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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gene by stress genome-wide interaction analysis and path analysis identify EBF1 as a cardiovascular and metabolic risk gene.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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We performed gene-environment interaction genome-wide association analysis (G × E GWAS) to identify SNPs whose effects on metabolic traits are modified by chronic psychosocial stress in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In Whites, the G × E GWAS for hip circumference identified five SNPs within the Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) gene, all of which were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The gene-by-stress interaction (SNP × STRESS) term P-values were genome-wide significant (Ps=7.14E-09 to 2.33E-08, uncorrected; Ps=1.99E-07 to 5.18E-07, corrected for genomic control). The SNP-only (without interaction) model P-values (Ps=0.011-0.022) were not significant at the conventional genome-wide significance level. Further analysis of related phenotypes identified gene-by-stress interaction effects for waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, type II diabetes status, and common carotid intimal-medial thickness (CCIMT), supporting a proposed model of gene-by-stress interaction that connects cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor endophenotypes such as central obesity and increased blood glucose or diabetes to CVD itself. Structural equation path analysis suggested that the path from chronic psychosocial stress to CCIMT via hip circumference and fasting glucose was larger (estimate=0.26, P=0.033, 95% CI=0.02-0.49) in the EBF1 rs4704963 CT/CC genotypes group than the same path in the TT group (estimate=0.004, P=0.34, 95% CI=-0.004-0.012). We replicated the association of the EBF1 SNPs and hip circumference in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (gene-by-stress term P-values=0.007-0.012) as well as identified similar path relationships. This observed and replicated interaction between psychosocial stress and variation in the EBF1 gene may provide a biological hypothesis for the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, central obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.189.
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Personality facets and all-cause mortality among Medicare patients aged 66 to 102 years: a follow-on study of Weiss and Costa (2005).
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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To investigate associations between personality facets and survival during an 8-year follow-up.
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Associations between Central Nervous System Serotonin, Fasting Glucose, and Hostility in African American Females.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Previous research has shown an association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. Central nervous system serotonin activity is implicated both in metabolic processes and in hostility related traits.
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Socioeconomic indices as independent correlates of C-reactive protein in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to understand how SES may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and thus identify targets for prevention measures.
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Cumulative exposure to traumatic events in older adults.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Objectives: The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compared to other known predictors of PTSD, including trauma severity, personality traits, social support, and event centrality. Method: Community-dwelling adults (n = 2515) from the crest of the Baby Boom generation completed the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the NEO Personality Inventory, the Centrality of Event Scale, and rated their current social support. Results: Cumulative trauma exposure predicted greater PTSD symptom severity in hierarchical regression analyses consistent with a dose-response model. Neuroticism and event centrality also emerged as robust predictors of PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the severity of individuals single most distressing life event, as measured by self-report ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion, did not add explanatory variance to the model. Analyses concerning event categories revealed that cumulative exposure to childhood violence and adulthood physical assaults were most strongly associated with PTSD symptom severity in older adulthood. Moreover, cumulative self-oriented events accounted for a larger percentage of variance in symptom severity compared to events directed at others. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the cumulative impact of exposure to traumatic events throughout the life course contributes significantly to posttraumatic stress in older adulthood above and beyond other known predictors of PTSD.
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APOE ? 4, rated life experiences, and affect among centenarians.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE), life events and engagement, and subjective well-being (as measured by positive and negative affect) among centenarians. Based on the life stress paradigm, we predicted that higher levels of stress would allow APOE to influence positive and negative affect. Method: 196 centenarians and near-centenarians (98 years and older) of the Georgia Centenarian Study participated in this research. The APOE, positive and negative affect, the number of recent (last 2 years) and lifelong (more than 20 years prior to testing) events, as well as a number of life engagement tasks were assessed. Results: Results suggested that centenarians carrying the APOE ?4 allele rated lower in positive affect, the number of lifelong events, and in engaged lifestyle, when compared to centenarians without the APOE ?4 allele (t = 3.43, p < .01; t = 3.19, p < .01; and t = 2.33, p < .05, respectively). Blockwise multiple regressions indicated that the APOE ?4 predicted positive but not negative affect after controlling for demographics. Gene-environment interactions were obtained for the APOE ?4 and lifelong events, suggesting that carriers of the APOE ?4 allele had higher scores of negative affect after having experienced more events, whereas noncarriers had reduced negative affect levels after having experienced more events. Conclusion: APOE ?4 is directly related to positive affect and is related to negative affect in interaction with life events.
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Social, behavioral, and genetic linkages from adolescence into adulthood.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences.
