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Synthesis of substituted diphenyl sulfones and their structure-activity relationship with the antagonism of 5-??6 receptors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Substituted diphenyl sulfones (10a-n) were synthesised, and the structures were confirmed by NMR, LC-MS and X-ray crystallography. Their antagonistic activities towards 5-HT? receptor were assessed in a cell-based functional assay. Diphenyl sulfone 10a, in spite of being the smallest and simplest known sulfonyl-containing 5-HT?R antagonist, showed a strong potency (Ki=1.6 ?M). Its derivative with a methylamine substituent, 10g (N-methyl-2-(phenylsulfonyl)aniline), was ?66-times as active as diphenyl sulfone (Ki=24.3 nM). Addition of a piperazinyl moiety in the para-position relative to the sulfonyl group in compound 10m (N-methyl-2-(phenylsulfonyl)-5-piperazin-1-ylaniline) led to a further 150-fold increase in potency (Ki=0.16 nM) to block the serotonin-induced response of HEK-293 cells that were stably transfected with the human recombinant 5-HT? receptor.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of (5,7-disubstituted 3-phenylsulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)-methylamines as potent serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor (5-HT(6)R) antagonists.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Syntheses, biological evaluation as 5-HT(6) receptor (5-HT(6)R) antagonists, and structure-activity relationships for a series of novel 5,7-disubstituted (3-arylsulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidins are disclosed. The molecule conformational flexibility in the series is restricted by formation of the intramolecular hydrogen bond between 3-sulfo and 2-methylamino groups, which renders high potency and high selectivity to block serotonin-induced responses in HEK-293 cells stably expressing human 5-HT(6)R. In this work, we tested the hypothesis if addition of a positively ionizable group (PI) to the pyrimidine ring of the scaffold members in positions 5, 6, or 7 could further increase their 5HT(6)R blocking potency. We show that the presence of the PI group with small substituents does not substantially affect either potency or selectivity of the ligands while causing substantial changes in their cLogP values. This provides a possibility for designing of the 5HT(6)R ligands with modified ADME characteristics without grossly affecting efficiency of their interaction with the receptor. In respect to the structure-activity relationship (SAR), among other physiochemical parameters, only the molecule size and shape (described by gyration radii) showed a clear tendency for more compact molecules to be more potent antagonists of this receptor.
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A novel synthetic smoothened antagonist transiently inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts in a mouse model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is over-activated in several solid tumors where it plays a central role in cell growth, stroma recruitment and tumor progression. In the Hh signaling pathway, the Smoothened (SMO) receptor comprises a primary drug target with experimental small molecule SMO antagonists currently being evaluated in clinical trials.
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2-Substituted 5,6-dimethyl-3-phenylsulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines: new series of highly potent and specific serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Syntheses, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships for a series of novel 2-substituted 3-benzenesulfonyl-5,6-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are disclosed. In spite of a wide, four orders of magnitude, SAR range (K(i) varied from 260 pM to 2.96 ?M), no significant correlation of 5-HT(6)R antagonistic potency was observed with major physiochemical characteristics, such as molecular weight, surface polar area, cLogP, or number of rotatable bonds. Statistically significant trend was only observed for size of substitute group, which was not enough to explain the deep SAR trend. Besides with the substitute group size, another factor that presumably plays a role in defining the compound potencies is a relative position of the heterocycle and sulfophenyl moieties. Among all synthesized derivatives, (3-benzenesulfonyl-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)-methyl-amine 18 is the most potent (K(i) = 260 pM) and extremely selective, 5000 to >50,000-fold relative to 55 therapeutic targets, antagonist of the 5-HT(6) receptor.
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Synthesis and SAR of 3-arylsulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as potent serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Syntheses of a series of novel 3-sulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and their 5-HT(6) receptor antagonistic structure-activity relationship are disclosed. The nature and position of substituents, which affect their receptor antagonistic activity, are analyzed. Among all synthesized derivatives, {3-(3-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl}-methyl-amine 33 (K(i)=190 pM), (3-phenylsulfonyl-7-methyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)-methyl-amine 44 (K(i)=240 pM), (3-phenylsulfonyl-5-metoxymethyl-7-methyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)-methyl-amine 50 (K(i)=270 pM), and (3-phenylsulfonyl-5-methyl-7-metoxymethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)-methyl-amine 52 (K(i)=280 pM) are the most potent antagonists of the 5-HT(6) receptors.
