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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Circulating angiogenic biomolecules at rest and in response to upper-limb exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) show structural and functional vascular maladaptations and muscle loss in their lower limbs. Angiogenic biomolecules play important roles in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, and are implicated in the maintenance of muscle mass. This study examined the responses of angiogenic molecules during upper-limb aerobic exercise in SCI patients and in able-bodied (AB) individuals.
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Stair descending exercise increases muscle strength in elderly males with chronic heart failure.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Previous studies from our group have shown that "pure" eccentric exercise performed on an isokinetic dynamometer can induce health-promoting effects that may improve quality of life. In order to investigate whether the benefits of "pure" eccentric exercise can be transferred to daily activities, a new and friendlier way to perform eccentric exercise had to be invented. To this end, we have proceeded to the design and construction of an automatic escalator, offering both stair descending (eccentric-biased) and stair ascending (concentric-biased) exercise.
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Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.
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Aging is not a barrier to muscle and redox adaptations: applying the repeated eccentric exercise model.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Despite the progress of analytic techniques and the refinement of study designs, striking disagreement exists among studies regarding the influence of exercise on muscle function and redox homeostasis in the elderly. The repeated eccentric exercise model was applied to produce long-lasting and extensive changes in redox biomarkers and to reveal more effectively the potential effects of aging on redox homeostasis. Ten young (20.6±0.5 years) and ten elderly men (64.6±1.1 years) underwent an isokinetic eccentric exercise session, which was repeated after three weeks. Muscle function/damage indices (torque, range of movement, muscle soreness and creatine kinase) and redox biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, uric acid, bilirubin and albumin) were assessed in plasma, erythrocytes or urine pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and at 2 and 4 days post-exercise. As expected, the elderly group exhibited oxidative stress in baseline compared to the young group. Extensive muscle damage and extensive alterations in redox homeostasis appeared after the first bout of eccentric exercise. Noteworthy, the redox responses were similar between the age groups despite their differences in baseline values. Likewise, both age groups demonstrated blunted alterations in muscle damage and redox homeostasis after the second bout of eccentric exercise indicating adaptations from the first bout of exercise. Elderly individuals seem to be well fitted to participate in demanding physical activities without suffering detrimental effects on skeletal muscle and/or disturbances on redox homeostasis. The repeated eccentric exercise model may be a useful and practical physiological tool to study redox biology in humans.
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The association of physical activity with novel adipokines in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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Adipose-tissue derivatives, known as adipokines, have been involved in the inflammatory-mediated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study examined the association between novel adipokines and self-reported physical activity, a potential anti-inflammatory mediator.
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The extent of aerobic system activation during continuous and interval exercise protocols in young adolescents and men.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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This study assessed the extent of aerobic system activation in young adolescents and men during heavy continuous (HC), short-interval (SI), and long-interval (LI) aerobic exercise protocols, and compared this response between the 2 age groups in the 3 protocols. Ten young adolescents (aged 13.2 ± 0.3 years) and 10 men (aged 21.0 ± 1.6 years) completed a maximal incremental test, an HC exercise protocol (83% of maximal aerobic velocity; MAV), an SI exercise protocol (30 s at 110% MAV with 30 s at 50%), and an LI exercise protocol (3 min at 95% MAV with 3 min at 35%). Oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured continuously, and blood samples were obtained for lactate determination. Men completed more runs and distance in the SI protocol (p < 0.05) than adolescents; however, there were no age differences in the number of LI runs and in the duration of HC protocol. In both age groups, more time was spent above 90% and 95% of maximal oxygen consumption (p < 0.05), and a higher percentage of maximal oxygen consumption was reached in the LI compared with the HC and SI protocols, with no differences between the HC and SI protocols. Although within each protocol the percentage of maximal oxygen consumption achieved and time spent above 90% and 95% of maximal oxygen consumption was not different between age groups, the time spent at 80% maximal oxygen consumption was longer for adolescents than men in the HC protocol, and longer for men than boys in the SI protocol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, all protocols elicited high levels of aerobic activation in both age groups. The LI protocol taxed the aerobic system at 90%-100% of maximal oxygen consumption for a longer time when compared with the HC and SI protocols in young adolescents and in men. However, differences were observed between groups in taxing the aerobic system at 80% maximal oxygen consumption: in young adolescents, the HC protocol allowed longer running time than the LI and SI protocols, while in men there were no differences among protocols.