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Changes in Neuroticism Following Trauma Exposure.
J Pers
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Our primary analyses included 670 participants (Mage = 60.55; 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at ages 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. No differences in pre- and post-trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age-related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life-threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet-level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life-threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Life-threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events.
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MAOA Genotype, Childhood Maltreatment, and Their Interaction in the Etiology of Adult Antisocial Behaviors.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Maltreatment by an adult or caregiver during childhood is a prevalent and important predictor of antisocial behaviors in adulthood. A functional promoter polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been implicated as a moderating factor in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behaviors. Although there have been numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive.
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The impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on PTSD symptoms and psychosocial functioning among older adults.
Dev Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by age-related changes in cognitive and social processes that may influence psychological adjustment following trauma exposure. Results revealed that older adults who experienced their currently most distressing traumatic event during childhood exhibited more severe symptoms of PTSD and lower subjective happiness compared with older adults who experienced their most distressing trauma after the transition to adulthood. Similar findings emerged for measures of social support and coping ability. The differential effects of childhood compared with later life traumas were not fully explained by differences in cumulative trauma exposure or by differences in the objective and subjective characteristics of the events. Our findings demonstrate the enduring nature of traumatic events encountered early in the life course and underscore the importance of examining the developmental context of trauma exposure in investigations of the long-term consequences of traumatic experiences.
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Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention.
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A Functional Polymorphism in the 5HTR2C Gene Associated with Stress Responses Also Predicts Incident Cardiovascular Events.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Previously we have shown that a functional nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6318) of the 5HTR2C gene located on the X-chromosome is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a stress recall task, and with endophenotypes associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). These findings suggest that individuals carrying the rs6318 Ser23 C allele will be at higher risk for CVD compared to Cys23 G allele carriers. The present study examined allelic variation in rs6318 as a predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction (MI) among Caucasian participants consecutively recruited through the cardiac catheterization laboratory at Duke University Hospital (Durham, NC) as part of the CATHGEN biorepository. Study population consisted of 6,126 Caucasian participants (4,036 [65.9%] males and 2,090 [34.1%] females). A total of 1,769 events occurred (1,544 deaths and 225 MIs; median follow-up time?=? 5.3 years, interquartile range ?=?3.3-8.2). Unadjusted Cox time-to-event regression models showed, compared to Cys23 G carriers, males hemizygous for Ser23 C and females homozygous for Ser23C were at increased risk for the composite endpoint of all-cause death or MI: Hazard Ratio (HR) ?=?1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?=?1.17, 1.84, p ?=?.0008. Adjusting for age, rs6318 genotype was not related to body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history, number of diseased coronary arteries, or left ventricular ejection fraction in either males or females. After adjustment for these covariates the estimate for the two Ser23 C groups was modestly attenuated, but remained statistically significant: HR ?=?1.38, 95% CI?=?1.10, 1.73, p?=?.005. These findings suggest that this functional polymorphism of the 5HTR2C gene is associated with increased risk for CVD mortality and morbidity, but this association is apparently not explained by the association of rs6318 with traditional risk factors or conventional markers of atherosclerotic disease.
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Two versions of life: emotionally negative and positive life events have different roles in the organization of life story and identity.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Over 2,000 adults in their sixties completed the Centrality of Event Scale (CES) for the traumatic or negative event that now troubled them the most and for their most positive life event, as well as measures of current PTSD symptoms, depression, well-being, and personality. Consistent with the notion of a positivity bias in old age, the positive events were judged to be markedly more central to life story and identity than were the negative events. The centrality of positive events was unrelated to measures of PTSD symptoms and emotional distress, whereas the centrality of the negative event showed clear positive correlations with these measures. The centrality of the positive events increased with increasing time since the events, whereas the centrality of the negative events decreased. The life distribution of the positive events showed a marked peak in young adulthood whereas the life distribution for the negative events peaked at the participants present age. The positive events were mostly events from the cultural life script-that is, culturally shared representations of the timing of major transitional events. Overall, our findings show that positive and negative autobiographical events relate markedly differently to life story and identity. Positive events become central to life story and identity primarily through their correspondence with cultural norms. Negative events become central through mechanisms associated with emotional distress.