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(3-Phenylsulfonylcycloalkano[e and d]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)amines: potent and selective antagonists of the serotonin 5-HT6 receptor.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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5-HT(6) receptors are exclusively localized in the CNS and have high affinity with many psychotropic agents. Though the role of this receptor in many CNS diseases is widely anticipated, lack of definite progress in the development of 5-HT(6) receptor-oriented drugs indicates a need for further discoveries of novel chemotypes with high potency and high selectivity to the receptor. Here we present preparations and biological evaluation of a series of (3-phenylsulfonylcycloalkano[e and d]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)amines. Phenylsulfonylcyclopentapyrazolopyrimidine 7 was found to be a highly selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist with high affinity (low picomolar range) and potency. 7 and a few of its analogues were further tested for biological effect on 5-HT(2B) receptors and hERG potassium channels, potential liability targets. Such liability appears to be minimal, based on the in vitro data.
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Recombinant yeast screen for new inhibitors of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 identifies potential drugs to treat obesity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a key enzyme of fatty acid metabolism with multiple isozymes often expressed in different eukaryotic cellular compartments. ACC-made malonyl-CoA serves as a precursor for fatty acids; it also regulates fatty acid oxidation and feeding behavior in animals. ACC provides an important target for new drugs to treat human diseases. We have developed an inexpensive nonradioactive high-throughput screening system to identify new ACC inhibitors. The screen uses yeast gene-replacement strains depending for growth on cloned human ACC1 and ACC2. In "proof of concept" experiments, growth of such strains was inhibited by compounds known to target human ACCs. The screen is sensitive and robust. Medium-size chemical libraries yielded new specific inhibitors of human ACC2. The target of the best of these inhibitors was confirmed with in vitro enzymatic assays. This compound is a new drug chemotype inhibiting human ACC2 with 2.8 muM IC(50) and having no effect on human ACC1 at 100 muM.
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Solution phase parallel synthesis of substituted 3-phenylsulfonyl-[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines: selective serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists.
J Comb Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Here we present the solution phase parallel synthesis of a combinatorial library consisting of 776 new substituted 3-phenylsulfonyl-[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines and a study of the relation of their structure with a 5-HT(6) receptor antagonistic activity in a functional cell (HEK 293) analysis and radioligand competitive binding. We have found highly active and selective 5-HT(6)R antagonists. The most active 5-HT(6)R antagonists have IC(50) <100 nM in a functional assay, and K(i) <10 nM in a binding assay, which is 100 times higher than the activity with respect to other serotonin receptors.
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Synthesis and biological study of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)thieno[2,3-e][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as potent and selective serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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A number of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)thieno[2,3-e][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines were prepared and their 5-HT6 receptor binding affinity and ability to inhibit the functional cellular responses to serotonin were evaluated. 3-[(3-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]-N-(tetrahydrofuran-2-ylmethyl)thieno[2,3-e][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-amine 2{5,26} appeared to be the most active in a functional assay (IC50=29.0 nM) and 3-(phenylsulfonyl)-N-(2-thienylmethyl) thieno[2,3-e][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-amine 2{1,28} demonstrated the greatest affinity in a 5-HT6 receptor radioligand binding assay (Ki=1.7 nM). A screening of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor affinity revealed that 3-(phenylsulfonyl)thieno[2,3-e][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are highly selective 5-HT6 receptor ligands.
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Synthesis of cycloalkane-annelated 3-phenylsulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and their evaluation as 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1 (angular) and 2 (linear) cycloalkane-annelated 3-phenylsulfonyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as novel ligands of the 5-HT(6) receptors are disclosed. The new compounds 1 and 2 are highly selective antagonists of the receptor with sub-nanomolar affinities (K(i)<1 nM). In its structure, this new chemotype lacks a basic ionizable side chain, which is considered as the characteristic feature of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists pharmacophore model.
