional differences between them at the molecular level.
Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) represent an attractive and ethical cell source for stem cell therapy. With the recent demonstration of MSC homing properties, intravenous applications of MSCs to cell-damaged diseases have increased. In the present study, the toxicity and tumorigenicity of human AdMSCs (hAdMSCs) were investigated for clinical application. Culture-expanded hAdMSCs showed the typical appearance, immunophenotype, and differentiation capacity of MSCs, and were genetically stable at least 12 passages in culture. Cells suspended in physiological saline maintained their MSC properties in a cold storage condition for at least 3 days. To test the toxicity of hAdMSCs, different doses of hAdMSCs were injected intravenously into immunodeficient mice, and the mice were observed for 13 weeks. Even at the highest cell dose (2.5×10(8) cells/kg body weight), the SCID mice were viable and had no side effects. A tumorigenicity test was performed in Balb/c-nu nude mice for 26 weeks. Even at the highest cell dose (2×10(8) MSCs/kg), no evidence of tumor development was found. In a human clinical trial, 8 male patients who had suffered a spinal cord injury >12 months previous were intravenously administered autologous hAdMSCs (4×10(8) cells) one time. None of the patients developed any serious adverse events related to hAdMSC transplantation during the 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, the systemic transplantation of hAdMSCs appears to be safe and does not induce tumor development.
Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hATMSC) have emerged as a potentially powerful tool for bone repair, but an appropriate evaluation system has not been established. The purpose of this study was to establish a preclinical assessment system to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cell therapies in a nude rat bone defect model. Segmental defects (5 mm) were created in the femoral diaphyses and transplanted with cell media (control), hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds (HA/TCP, Group I), hATMSCs (Group II), or three cell-loading density of hATMSC-loaded HA/TCP (Group III-V). Healing response was evaluated by serial radiography, micro-computed tomography and histology at 16 weeks. To address safety-concerns, we conducted a GLP-compliant toxicity study. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that hATMSCs filled the pores/surfaces of scaffolds in a cell-loading density-dependent manner. We detected significant increases in bone formation in the hATMSC-loaded HA/TCP groups compared with other groups. The amount of new bone formation increased with increases in loaded cell number. In a toxicity study, no significant hATMSC-related changes were found in body weights, clinical signs, hematological/biochemical values, organ weights, or histopathological findings. In conclusion, hATMSCs loaded on HA/TCP enhance the repair of bone defects and was found to be safe under our preclinical efficacy/safety hybrid assessment system.
There is a need for a new liver fibrosis model of immunodeficient mice to study the effects of cell therapy on liver disease because there are not many animal models available to study the effects of cell therapy. In this study, we induced liver fibrosis using dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in NOD/SCID mice to create an animal model for liver disease. DMN (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected intraperitoneally for three consecutive days per week for 6 or 8 weeks, and the mice were sacrificed at weeks 0, 4 and 8 after the last DMN injection. The 6-week DMN-treated group gradually recovered from serum biochemical changes, histopathological toxic effects and lesions in the liver at weeks 4 and 8 after the last DMN injection. However, the progression of liver fibrosis and toxic levels were maintained in the 8-week DMN-treated group at week 4 after the last DMN injection. The increases in iron and extracellular matrix (collagen) in the DMN-treated group were confirmed by Prussian blue (PB) and Massons trichrome (MT) staining, respectively. Additionally, activation of hepatic stellate cells was observed by alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) immunostaining and western blot. In conclusion, treatment of NOD/SCID mice with 5 mg/kg of DMN for 8 weeks can be used to induce an appropriate animal model of disease for liver fibrosis. This model may be useful for evaluation of the efficacy and safety of cell therapies such as human mesenchymal stem cell therapy.
Hydroxyapatite is a biologically compatible material and a major component of dental enamel and bone tissue. Because of its biocompatibility and structural similarity to human teeth and the skeletal system, a number of dental studies have evaluated its application as a bone substitute or dental restorative material. This study was to evaluate the differences in bonding strength and resistance to demineralization between micro-hydroxyapatite and nano-hydroxyapatite added to self-cured resin-reinforced/modified glass ionomer cement. RelyX was used as the base glass ionomer cement material and for the control group. 10% micro-hydroxyapatite added glass ionomer cement was named experimental group 1, and 10% nano-hydroxyapatite added glass ionomer cement was named experimental group 2. Physical tests for ISO9917-1:2007 in each group was acceptable, except the setting time of nano-hydroxyapatite added glass ionomer cement, which exceeded maximum setting time. Bonding strength was greatest in nano-hydroxyapatite glass ionomer cement, and cohesive failure was common in all specimens. When fractured surface was observed under SEM, spherical particles were observed in experimental groups containing hydroxyapatite particles, and they were more prevalent in nano-HA added glass ionomer cement group than in micro-hydroxyapatite added group. Both experimental groups exhibited greater resistance to demineralization compared to the control group, and there was no significant difference between the experimental groups. Under SEM, nano-hydroxyapatite added glass ionomer cement exhibited increased resistance to demineralization compared to micro-hydroxyapatite added glass ionomer cement.
The mandibular first permanent and primary molars occasionally have an additional root located distolingually. This study aimed to determine the incidences of an additional root in these molars and their relationship.
Conventional orthodontic traction may not be the treatment of choice in cases of inverted impaction of a maxillary incisor, especially when located near the alveolar crest. Poor prognosis is associated with the limited space for proper root development, resulting in a root too short for normal function and/or a severely dilacerated root interrupting the force-induced positioning. The surgical repositioning of ectopic impacted toothgerm before the development of root could be a valuable alternative choice of treatment before the decision of extraction. In this case report, an impacted immature incisor toothgerm in complete inversion was surgically repositioned using a closed-flap technique in a boy who was 6 years 8 months old. Continued root formation and spontaneous eruption were observed after surgery over the 51-month follow-up period, without pulpal or periodontal complications.
In many studies, adult stem cells have been found in human periodontal ligament (PDL), but in most cases they were found in the permanent teeth. The aim of the present study was to characterize stem cells from the PDL of deciduous teeth (dPDLSCs) and compare them with those from the PDL of permanent teeth (pPDLSCs). Stem cell markers were examined by a flow cytometric analysis. The results of in vitro differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages were analyzed by histochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results of in vivo transplantation were analyzed by histological staining, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative RT-PCR. There were no significant differences in the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution, expressions of stem cell markers such as Stro-1 and CD146, or in vitro differentiation. The pPDLSC transplants made more typical cementum/PDL-like tissues and expressed more cementum/PDL-related genes (CP23 and collagen XII) than did the dPDLSC transplants. Together, these results suggest that pPDLSCs are better candidates for use in reconstructing periodontium.
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