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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative Evaluation of the Performance of a New Test Bolus-Based Computed Tomographic Angiography Contrast-Enhancement-Prediction Algorithm.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The objective of this study was to assess the robustness of a novel test bolus (TB)-based computed tomographic angiography (CTA) contrast-enhancement-prediction (CEP) algorithm by retrospectively quantifying the systematic and random errors between the predicted and true enhancements.
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Sex-based Prognostic Implications of Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the International Multicenter CONFIRM Study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Purpose To determine the clinical outcomes of women and men with nonobstructive coronary artery disease ( CAD coronary artery disease ) with coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography data in patients who were similar in terms of CAD coronary artery disease risk factors, angina typicality, and CAD coronary artery disease extent and distribution. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for all participating sites, with either informed consent or waiver of informed consent. In a prospective international multicenter cohort study of 27 125 patients undergoing coronary CT angiography at 12 centers, 18 158 patients with no CAD coronary artery disease or nonobstructive (<50% stenosis) CAD coronary artery disease were examined. Men and women were propensity matched for age, CAD coronary artery disease risk factors, angina typicality, and CAD coronary artery disease extent and distribution, which resulted in a final cohort of 11 462 subjects. Nonobstructive CAD coronary artery disease presence and extent were related to incident major adverse cardiovascular events ( MACE major adverse cardiovascular events ), which were inclusive of death and myocardial infarction and were estimated by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results At a mean follow-up ± standard deviation of 2.3 years ± 1.1, MACE major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 164 patients (0.6% annual event rate). After matching, women and men experienced identical annualized rates of myocardial infarction (0.2% vs 0.2%, P = .72), death (0.5% vs 0.5%, P = .98), and MACE major adverse cardiovascular events (0.6% vs 0.6%, P = .94). In multivariable analysis, nonobstructive CAD coronary artery disease was associated with similarly increased MACE major adverse cardiovascular events for both women (hazard ratio: 1.96 [95% confidence interval { CI confidence interval }: 1.17, 3.28], P = .01) and men (hazard ratio: 1.77 [95% CI confidence interval : 1.07, 2.93], P = .03). Conclusion When matched for age, CAD coronary artery disease risk factors, angina typicality, and nonobstructive CAD coronary artery disease extent, women and men experience comparable rates of incident mortality and myocardial infarction. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Multicenter Evaluation Of Coronary Dual-Source CT angiography in patients with intermediate Risk of Coronary Artery Stenoses (MEDIC): study design and rationale.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The diagnostic performance of multidetector row CT to detect coronary artery stenosis has been evaluated in numerous single-center studies, with only limited data from large cohorts with low-to-intermediate likelihood of coronary disease and in multicenter trials. The Multicenter Evaluation of Coronary Dual-Source CT Angiography in Patients with Intermediate Risk of Coronary Artery Stenoses (MEDIC) trial determines the accuracy of dual-source CT (DSCT) to identify persons with at least 1 coronary artery stenosis among patients with low-to-intermediate pretest likelihood of disease.
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Patient-centered imaging: shared decision making for cardiac imaging procedures with exposure to ionizing radiation.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The current paper details the recommendations arising from an NIH-NHLBI/NCI-sponsored symposium held in November 2012, aiming to identify key components of a radiation accountability framework fostering patient-centered imaging and shared decision-making in cardiac imaging. Symposium participants, working in 3 tracks, identified key components of a framework to target critical radiation safety issues for the patient, the laboratory, and the larger population of patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. The use of ionizing radiation during an imaging procedure should be disclosed to all patients by the ordering provider at the time of ordering, and reinforced by the performing provider team. An imaging protocol with effective dose ?3 mSv is considered very low risk, not warranting extensive discussion or written informed consent. However, a protocol effective dose >20 mSv was proposed as a level requiring particular attention in terms of shared decision-making and either formal discussion or written informed consent. Laboratory reporting of radiation dosimetry is a critical component of creating a quality laboratory fostering a patient-centered environment with transparent procedural methodology. Efforts should be directed to avoiding testing involving radiation, in patients with inappropriate indications. Standardized reporting and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography and nuclear cardiology are important for the goal of public reporting of laboratory radiation dose levels in conjunction with diagnostic performance. The development of cardiac imaging technologies revolutionized cardiology practice by allowing routine, noninvasive assessment of myocardial perfusion and anatomy. It is now incumbent upon the imaging community to create an accountability framework to safely drive appropriate imaging utilization.
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Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography over coronary artery calcium score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic diabetic individuals.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is useful for identification of symptomatic diabetic individuals at heightened risk for death. Whether CCTA-detected CAD enables improved risk assessment of asymptomatic diabetic individuals beyond clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) remains unexplored.
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Prognostic significance of calcified plaque among symptomatic patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease.
