A series of 2,9-substituted 6-guanidinopurines, structurally related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors olomoucine and roscovitine, has been synthesized and characterized. A new copper-catalyzed method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 6-guanidino-9-isopropylpurines under mild reaction conditions has been developed. All prepared compounds were screened for their CDK1 and CDK2 inhibitory activities, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects in the breast cancer-derived cell line MCF7. The most active derivative 16g possessed an identical side chain in the C2 position to roscovitine; this compound displayed approximately five fold higher inhibitory activity towards CDK2/cyclin E and more than ten fold increase in cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells. Interestingly and in contrast to previously described findings, (S)-6-guanidinopurine derivatives were generally more active than their (R)-counterparts. Kinase selectivity profiling of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers 16e and 16g, respectively, revealed that introduction of a guanidino group at the C6 position of the purine moiety decreased selectivity towards protein kinases compared to roscovitine. Nevertheless, increased inhibitory activity and decreased selectivity offer a good starting point for further development of new protein kinase inhibitors.
Overexpression of p53 tumor suppressor protein in malignant cells induces cell cycle arrest, or alternatively, apoptosis thereby indicating that additional factors may contribute to the p53-mediated outcome. Comparison of the experimental protocols revealed that the construct encoding wild-type (wt) p53 was expressed in cells of different origin. Therefore, we decided to determine whether the intrinsic cellular program of primary cells of the same genetic background could have any effect on the oncogenic potential of mutated c-Ha-RAS and TP53. Primary rat cells (RECs) isolated from rat embryos of different age: at 13.5 gd (y) and 15.5 gd (o), were used for transfection. Immortalized rat cell clones overexpressing temperature-sensitive (ts) p53(135val) mutant and transformed cell clones after co-transfection with oncogenic c-Ha-Ras, were generated. The ts p53(135Val) mutant, switching between wt and mutant conformation, offers the possibility to study the role of p53 in cell cycle control in a model of malignant transformation in cells with the same genetic background. Surprisingly, the kinetics of cell proliferation at non-permissive temperature and that of cell cycle arrest at 32 degrees C strongly differed between cell clones established from yRECs and oRECs. Furthermore, the kinetics of the re-enter of G(1)-arrested cells in the active cell cycle strongly differed between distinct cell clones. Finally, the susceptibility of immortalized and transformed cells to the pharmacological inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) considerably differed. Our results clearly show that overexpression of genes such as mutated TP53 and oncogenic c-Ha-RAS is not able to fully override the intrinsic cellular programme.
Flavone eupatorin is one of the constituents of Orthosiphon stamineus, a medicinal herb used in folk medicine in South East Asia for treatment of various disorders. In our study, we investigated the antiproliferative properties of a chloroform extract of the leaves of O. stamineus and of pure eupatorin. The compound was able to reduce the number of viable cancer cells to the same extent as the extract, with IC(50) values in micromolar range. Moreover, both the eupatorin standard and the extract caused cells to arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This clearly demonstrates that eupatorin contributes significantly to the overall extract activity. Induction of mitotic catastrophe, accompanied by key molecular events defining apoptosis, is the mechanism of eupatorin-induced cell death. Importantly, eupatorin (at the doses cytotoxic to cancer cells) did not kill normal cells; it only limited migration of HUVEC endothelial cells and their ability to create tubes. The ability of eupatorin to nonspecifically inhibit many protein kinases was proven and is the probable cause of its cellular effects. In summary, eupatorin emerges as a promising agent in anticancer research.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.