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The effect of exercise-induced hypoxemia on blood redox status in well-trained rowers.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), characterized by decline in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), is a common phenomenon in endurance athletes. Acute intensive exercise is associated with the generation of reactive species that may result in redox status disturbances and oxidation of cell macromolecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether EIAH augments oxidative stress as determined in blood plasma and erythrocytes in well-trained male rowers after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race. Initially, athletes were assigned into either the normoxemic (n = 9, SaO(2) >92%, [Formula: see text]: 62.0 ± 1.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) or hypoxemic (n = 12, SaO(2) <92%, [Formula: see text]: 60.5 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1 )min(-1), mean ± SEM) group, following an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a wind resistance braked rowing ergometer. On a separate day the rowers performed a 2,000-m all-out effort on the same rowing ergometer. Following an overnight fast, blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before and immediately after the termination of the 2,000-m all-out effort and analyzed for selective oxidative stress markers. In both the normoxemic (SaO(2): 94.1 ± 0.9%) and hypoxemic (SaO(2): 88.6 ± 2.4%) rowers similar and significant exercise increase in serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyls, catalase and total antioxidant capacity concentration were observed post-2,000 m all-out effort. Exercise significantly increased the oxidized glutathione concentration and decreased the ratio of reduced (GSH)-to-oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the normoxemic group only, whereas the reduced form of glutathione remained unaffected in either groups. The increased oxidation of GSH to GSSG in erythrocytes of normoxemic individuals suggest that erythrocyte redox status may be affected by the oxygen saturation degree of hemoglobin. Our findings indicate that exercise-induced hypoxemia did not further affect the increased blood oxidative damage of lipids and proteins observed after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race in highly-trained male rowers. The present data do not support any potential link between exercise-induced hypoxemia, oxidative stress increase and exercise performance.
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Impact of atorvastatin on serum vaspin levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with moderate cardiovascular risk.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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Vaspin and visfatin have emerged as novel adipokines, involved in atherosclerosis progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin and lifestyle modification on the above adipokines in hypercholesterolemic patients.
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Isokinetic strength and joint mobility asymmetries in oarside experienced oarsmen.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate oarside and nonoarside lower extremity asymmetries in isokinetic strength and joint mobility of port and starboard oarsmen. Peak torques of right and left extensors and flexors were measured on isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocities of 60 and 180°·s-1 in 12 starboard (n = 12; training age 5.55 ± 0.52 years) and 14 port (n = 14; training age 6.09 ± 0.95 years) well-trained male rowers. Mobility of the hip, knee, and ankle joints was measured using the Myrin flexometer, a modification of the Leighton flexometer. The findings indicate that ports had a significantly higher peak torque in oarside right knee extensors at 60°·s-1 (p < 0.001) and 180°·s-1 (p < 0.01) compared to in the nonoarside left knee extensors. In a respective manner, starboards had a higher peak torque in left knee extensors at 60°·s-1 (p < 0.05) and 180°·s-1 (p < 0.05) compared to the right side. Right flexors peak torque was significantly higher in ports compared to that in starboards at 60°·s-1 (p < 0.05) and 180°·s-1 (p < 0.01). No significant difference between port and starboards in left knee flexors at either angular velocity was found. Both port and starboards exhibited a significantly higher hip (p < 0.01) mobility in oarside compared to in nonoarside. We conclude that sweep rowers develop a significantly higher flexion knee peak torque and hip mobility depending on oarside. Strength and mobility abnormalities may provide information for training and rehabilitation. Strengthening and stretching training programs to compensate for potential strength and mobility imbalance and thereby reducing the occurrence of injuries may be designed.