J Nucl Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a well-established predictor of clinical outcomes for population screening. Limited evidence is available as to its predictive value in symptomatic patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the current study was to assess the prognostic value of CAC scores among symptomatic patients with nonobstructive CAD.
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Calcium score, coronary artery disease extent and severity, and clinical outcomes among low Framingham risk patients with low vs high lifetime risk: results from the CONFIRM registry.
J Nucl Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Short-term risk scores, such as the Framingham risk score (FRS), frequently classify younger patients as low risk despite the presence of uncontrolled cardiovascular risk factors. Among patients with low FRS, estimation of lifetime risk is associated with significant differences in coronary arterial calcium scores (CACS); however, the relationship of lifetime risk to coronary atherosclerosis on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and prognosis has not been studied.
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Prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in comparison with single-photon emission tomography using Tc99m-Sestamibi.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Infarct size is an important predictor of cardiac risk after acute myocardial infarction. The established modality for its assessment is Tc99m-Sestamibi Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In recent years, data are emerging demonstrating that scar size as assessed by late gadolinium enhancement in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as well as the presence of microvascular obstruction (MO) may also provide prognostic information, however, so far no direct comparisons of both modalities have been reported.
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Prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography during 5 years of follow-up in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has a high accuracy for detection of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies also showed a good predictive value for subsequent cardiac events. However, the follow-up period of these studies was limited to ~2 years and long-term follow-up data on prognosis out to 5 years are very limited.
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Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (IABP-SHOCK II): final 12 month results of a randomised, open-label trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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In current international guidelines the recommendation for intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use has been downgraded in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction on the basis of registry data. In the largest randomised trial (IABP-SHOCK II), IABP support did not reduce 30 day mortality compared with control. However, previous trials in cardiogenic shock showed a mortality benefit only at extended follow-up. The present analysis therefore reports 6 and 12 month results.
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Clinical outcomes through 12 months in patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation treated with the MitraClip® device in the ACCESS-EUrope Phase I trial.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Percutaneous treatment with the MitraClip device represents an alternative option for selected patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) considered ineligible for surgery due to contraindications or high surgical risk by an inter-disciplinary heart team. We describe 12-month outcomes following treatment with the MitraClip device in DMR patients.
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Zotarolimus- versus everolimus-eluting stents for unprotected left main coronary artery disease.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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This study sought to compare the safety and efficacy of the zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) and the everolimus-eluting stent (EES) for treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (uLMCA) disease.
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Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Optimization Improves Outcome in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Compared to ECG Optimization: A Randomized Comparison.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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There is little consensus on optimal atrioventricular (AV) and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV) intervals in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to examine a novel combination of Doppler echocardiography (DE) and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for individualized AV- and VV-interval optimization compared to conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) optimization.
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The assessment of area at risk and myocardial salvage after coronary revascularization in acute myocardial infarction: comparison between CMR and SPECT.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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This study sought to compare cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for assessment of area at risk, scar size, and salvage area after coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction.
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Sex-related effectiveness of bivalirudin versus abciximab and heparin in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Female sex independently predicts bleeding risk after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bivalirudin is safer than abciximab plus heparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Thus, a greater benefit of bivalirudin in women would be expected.
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Percutaneous mitral valve interventions in the real world: early and 1-year results from the ACCESS-EU, a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of the MitraClip therapy in Europe.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The purpose of this article is to report early and mid-term outcomes of the ACCESS-EU study (ACCESS-Europe A Two-Phase Observational Study of the MitraClip System in Europe), a European prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of MitraClip therapy (Abbott Vascular, Inc., Santa Clara, California).
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Predictive value of cardiac computed tomography and the impact of renal function on all cause mortality (from Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Patients with chronic kidney disease have a worse cardiovascular prognosis than those without. The aim of this study was to determine the incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography in predicting mortality across the entire spectrum of renal function in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). A large international multicenter registry was queried, and patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and creatinine data were screened. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III risk was calculated. Coronary computed tomographic angiographic results were evaluated for CAD severity (normal, nonobstructive, or obstructive) and an LVEF <50%. Patients were followed for the end point of all-cause mortality. Among 5,655 patients meeting the study criteria, follow-up was available for 5,572 (98.9%; median follow-up duration 18.6 months). All-cause mortality (66 deaths) significantly increased with every 10-unit decrease in renal function (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.41). All-cause mortality occurred in 0.33% of patients without coronary atherosclerosis, 1.82% of patients with nonobstructive CAD, and 2.43% of patients with obstructive CAD. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models revealed that impaired renal function (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.18), CAD severity (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.51), and an abnormal LVEF (HR 4.16, 95% CI 2.45 to 7.08) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, coronary computed tomographic angiographic measures of CAD severity and the LVEF provide effective risk stratification across a wide spectrum of renal function. Furthermore, renal dysfunction, CAD severity, and the LVEF have additive value for predicting all-cause death in patients with suspected obstructive CAD.
