Rotaviruses of group A (RVA) are enteric pathogens with well documented zoonotic transmissions to humans. The segmented genome of the virus enables reassortment events which might alter host susceptibility and/or disease course. Genetic analysis of rotavirus in dogs so far only revealed RVAs with the VP7 and VP4 genome constellation G3P. RVA G3P have also been found in cats, humans, monkeys and bats. In the present study an unusual RVA of genotype G8P is described which was isolated from an asymptomatically infected young dog. The dog did not show signs of diarrhoea. Analysis of full length segments of VP2, VP6 and VP7 as well as NSP1 to NSP5 revealed a typical bovine-like genotype constellation G8-P-I2-Rx-C2-Mx-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission from a bovine/artiodactyl species or from humans to the young dog. The isolate is likely to represent a multiple reassortant virus.
Next to good hemocompatibility performance of new medical devices, which has to be tested according to the ISO 10993-4, the detection of pyrogen-contaminated devices plays a pivotal role for safe device application. During blood contact with pyrogen-contaminated devices, intense inflammatory and hemostatic reactions are feared. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of pyrogenic contaminations on stents according to the ISO 10993-4. The pyrogens of different origins like lipopolysaccharides (LPS), purified lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or zymosan were used. These pyrogens were dried on stents or dissolved and circulated in a Chandler-loop model for 90 min at 37°C with human blood. Before and after circulation, parameters of the hemostatic system including coagulation, platelets, complement and leukocyte activation were investigated. The complement system was activated by LPS isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and by LTA. Leukocyte activation was triggered by LPS isolated from K. pneumoniae, LTA and zymosan, whereas coagulation and platelet activation were only slightly influenced. Our data indicate that pyrogen-contaminated devices lead to an alteration in the hemostatic response when compared to depyrogenized devices. Therefore, pyrogenicity testing should be performed prior to hemocompatibility tests according to ISO 10993-4 in order to exclude hemostatic activation induced by pyrogen contaminations.
Pyrogens are components of microorganisms, like bacteria, viruses or fungi, which can induce a complex inflammatory response in the human body. Pyrogen contamination on medical devices prior operation is still critical and associated with severe complications for the patients. The aim of our study was to develop a reliable test, which allows detection of pyrogen contamination on the surface of medical devices. After in vitro pyrogen contamination of different medical devices and incubation in a rotation model, the human whole blood monocyte activation test (MAT), which is based on an IL-1?-specific ELISA, was employed. Our results show that when combining a modified MAT protocol and a dynamic incubation system, even smallest amounts of pyrogens can be directly detected on the surface of medical devices. Therefore, screening of medical devices prior clinical application using our novel assay, has the potential to significantly reduce complications associated with pyrogen-contaminated medical devices.
A chronic loss of canine ?1 -proteinase inhibitor (c?1 -PI) into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract could change the systemic proteinase-proteinase inhibitor balance. Serum c?1 -PI concentrations have not been studied in dogs with well-defined GI diseases.
Toll-like receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbial origin, and ligand recognition results in the production of different immune mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, and upregulation of costimmulatory molecules. As these receptors have a critical role in linking pathogen recognition to induction of inflammation and innate as well as adaptive immunity, there is tremendous interest in understanding how the tissue and cell-type expression of TLRs is regulated and its influence on the local innate immune response. While TLRs are well studied in humans and rodents, to date little is known about them in dogs. The purpose of this study was to develop canine specific antibodies against TLR2, 4, 5 and 9 that were used to measure relative expression of these TLRs in healthy and reactive canine mesenteric lymph nodes. All 8 rabbit sera (2 each for TLR2, 4, 5 and 9) were strongly positive in ELISA against the respective 2 peptides per TLR used for immunization. The purified antibodies selected specifically detected a protein band with an apparent size of approximately 70 kDa in lysates of canine PBMCs by Western blotting. Immunostaining was observed with purified antibodies against TLR4, 5 and 9, whereas for canine TLR2, staining was only observed with the unpurified antibodies. In the mesenteric lymph node of healthy dogs, the overall staining pattern was very similar for TLR4 and 5 with positive cells predominantly found in the internodular areas and lower part of the cortex. Compared to the TLR4 and 5, more cells stained positive for TLR9 especially in the lymphoid nodules. The reactive lymph nodes contained more TLR4 and 9 positive cells. Moreover, a shift of TLR-9 positive cells from the lymphoid follicles to the deep cortex and medullary cords was observed. Whereas TLR9 co-localized with CD79-positive areas, TLR4 and 5 antibodies stained cells primarily in the CD3-positive areas. All three TLR antibodies stained cells within the area that co-localized with lysozyme-positive cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the antibodies generated against canine TLR 4, 5 and 9 identify the expression of these TLRs in formalin-fixed canine lymph nodes and demonstrate increased expression in reactive canine mesenteric lymph nodes.
Toll-like receptors are pattern recognition receptors with which hosts recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP). This recognition process is translated rapidly into a meaningful defense reaction. This form of innate host defense is preserved in the animal kingdom: invertebrates heavily depend on it; higher vertebrates also have an adaptive immune system. Both adaptive and innate immune systems are intertwined in that the former also depends on an intact innate recognition and response system. Members of the TLR system cover recognition of parasitic, bacterial or viral germs. Due to the constraints imposed by the necessity to recognize PAMP and to interact with downstream signaling molecules, the TLR system is relatively conserved in evolution. Nevertheless, subtle species differences have been reported for several mammalian TLR members. Examples of this will be given. In all mammalian species investigated, part of the coding sequence is available for the most important TLR members, thus allowing study of expression of these TLR members in various tissues by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in its classical (RT-PCR) and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) form. In some species, the whole coding sequences of the most important or even all TLR members are known. This allows construction of cDNA and transfection of common host cells, thus permitting functional studies. Extensive investigations were devoted to the study of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. In a few cases, expression of a given amino acid in the extracellular (ligand-binding) portion of TLR members could be associated with infectious diseases. This will be discussed below.