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F?-isoprostane formation, measurement and interpretation: the role of exercise.
Prog. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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The level of F?-isoprostanes (F?-IsoP) in blood or urine is widely regarded as the reference marker for the assessment of oxidative stress. As a result, nowadays, F?-IsoP is the most frequently measured oxidative stress marker. Nevertheless, determining F?-IsoP is a challenging task and the measurement is neither free of mishaps nor straightforward. This review presents for the first time the effect of acute and chronic exercise on F?-IsoP levels in plasma, urine and skeletal muscle, placing emphasis on the origin, the methodological caveats and the interpretation of F?-IsoP alterations. From data analysis, the following effects of exercise have emerged: (i) acute exercise clearly increases F?-IsoP levels in plasma and this effect is generally short-lived, (ii) acute exercise and increased contractile activity markedly increase F?-IsoP levels in skeletal muscle, (iii) chronic exercise exhibits trend for decreased F?-IsoP levels in urine but further research is needed. Theoretically, it seems that significant amounts of F?-IsoP can be produced not only from phospholipids but from neutral lipids as well. The origin of F?-IsoP detected in plasma and urine (as done by almost all studies in humans) remains controversial, as a multitude of tissues (including skeletal muscle and plasma) can independently produce F?-IsoP.
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Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in diaphragm muscle does not alter contraction-induced fatigue or recovery.
Exp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2009
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Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are necessary to optimize muscle force production in unfatigued muscle. In contrast, sustained high levels of ROS production have been linked to impaired muscle force production and contraction-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Using genetically engineered mice, we tested the hypothesis that the independent transgenic overexpression of catalase (CAT), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) antioxidant enzymes would negatively affect force production in unfatigued diaphragm muscle but would delay the development of muscle fatigue and enhance force recovery after fatiguing contractions. Diaphragm muscle from wild-type littermates (WT) and from CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressing mice were subjected to an in vitro contractile protocol to investigate the force-frequency characteristics, the fatigue properties and the time course of recovery from fatigue. The CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressors produced less specific force (in N cm(-2)) at stimulation frequencies of 20-300 Hz and produced lower maximal tetanic force than WT littermates. The relative development of muscle fatigue and recovery from fatigue were not influenced by transgenic overexpression of any antioxidant enzyme. Morphologically, the mean cross-sectional area (in microm(2)) of diaphragm myofibres expressing myosin heavy chain type IIA was decreased in both CAT and SOD2 transgenic animals, and the percentage of non-contractile tissue increased in diaphragms from all transgenic mice. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that overexpression of independent antioxidant enzymes protects diaphragm muscle from contraction-induced fatigue or improves recovery from fatigue. Moreover, our data are consistent with the concept that a basal level of ROS is important to optimize muscle force production, since transgenic overexpression of major cellular antioxidants is associated with contractile dysfunction. Finally, the transgenic overexpression of independent endogenous antioxidants alters diaphragm skeletal muscle morphology, and these changes may also contribute to the diminished specific force production observed in these animals.
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Increased oxidative stress blood markers in well-trained rowers following two thousand-meter rowing ergometer race.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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High-intensity exercise is associated with increased oxidative stress. Rowing is very demanding requiring maintenance of high power mostly produced from aerobic metabolism. The present study aimed at investigating selective blood oxidative stress markers in response to a rowing race simulation test, consisting of 2,000 m maximal effort on a rowing ergometer, in well-trained male rowers during the preseason preparatory training period. Mean time for the 2,000-m trial was 409.4 +/- 4.0 seconds, and heart rate at 2,000 m was 198 +/- 1 b x min (mean +/- SEM). Blood lactate concentration was 11.2 +/- 0.6 mmol x L. Postexercise whole blood lysate oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration significantly increased (19%), whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration remained unchanged, resulting in an overall decreased postexercise GSH:GSSG ratio (20%). Postexercise serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentration and protein carbonyls increased by 45 and 70%, respectively, as compared with the pre-exercise levels. Likewise, postexercise catalase activity (105%) and total antioxidant capacity (9%) significantly increased. In agreement with other studies, our data illustrate that a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race induces significant blood oxidative stress despite the rowers high training status. In scheduling an evaluation rowing test or a competition, coaches should allow sufficient recovery time elapsed between the test and the last intensive training session. The 2,000-m rowing performance appears to be a suitable test to assess oxidative stress in rowers and could potentially serve as a model to study oxidative damage in sports science.