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Three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography for the assessment of clip attachment to the leaflets in percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Single leaflet clip attachment (SLA) is a prevalent complication in percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve, leading to the recurrence of significant mitral regurgitation. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate a novel 3-D transoesophageal echocardiographic method for the assessment of clip attachment to the mitral leaflets.
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Cardiovascular risk assessment based on the quantification of coronary calcium in contrast-enhanced coronary computed tomography angiography.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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The extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been shown to be a strong and independent predictor for cardiovascular events. Usually, CAC scoring is performed in non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations. The ability and accuracy of cardiovascular risk classification according to the degree of CAC determined in contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has not been investigated so far. The aim of this analysis was to develop and validate a method for CAC risk classification in CCTA.
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Abciximab and heparin versus bivalirudin for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2011
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The combination of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and heparin has not been compared with bivalirudin in studies specifically involving patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared the two treatments in this patient population.
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Performance of the traditional age, sex, and angina typicality-based approach for estimating pretest probability of angiographically significant coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from the mul
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Guidelines for the management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) rely on the age, sex, and angina typicality-based pretest probabilities of angiographically significant CAD derived from invasive coronary angiography (guideline probabilities). Reliability of guideline probabilities has not been investigated in patients referred to noninvasive CAD testing.
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Drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents in saphenous vein graft lesions (ISAR-CABG): a randomised controlled superiority trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Comparative assessment of clinical outcomes after use of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents for treatment of aortocoronary saphenous vein graft lesions has not been undertaken in large randomised trials. We aimed to undertake a comparison in a randomised trial powered for clinical endpoints.
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Computed tomography in the evaluation for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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If left untreated, symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Open-heart surgical valve replacement is the treatment of choice and is associated with excellent short and long-term outcome. However, many older patients with multiple co-morbidities and anticipated increased surgical risk are excluded from surgical intervention. For these patients, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is emerging as a viable treatment alternative. Transcatheter valvular heart procedures are characterized by lack of exposure and visualization of the operative field, therefore relying on image guidance, both for patient selection and preparation and the implantation procedure itself. This article describes the role of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) for detailed assessment of the aortic valve, aortic root, and iliac arteries in the context of TAVI.
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Polymer-free sirolimus- and probucol-eluting versus new generation zotarolimus-eluting stents in coronary artery disease: the Intracoronary Stenting and Angiographic Results: Test Efficacy of Sirolimus- and Probucol-Eluting versus Zotarolimus-eluting Sten
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Durable polymer coatings have been implicated in mid- and long-term adverse events after drug-eluting stent implantation. A polymer-free dual-drug sirolimus- and probucol-eluting stent and a new generation permanent polymer zotarolimus-eluting stent are recently developed technologies demonstrating encouraging results.
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Incremental prognostic value of cardiac computed tomography in coronary artery disease using CONFIRM: COroNary computed tomography angiography evaluation for clinical outcomes: an InteRnational Multicenter registry.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Large multicenter studies validating the prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are lacking. We sought to confirm the independent and incremental prognostic value of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity measured using 64-slice CCTA over LVEF and clinical variables.
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Association of midregional proadrenomedullin with coronary artery stenoses, soft atherosclerotic plaques and coronary artery calcium.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is elevated in patients with heart failure and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of MR-proADM with the grade of coronary artery stenosis, presence of coronary artery soft plaques and coronary artery calcification score (CACS), determined by 64-multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in patients without known prior cardiovascular disease. This retrospective study included 107 patients undergoing MSCT for confirmation (or exclusion) of coronary artery disease. MR-proADM levels were measured in all patients. The assessment of coronary artery stenoses, CACS and soft coronary plaques was made by MSCT using known criteria. The MR-proADM [median (25th-75th percentiles)] level was 0.33 (0.21-0.43) nmol/l. The MR-proADM level was 0.28 (0.22-0.40) nmol/l in patients with coronary stenoses ?50% (n = 23) versus 0.33 (0.27-0.40) nmol/l in patients with coronary stenoses <50% (n = 83, P = 0.59), 0.33 (0.26-0.40) nmol/l in patients with soft plaques (n = 56) versus 0.33 (0.25-0.41) nmol/l in patients without soft plaques (n = 50, P = 0.73) and 0.33 (0.25-0.39) nmol/l in patients with CACS <200 (n = 81) versus 0.32 (0.26-0.44) nmol/l in patients with CACS ?200 (n = 26, P = 0.77). In multivariate analysis, the MR-proADM level was a significant correlate of coronary artery stenoses [odds ratio (OR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.99; P = 0.026] and soft plaques (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.90-0.99; P = 0.015) but not of CACS (OR = 0.98; 95% CI 0.93-1.03; P = 0.36). A decreased MR-proADM level is an independent correlate of the presence of coronary artery disease and of soft atherosclerotic plaques. Patients with decreased MR-proADM levels may need invasive examinations to diagnose more severe forms of coronary artery disease.