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Cortisol responses to emotional stress in men: association with a functional polymorphism in the 5HTR2C gene.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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The serotonin 5HTR2C receptor has been shown to mediate HPA axis activation during stress. We hypothesized that a functional polymorphism (rs6318) of the 5HTR2C gene would be associated with HPA axis response to a laboratory stress protocol. The present sample consisted of 41 men (22 African Americans, 19 Caucasians). We found that at rest men with the more active rs6318 Ser23 C allele had similar cortisol values compared to those with the less active Cys23 G allele. During laboratory stress, however, men with the Ser23 C allele exhibited the predicted significantly higher cortisol levels (p<0.001), as well as larger increases in anger (p=0.08) and depressive mood (p=0.006) ratings, compared to the Cys23 G carriers. The increase in cortisol was significantly related to the increases in ratings of anger and depression assessed before and after the emotion induction, and these correlations became nonsignificant when rs6318 genotype was covaried. We conclude that genetic variation in 5HTR2C may be associated with HPA axis activation and stimulated by emotional stress, and also with both psychological and physiological endophenotypes that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes.
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Systolic blood pressure, socioeconomic status, and biobehavioral risk factors in a nationally representative US young adult sample.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of >15 000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. More than 62% of the participants had SBP >120 mm Hg and 12% had SBP >140 mm Hg. More than 66% were classified as at least overweight (body mass index >25 kg/m(2)), with >36% meeting criteria for at least class I obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)). Multivariate models showed that higher household income and being married were independently associated with lower SBP. Higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, smoking, and higher alcohol intake were each independently associated with higher SBP. Meditational analyses suggested that higher education level was associated with lower SBP by way of lower body mass, smaller waist circumference, and lower resting heart rate. When these indirect effects were accounted for, education was not significantly associated with SBP. In contrast, household income remained associated with SBP even with control for all of the covariates. Results reinforce current public health concerns about rates of obesity and high blood pressure among young adults and suggest that disparities in education level and household income may play an important role in the observed decrements in health. Identifying modifiable mechanisms that link socioeconomic status to SBP using data from a large representative sample may improve risk stratification and guide the development of effective interventions.
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Affect and loneliness among centenarians and the oldest old: the role of individual and social resources.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Affect and loneliness are important indicators of mental health and well-being in older adulthood and are linked to significant outcomes including physical health and mortality. Given a large focus on young-old adults within gerontological research, the primary aim of this study was to examine the ability of individual and social resources in predicting affect and loneliness within a sample of oldest-old individuals including centenarians, an understudied population.
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Effects of 5HTTLPR on cardiovascular response to an emotional stressor.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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To replicate a prior main effect of the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR) genotype on cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) and explore caregiver stress as a potential moderator of 5HTTLPR effects on CVR. On the basis of prior findings, we hypothesized that the more transcriptionally active allele variants would be associated with increased CVR.
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Recovery expectations and long-term prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Expectations of patients regarding their prospects for recovery have been shown to predict subsequent physical and social functioning. Evidence regarding the impact of expectations on clinical outcomes is limited.
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Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.
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Cognitive function, physical performance, health, and disease: norms from the georgia centenarian study.
Exp Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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This study provides, for the first time, normative data on cognitive functioning and physical performance, health and health behaviors, and diseases from a population-based sample of 244 centenarians and near-centenarians (M age = 100.5 years, range 98-108, 84.8% women, 21.3% African American) from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Data are presented by the four key dimensions of gender, race, residence, and educational attainment. Results illustrate the profound range of functioning in this age group and indicate considerable differences as a function of each dimension. Bivariate models generally suggest that cognitive functioning and physical performance is higher for men than women; whites than African Americans; community than facility residents; and those with more than high school education than those with less than high school education. Multivariate models elaborate that differences in educational attainment generally account for the largest proportion of variance in cognitive functioning and residential status generally accounts for the largest proportion of variance in physical performance measures. Addition of health variables seldom increases variance accounted for in each domain beyond these four dimensions.
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Caregiving, residence, race, and depressive symptoms.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychological responses to caregiving between black and white dementia caregivers measured by self-reports of depressive symptoms evaluating the impact of sub-components of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and residential arrangements of the caregiving dyad. The method included 87 intergenerational family caregivers enrolled in the Duke Caregiver Study (50 white and 37 black). Total CES-D and the four sub-components were modeled as dependent measures in separate linear regressions. Three models were examined. The first model tested race, living arrangements, and their interaction. The second model adjusted for age, gender, education, income, health status, cultural justification for caregiving, crime concerns, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and glycosylated hemoglobin. A third model added adjustment for caregiver burden. The results showed that there was a significant race by residence interaction for CES-D, somatic symptoms and depressive affect such that when the dyads are living apart-with the care recipient in their own home or in an institutional setting-whites reported more depressive symptoms than blacks. When the dyads lived together, this was reversed, and blacks reported higher depressive symptoms than whites. To conclude, all the parameters such as race, living arrangements, and the components of depression need to be taken into account to understand the impact of caregiving on the emotional health of caregivers.