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Exercise training ameliorates the effects of rosiglitazone on traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone and/or exercise training on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with inadequate glycemic control (hemoglobin A(1c) >7%) despite combined treatment with gliclazide plus metformin, were randomized using a 2 x 2 factorial design to 4 equivalent (n = 25) groups, as follows: (1) CO: maintenance of habitual activities, (2) RSG: add-on therapy with rosiglitazone (8 mg/d), (3) EX: adjunctive exercise training, and (4) RSG + EX: supplementary administration of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d) plus exercise training. No participant had diabetic vascular complications or was receiving lipid-lowering therapy. Anthropometric parameters, cardiorespiratory capacity, glycemic and lipid profile, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-18, insulin resistance, and blood pressure were measured before and after 12 months of intervention (P < .05). Both RSG and EX groups significantly reduced glycemic indexes, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and IL-18, whereas they significantly increased high-density lipoprotein, cardiorespiratory capacity, and IL-10, compared with CO group (P < .05). Besides this, exercise-treated patients conferred a remarkable down-regulation in the rest of lipid parameters (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apo B) and body fat content (P < .05) in comparison with CO group. On the other hand, RSG group rather than CO group considerably increased apo A-I levels and body mass index (P < .05). Notably, the combined treatment group yielded pronounced beneficial changes in glycemic indexes, lipid profile, insulin resistance, blood pressure, IL-10, IL-18, apo A-I, and apo B (vs CO group, P < .05). Furthermore, the addition of exercise to rosiglitazone treatment counteracted the drug-related negative effects on body weight, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. Rosiglitazone plus exercise training elicited additive effects on body composition, glycemic control, and traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, indicating complementary effects.
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Effects of rosiglitazone and metformin treatment on apelin, visfatin, and ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Visfatin, ghrelin, and apelin are the most recently identified adipocytokines; but their response to insulin-sensitizing agents is poorly clarified. We aimed to assess the differential effects of either rosiglitazone or metformin monotherapy on the aforementioned adipocytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). One hundred T2DM patients (30 men, 70 women), with poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin >6.5%) while taking 850 mg of metformin daily, were enrolled. All participants were randomized to receive either adjunctive therapy with rosiglitazone (8 mg/d, n = 50) or the maximum dose (2550 mg/d) of metformin (MET group, n = 50). Anthropometric parameters, glycemic and lipid profile, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index [HOMA-IR]), visfatin, ghrelin, and apelin were assessed at baseline and after 14 weeks of therapy. Both rosiglitazone and metformin led to similar, significant improvement in glycemic profile and apelin levels, whereas lipid parameters, fat mass, and visfatin remained almost unaffected (P > .05). Insulin resistance was significantly attenuated in both groups, but to a lesser degree in the MET group (P = .045). Rosiglitazone-treated patients experienced a significant decrease in hs-CRP and systolic blood pressure compared with baseline values and those of the MET group (P < .05). Besides, rosiglitazone treatment considerably increased plasma ghrelin (3.74 +/- 1.52 ng/mL) in comparison with either baseline (P = .034) or metformin monotherapy values (-2.23 +/- 1.87 ng/mL, P = .008). On the other hand, the MET group, rather than the rosiglitazone group, had decreased body mass index (-0.79 +/- 0.47 vs 0.56 kg/m(2), P = .009). The aforementioned changes in apelin and ghrelin were independently associated with HOMA-IR changes. Both rosiglitazone and metformin favorably changed glycemic indexes and apelin levels. The addition of rosiglitazone seemed to confer greater benefits in ghrelin, hs-CRP, systolic blood pressure, and HOMA-IR regulation than metformin monotherapy. Although these results reflect improvement in cardiovascular risk profile, the overall clinical importance of insulin sensitizers must be further assessed.