According to current knowledge, sexual development of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum takes place in the canine intestine. However, to date there is no information on the interaction between the parasite and the canine intestinal epithelium, and, next to the clinical and in vivo research tools, an in vitro model comprised of canine intestinal cells infected with N. caninum would be very helpful for investigations at the cellular level. Following the isolation of cells of neonatal canine duodenum and growth of cell cultures to monolayers for 5-6 days, canine intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to cell culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites and bradyzoites. The host cells remained viable during in vitro culture for an average of 2 wk. During this time span, N. caninum was found to readily adhere to any surface area of these cells, but infection took mostly place at sites where microvilli-like structures were missing, e.g., at the cell periphery, with tachyzoites exhibiting at least 3-4 times increased invasive capacities compared to bradyzoites. Once intracellular, parasites resided within a parasitophorous vacuole, moved toward the vicinity of the nucleus and the more distal portion of the epithelial cells, and proliferated to form vacuoles of not more than 2-4 parasites, which were surrounded by numerous mitochondria. Immunofluorescence staining and TEM of infected cells showed that the expression of cytokeratins and the structural integrity of desmosomes and tight junctions were not notably altered during infection. Furthermore, no changes could be detected in the alkaline phosphatase activities in cell culture supernatants of infected and noninfected cells. Canine duodenal epithelial cell cultures represent a useful tool for future studies on the characteristics of the intestinal phases of N. caninum infection.
Homeostasis in the intestinal microenvironment between the immune system and luminal antigens appears disturbed in chronic enteropathies. Pro-inflammatory cytokines likely play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Several inflammatory and immunoregulatory genes have associated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites, which allow NF-kappaB to regulate gene transcription. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the occurrence of NF-kappaB activation during mucosal inflammation in situ, (2) the mucosal distribution pattern of cells expressing activated NF-kappaB within treatment groups, and (3) the effect of specific therapy on NF-kappaB activation. Dogs with chronic enteropathy were studied (n=26) and compared with 13 healthy dogs. Ten dogs had food responsive disease (FRD) and 16 had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NF-kappaB activation was detected in duodenal mucosal biopsies using a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAB 3026) that selectively binds the nuclear localization sequence of activated NF-kappaB. To identify macrophages, biopsies were stained using the MAC 387 antibody. Macrophages in the lamina propria double-stained for MAC 387 and NF-kappaB were quantitated; epithelial cell expression of activated NF-kappaB was determined semi-quantitatively. Results showed that more macrophages positive for activated NF-kappaB were present in lamina propria of dogs with chronic enteropathy compared to control dogs (p<0.01). More NF-kappaB positive epithelial cells were observed in FRD dogs compared to IBD dogs (p<0.05). After therapy, the number of macrophages and epithelial cells staining positive for activated NF-kappaB decreased (p<0.01) in chronic enteropathy dogs. In conclusion, activation of NF-kappaB is closely associated with the pathophysiology of canine chronic enteropathy. Down-regulation follows successful therapy.
Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has recently been identified as a cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in the US, UK, and, more recently, also in Norway. In a period of 3 months (October to December 2007), 45 cats of Switzerland suffering from chronic diarrhea were investigated for intestinal infections, including a search for trichomonads. A commercially available in vitro culture system was used to screen for infection, complemented with a PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing to support speciation. The PCR is based upon amplification of a sequence derived from the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) on the ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) using primers designed to detect a broad range of genera and species belonging to the family of Trichomonadidae. The method was furthermore adapted to the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) system in order to prevent carry-over contamination and it included a recombinant internal control to track for inhibitory reactions. Eleven out of the 45 cats were culture-positive, as revealed by microscopic identification of trichomonadid organisms. One of the isolates was subjected to scanning electron microscopy and findings revealed the presence of three flagella, thus placing the isolate into the gender Tritrichomonas sp. PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing were carried out with ten of the 11 isolates. A total homology with published T. foetus sequences was confirmed in all of the cases. T. foetus therefore appears to range among those organisms that can cause chronic diarrhea in cats in Switzerland.
Little is currently known about the lymphocyte populations in the normal and diseased canine gut. The aim of this study was thus the phenotypical and functional characterization of canine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). IEL were isolated from full-thickness biopsies of 15 adult Swiss Beagle dogs (mean age 8.2 +/-2.8 years) and compared to mesenteric lymph node cells. The phenotypical characterization by multi-parameter flow cytometry revealed that canine IEL differ substantially from lymph node T cells, and consist of various unconventional lymphocyte subsets, unique to mucosal surfaces. These include gammasigma T cells, and CD4(-)CD8(-) and CD8alphaalpha(+) T cells. IEL populations in adult dogs were also compared to those isolated from neonatal Beagle dogs. Analysis revealed a high frequency of undifferentiated CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells in newborn dogs whereas mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells predominate in adult dogs, indicating maturation of the intestinal immune system during development. As IEL in other species are thought to exhibit regulatory functions, we investigated the role of IEL on the activation-induced proliferation of lymph node T cells. While IEL alone did not show activation-induced proliferation, they significantly inhibited the proliferation of activated lymph node T cells in a cell number-dependent manner. These findings are the first to demonstrate that canine intestinal IEL have an immunoregulatory phenotype, which may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and may, therefore, be lost in canine chronic enteropathies.
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