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Central nervous system serotonin and clustering of hostility, psychosocial, metabolic, and cardiovascular endophenotypes in men.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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To use measures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and genotype of a functional polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR) to study the role of central nervous system (CNS) serotonin in clustering of hostility, other psychosocial, metabolic and cardiovascular endophenotypes.
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Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations.
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Associations of depressive symptoms, trait hostility, and gender with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 response after emotion recall.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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To examine the effects of depressive symptoms and hostility on changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 in response to an acute laboratory stressor. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of trait hostility on circulating levels of CRP and IL-6.
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Personality and inflammation: the protective effect of openness to experience.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Prior research found reduced mortality in coronary heart patients with higher scores on the Openness to Experience domain and its facets. Decreased C-reactive protein level (CRP) levels may be one mechanism by which higher Openness to Experience leads to decreased mortality. Thus, the current study aimed to test the association between the Openness to Experience domain and its facets, as assessed by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and CRP in a sample of 165 healthy Black and White, male and female community volunteers.
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Depression among centenarians and the oldest old: contributions of cognition and personality.
Gerontology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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An estimated 20% of adults over the age of 55 experience clinical mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. For older adults, mental health concerns are often undetected, concomitant with physical challenges, and ultimately go untreated. These realities have significant implications for older adults day-to-day functioning, particularly among the oldest old.
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Predicting successful aging in a population-based sample of georgia centenarians.
Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0-80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80-98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life.
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Engaged Lifestyle, Personality, and Mental Status Among Centenarians.
J Adult Dev
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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This study assessed engaged lifestyle activities (e.g., volunteering, traveling, and public speaking) for centenarians of the Georgia Centenarian Study. A total of 285 centenarians and near-centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older) and their proxy informants participated in this study. The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was assessed for all centenarians, and proxy informants reported on lifestyle activities and personality traits of the centenarians. Results suggested that participants who had volunteered, traveled, and those who had given public talks and balanced their checkbooks were more likely to show relatively high mental status scores (i.e., MMSE > 17). Personality traits were found to be moderators in the relationship between engaged lifestyle and mental status: Participants with high levels of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness and with high levels of engaged lifestyle were more likely to show relatively high mental status scores (i.e., MMSE > 17), whereas participants with low levels of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and with low levels of engaged lifestyle were more likely to show relatively low mental status scores (i.e., MMSE < 18). The results suggest that engaged lifestyle, particularly in combination with personality traits, plays an important role in the level of cognitive functioning among oldest old adults.
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Hostility and fasting glucose in African American women.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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To examine whether the relationship of hostility (HOST) to fasting glucose indices is moderated by sex and race. HOST has been associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism. Prior studies suggested that this association may be more prevalent in women and in African American (AA) individuals.
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Socioeconomic status moderates associations between CNS serotonin and expression of beta2-integrins CD11b and CD11c.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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One of the first steps in the development of atherogenesis is adhesion of circulating monocytes to the vascular endothelium that is stimulated by beta(2)-integrins. Stress has been associated with enhanced expression of beta(2)-integrins on monocyte cell surface (Greeson et al., 2008). Central nervous system (CNS) serotonin regulates aspects of the stress response that can influence inflammatory processes that increase risk for atherosclerosis. This study examines effects of an environmental stressor (indexed by socioeconomic status (SES)) and CNS serotonin (indexed by CSF 5HIAA level), on the expression of beta(2)-integrins (CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c) on circulating monocytes in 131 volunteers. Participants completed a protocol consisting of a lumbar puncture for assessment of CSF 5HIAA levels (day 1) followed by an experimental protocol (day 2). Blood samples for the present analyses were obtained at baseline on day 2. The interaction of SES x 5HIAA was a significant predictor of levels of CD11b and CD11c expression (p=.02, and p=.05, respectively); the mean CD11b difference between Hi and Lo SES subjects was significant (p=.003) only in those with Lo levels of 5HIAA, while SES differences in CD11b among those with Mid and Hi levels of 5HIAA did not vary statistically. The pattern of findings was similar for CD11c. The present results suggest that the combination of high environmental stress and low CNS serotonin function could contribute to atherogenesis through processes that lead to increased expression of the beta(2)-integrins CD11b and CD11c on monocyte cell surfaces.
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Associations of Social Support and 8-Year Follow-Up Depressive Symptoms: Differences in African American and White Caregivers.