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Synthesis and biological activity of 5-styryl and 5-phenethyl-substituted 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indoles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Syntheses, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships for a series of novel 5-styryl and 5-phenethyl analogs of dimebolin are disclosed. The novel derivatives and dimebolin share a broad spectrum of activities against therapeutically relevant targets. Among all synthesized derivatives, 2,8-dimethyl-5-[(Z)-2-phenylvinyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole and its 5-phenethyl analog are the most potent blockers of 5-HT(7), 5-HT(6), 5-HT(2C), Adrenergic alpha(2) and H(1) receptors. The general affinity rank order towards the studied receptors was Z-3(2)>4(2)4(3)>dimebolin, all of them having highest affinities to 5-HT(7) receptors.
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8-Sulfonyl-substituted tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indoles as 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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A series of novel 8-sulfonyl-substituted 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indoles (THPI) has been synthesized and their ability to interact with 5-HT(6) receptors evaluated in cell-based and radioligand binding assays. Amongst evaluated THPIs, compounds 9.HCl and 20.HCl have been identified as the most potent 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists with K(i) values equal to 2.1 nM and 5.7 nM and IC(50) values (functional assay) equal to 15 nM and 78 nM, respectively. Affinities of these two compounds for several serotonin receptors in the competitive radioligand binding assays as well as their specificity profiles against a panel of therapeutic targets have been determined.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel gamma-carboline analogues of Dimebon as potent 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships for a series of novel gamma-carboline analogues of Dimebon are described. Among the studied compounds, gamma-carbolines 3{8} and 3{14} have been identified as potent small molecule antagonists of histamine H(1) (IC(50)=0.1 microM) and serotonin 5-HT(6) (IC(50)=0.37 microM) receptors, respectively.
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3,6-Diamino-4-(2-halophenyl)-2-benzoylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbonitriles are selective inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum glycogen synthase kinase-3.
J. Med. Chem.
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Plasmodium falciparum is the infective agent responsible for malaria tropica. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 of the parasite (PfGSK-3) was suggested as a potential biological target for novel antimalarial drugs. Starting from hit structures identified in a high-throughput screening campaign, 3,6-diamino-4-(2-halophenyl)-2-benzoylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbonitriles were discovered as a new class of PfGSK-3 inhibitors. Being less active on GSK-3 homologues of other species, the title compounds showed selectivity in favor of PfGSK-3. Taking into account the X-ray structure of a related molecule in complex with human GSK-3 (HsGSK-3), a model was computed for the comparison of inhibitor complexes with the plasmodial and human enzymes. It was found that subtle differences in the ATP-binding pockets are responsible for the observed PfGSK-3 vs HsGSK-3 selectivity. Representatives of the title compound class exhibited micromolar IC?? values against P. falciparum erythrocyte stage parasites. These results suggest that inhibitors of PfGSK-3 could be developed as potential antimalarial drugs.
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Antagonists of 5-HT? receptors. Substituted 3-(phenylsulfonyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrido[3,4-e]pyrimidines and 3-(phenylsulfonyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines-Synthesis and structure-activity relationship.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of structurally unrestricted and intramolecular hydrogen bond restricted derivatives of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrido[3,4-e]pyrimidines (angular tricyclics) and 3-(phenylsulfonyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines (linear tricyclics) are described. Structurally restricted derivatives are highly potent and selective blockers of 5-HT(6) receptors with little difference between angular or linear shape of the tricyclic core, the angular species being only slightly more potent. The angular representative of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrido[3,4-e]pyrimidines, 5, can be considered as more favorable candidate for further development as it shows only weak 5-HT(2B) blocking activity (IC(50)=6.16 ?M as compared with IC(50)=1.8 nM for 5-HT(6) receptors) and very low hERG potassium channel blocking potency (IC(50)=54.2 ?M). The linear analog, 11, is less favorable as while showing no binding to the 5-HT(2B) receptor at concentrations of up to 10 ?M, it exhibits quite a high potency to block the hERG channel (IC(50)=0.5 ?M).
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