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Determinants of muscle metaboreflex and involvement of baroreflex in boys and young men.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
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This study aimed to assess the arterial pressure (AP) determinants during the muscle metaboreflex in boys and men and to investigate the contribution of baroreflex and sympathovagal function to the metaboreflex-induced responses. Fourteen pre-adolescent boys and 13 men performed a protocol involving: baseline, isometric handgrip exercise, circulatory occlusion, and recovery. The same protocol was repeated without occlusion. During baseline, boys had lower beat-to-beat AP, higher heart rate (HR), and lower low/high frequency HR variability. During exercise, a parasympathetic withdrawal was evident in both groups. In adults, HR was the key contributor to the pressure response, with no changes in stroke volume, whereas in boys, the lower HR increase was counterbalanced by an increase in stroke volume, resulting in similar relative increases in AP in both groups. In recovery, boys exhibited a faster rate of HR-decay, rapid vagal reactivation, and greater decrease in TPR than men. An overshoot in baroreceptor sensitivity was observed in men. The isolated metaboreflex resulted in a similar AP elevation in both age groups (by ~15 mmHg), and attenuated spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity. However, during the metaboreflex, pre-adolescent males exhibited a lower increase in peripheral resistance and a greater bradycardic response than adults, and a fast restoration of vagal activity to non-occlusion levels. During metaboreflex, boys were capable of eliciting a pressure response similar to the one elicited by men; however, the interplay of the mechanisms underlying the rise in AP differed between the two groups with the vagal contribution being greater in the younger participants.
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Low-frequency fatigue as an indicator of eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury: the role of vitamin E.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
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This study investigates whether vitamin E can attenuate eccentric exercise-induced soleus muscle injury as indicated by the amelioration of in situ isometric force decline following a low-frequency fatigue protocol (stimulation at 4?Hz for 5?min) and the ability of the muscle to recover 3?min after the termination of the fatigue protocol. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into vitamin E-supplemented or placebo-supplemented groups studied at rest, immediately post-exercise or 48?h post-exercise. Daily dl-?-tocopheryl acetate intraperitoneal injections of 100?mg/kg body mass for 5 consecutive days prior to exercise doubled its plasma levels. Fatigue index and recovery index expressed as a percentage of the initial tension. FI at 0?h post- and 48?h post-exercise respectively was 88%?±?4.2% and 89%?±?6.8% in the vitamin E groups versus 76%?±?3% and 80%?±?11% in the placebo groups. RI was 99%?±?3.4% and 100%?±?6% in the vitamin E groups versus 82%?±?3.1% and 84%?±?5.9% in the placebo groups. Complementally to the traditionally recorded maximal force, low-frequency fatigue measures may be beneficial for assessing injury-induced decrease in muscle functionality.
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Blood Pressure Control at Rest and during Exercise in Obese Children and Adults.
J Obes
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The hemodynamic responses to exercise have been studied to a great extent over the past decades, and an exaggerated blood pressure response during an acute exercise bout has been considered as an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Obesity is a major factor influencing the blood pressure response to exercise since evidence indicates that the arterial pressure response to exercise is exacerbated in obese compared with lean adults. Signs of augmented responses (such as an exaggerated blood pressure response) to physical exertion appear early in life (from the prepubertal years) in obese individuals. Understanding the mechanisms that drive the altered hemodynamic responses during exercise in obese individuals and prevent the progression to hypertension is vitally important. This paper focuses on the evidence linking obesity with alterations of the autonomic nervous system and discusses the potential mechanisms and consequences of the altered sympathetic nervous system behavior in obese individuals at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, this paper presents the alterations in the reflex regulatory mechanisms ("exercise pressor reflex" and baroreflex) in obese children and adults and addresses the effects of training on obesity-related disturbances.
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Redox biology of exercise: an integrative and comparative consideration of some overlooked issues.