Clin Gerontol
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The present study used data from the Alzheimers Study of Emotions in Caregivers (ASEC) to evaluate perceptions of social support assessed at baseline, as well as changes in social support assessed at a follow-up eight-years later, as predictors of symptoms of change in depression, with a focus on race as a potential moderator of these relationships. Specifically, multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, income, education, race, living arrangement of care recipient at baseline, death of care recipient, the cultural justification for caregiving scale (CJCS), and baseline depressive symptoms were conducted to assess baseline social support ratings, as well as the change in social support over time as a predictor of depression at follow-up-with a focus on moderation by race. Baseline social support (F(1,77) = 7.60, p=.008) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms at follow-up for all participants. The change in social support over time was also related to depressive symptoms, with effects moderated by race (F(1,77) = 7.97, p = .007), such that when support decreased over time depressive symptoms at follow-up were higher for Whites, as compared with African Americans, whereas, when social support increased over time depressive symptoms tended to be similar for both groups. These findings indicate that research designed to plan interventions in caregivers must not ignore potential racial differences with regard to the effects of caregiving on mental health.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met and adulthood chronic stress interact to affect depressive symptoms.
J Psychiatr Res
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BDNF Val66Met by chronic stress interaction has been studied using childhood stress as a moderator, but has not been widely studied using chronic stress in adulthood.
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The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) moderates the effect of adolescent environmental conditions on self-esteem in young adulthood: a structural equation modeling approach.
Biol Psychol
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Here we examine the effects of both self-reported and independent observer-reported environmental risk indices, the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR) polymorphism, and their interaction on self-esteem. This trait was assessed during early and mid adolescence (mean age=14 and 16.5, respectively) and young adulthood (mean age=21.8) in a prospective cohort of 1214 unrelated participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Using structural equation modeling we identified a gene-environment (G×E) interaction using observer-report but not self-report measures of environmental stress exposure during adolescence: 5HTTLPR genotype and observer-reports of home and neighborhood quality (HNQ) during adolescence interacted to predict self-esteem levels in young adulthood (p<.004). Carriers of the s allele who lived in poor HNQ conditions during adolescence reported lower self-esteem in young adulthood than those with a good HNQ during adolescence. In contrast, among individuals with the l/l genotype, adolescent HNQ did not predict adulthood self-esteem. Genes may moderate the effect of adolescent environmental conditions on adulthood self-esteem.
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Parenting styles and body mass index trajectories from adolescence to adulthood.
Health Psychol
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Parenting styles such as authoritarian, disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style. This study assessed the relationship between parenting styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood.
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Understanding dementia prevalence among centenarians.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
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The goals of this article are to (a) establish the concurrent and clinical validity of the Global Deterioration scale in assessing cognitive functions and stages of dementia among centenarians, (b) identify the prevalence of all-cause dementia in representative samples of centenarians, and (c) demonstrate how variations in sample demographic characteristics could significantly affect estimates of dementia prevalence. A quarter of the 244 centenarians in a population-based sample had no objective evidence of memory deficits. Another quarter showed signs of transient confusion, and about half showed classical behavioral signs of dementia with about 15% in each of Global Deterioration scale stages 4-6 and about 5% in the most severe stage 7. Variations in age, gender, race, residence status, and education of the study sample as well as criteria used for dementia rating were found to affect prevalence.
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Life events and personality predicting loneliness among centenarians: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.
J Psychol
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Regarding the purpose of this study, the researchers analyzed the roles that both life events (life-time positive events and life-time negative events) and personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Trust, Competence, and Ideas) played in participants of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The researchers analyzed these variables to determine whether they predicted loneliness. Analyses indicated that life-time negative events significantly predicted loneliness. In essence, the higher was the number of life-time negative life events, the higher was the loneliness score. Moreover, Neuroticism, Competence, and Ideas were all significant predictors of loneliness. The higher was the level of Neuroticism and intellectual curiosity, the higher was the level of loneliness, whereas the lower was the level of Competence, the higher was the level of loneliness. In addition, both life-time positive and life-time negative life events were significant predictors of Neuroticism. The higher was the number of life-time positive events, the lower was the level of Neuroticism, and the higher was the number of life-time negative events, the greater was the level of Neuroticism. These results indicated that life-time negative events indirectly affect loneliness via Neuroticism. Last, our results indicated that the Competence facet mediated the relationship between lifetime negative life events and loneliness. Life-time negative life events significantly affected centenarians perceived competence, and Competence in turn significantly affected the centenarians loneliness. These results as a whole not only add to our understanding of the link between personality and loneliness, but also provide new insight into how life events predict loneliness.
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Diabetes mellitus in centenarians.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To describe the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in centenarians.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.