J. Exp. Biol.
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The central aim of this review is to address the highly multidisciplinary topic of redox biology as related to exercise using an integrative and comparative approach rather than focusing on blood, skeletal muscle or humans. An attempt is also made to re-define oxidative stress as well as to introduce the term alterations in redox homeostasis to describe changes in redox homeostasis indicating oxidative stress, reductive stress or both. The literature analysis shows that the effects of non-muscle-damaging exercise and muscle-damaging exercise on redox homeostasis are completely different. Non-muscle-damaging exercise induces alterations in redox homeostasis that last a few hours post exercise, whereas muscle-damaging exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis that may persist for and/or appear several days post exercise. Both exhaustive maximal exercise lasting only 30 s and isometric exercise lasting 1-3 min (the latter activating in addition a small muscle mass) induce systemic oxidative stress. With the necessary modifications, exercise is capable of inducing redox homeostasis alterations in all fluids, cells, tissues and organs studied so far, irrespective of strains and species. More importantly, exercise-induced oxidative stress is not an oddity associated with a particular type of exercise, tissue or species. Rather, oxidative stress constitutes a ubiquitous fundamental biological response to the alteration of redox homeostasis imposed by exercise. The hormesis concept could provide an interpretative framework to reconcile differences that emerge among studies in the field of exercise redox biology. Integrative and comparative approaches can help determine the interactions of key redox responses at multiple levels of biological organization.
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The impact of aerobic exercise training on novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Med. Sci. Monit.
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Accumulating data support the atheroprotective role of the novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin. The aim of the present randomized study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on these adipokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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The effects of resistance training on ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, Lp(a) and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Endocrine
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We enrolled 52 overweight/obese, type 2 diabetic patients, with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c > 6.5 %), but without overt diabetic vascular complications. Participants were randomly assigned into two equivalent groups (n = 26): (1) Resistance exercise group: subjects underwent a supervised RT program (3-times/week, 60 min/session, 2-3 sets of 8 machine-weight exercises, 60-80 % of one-repetition maximum). (2) Control group (CG): at study entrance, they received a structured exercise counseling to increase daily physical activity. Clinical parameters, cardiorespiratory capacity, glycemic and lipid profile, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), fibrinogen were measured before and after 3 months. RT significantly reduced glycemic indexes, insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure, compared to CG (p < 0.05). Moreover, exercise-treated patients conferred a remarkable downregulation in ApoB levels (from 135.92 ± 30.97 mg/dL to 85.9 ± 26.46 mg/dL, p < 0.001) as compared to CG (from 126.33 ± 36.59 mg/dL to 116.23 ± 27.52 mg/dL, p = 0.872) (p < 0.001). Similarly, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was considerably decreased in REG rather than CG (-0.32 ± 0.09 vs 0.02 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Notably, ApoA-I, Lp(a), hsCRP, fibrinogen, the rest of lipid parameters, body weight and exercise capacity remained unaltered in both groups (p > 0.05). Among variables, HOMA-IR reduction was found to be an independent predictor of changes in ApoB/ApoA-I ratio (R (2) = 0.406, p = 0.041) in REG. Long-term RT ameliorated glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in individuals with T2DM. Although we did not observe significant benefits in the rest of cardiovascular risk factors, our results indicate a merely beneficial impact of RT.
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Exercise as a model to study redox homeostasis in blood: the effect of protocol and sampling point.
Biomarkers
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Twenty males ran either on a level treadmill (nonmuscle-damaging condition) or on a downhill treadmill (muscle-damaging condition). Blood and urine samples were collected before and after exercise (immediately after, 1h, 4h, 24h, 48h, and 96h). The following assays were performed: F(2)-isoprostanes in urine, protein carbonyls in plasma, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in erythrocytes. The main finding was that monophasic redox responses were detected after nonmuscle-damaging exercise compared to the biphasic responses detected after muscle-damaging exercise. Based on these findings, muscle-damaging exercise may be a more appropriate experimental model to induce physiological oxidative stress.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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