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SCCT guidelines on radiation dose and dose-optimization strategies in cardiovascular CT.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Over the last few years, computed tomography (CT) has developed into a standard clinical test for a variety of cardiovascular conditions. The emergence of cardiovascular CT during a period of dramatic increase in radiation exposure to the population from medical procedures and heightened concern about the subsequent potential cancer risk has led to intense scrutiny of the radiation burden of this new technique. This has hastened the development and implementation of dose reduction tools and prompted closer monitoring of patient dose. In an effort to aid the cardiovascular CT community in incorporating patient-centered radiation dose optimization and monitoring strategies into standard practice, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography has produced a guideline document to review available data and provide recommendations regarding interpretation of radiation dose indices and predictors of risk, appropriate use of scanner acquisition modes and settings, development of algorithms for dose optimization, and establishment of procedures for dose monitoring.
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Biodegradable polymer versus permanent polymer drug-eluting stents and everolimus- versus sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: 3-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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The aim of this study was to compare the 3-year efficacy and safety of biodegradable polymer with permanent polymer stents and of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES).
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Prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with arterial hypertension.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Patients with arterial hypertension have a high risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), but noninvasive diagnosis of CAD remains difficult. We assessed the ability of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to detect CAD and to predict subsequent cardiac events in hypertensive patients. We compared 906 hypertensive patients without known CAD undergoing CCTA with 906 matched normotensive patients. Besides calcium score and the degree of the most severe stenosis, the number of coronary segments with atherosclerotic changes was recorded. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of hard cardiac events defined as all cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. During a median follow-up of 29 months, there were 17 hard cardiac events in the hypertensive group and 13 events in the control group. The best predictor of events in hypertensive patients was the degree of the most severe stenosis (C-index 0.705, P < 0.001, both corrected for clinical risk). The annual event rate was 0.3% for patients without obstructive CAD and 1.5% for patients with obstructive CAD. In hypertensive patients without known CAD, coronary CT angiography allows for the identification of patients at high risk for incident cardiac events.
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MRI of coronary wall remodeling in a swine model of coronary injury using an elastin-binding contrast agent.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis. Elastin is an essential component of the ECM. ECM degradation can lead to plaque destabilization, whereas enhanced synthesis typically leads to vessel wall remodeling resulting in arterial stenosis or in-stent restenosis after stent implantation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI of vascular remodeling using a novel elastin-binding contrast agent (BMS-753951).
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Prognostic value of sensitive troponin T in patients with stable and unstable angina and undetectable conventional troponin.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable the measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations in the majority of patients with coronary artery disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of sensitive cardiac troponin in patients with stable and unstable angina presenting with undetectable levels of conventional troponin.
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Rationale and design of the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) Registry.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) of 64-detector rows or greater represents a novel noninvasive anatomic method for evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Early studies suggest a potential for prognostic risk assessment by CCTA findings but were limited by small patient cohorts or single centers. The CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry is a large, prospective, multinational dynamic observational study of patients undergoing CCTA. The primary aim of CONFIRM is to determine the prognostic value of CCTA findings for the prediction of future adverse CAD events.
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Prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography in comparison with calcium scoring and clinical risk scores.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Several studies have demonstrated a high accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for detection of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas some studies have also shown a good prediction of cardiac events. However, it remains to be proven whether CCTA is better predictive of events than conventional risk scores or calcium scoring. Therefore, we compared CCTA with calcium scoring and clinical risk scores for the ability to predict cardiac events.
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Comparison of sequential and helical scanning for radiation dose and image quality: results of the Prospective Multicenter Study on Radiation Dose Estimates of Cardiac CT Angiography (PROTECTION) I Study.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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Concerns have been raised about the radiation exposure of coronary CT angiography (CTA). Recently, a prospective ECG-triggered sequential coronary CTA technique was developed to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact of a sequential scanning technique on image quality and radiation dose in a prespecified subgroup analysis of the Prospective Multicenter Study on Radiation Dose Estimates of Cardiac CT Angiography I (PROTECTION I) Study when compared with a standard helical scanning technique.
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Prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography in diabetic patients without known coronary artery disease.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), but timely diagnosis of CAD remains challenging. We assessed the ability of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to detect CAD in diabetic patients and to predict subsequent cardiac events.
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Prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography in asymptomatic patients.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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To assess the value of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in the prediction of cardiac events in asymptomatic patients, 451 consecutive asymptomatic patients who underwent CCTA from December 2003 to November 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary end point of the study was the occurrence of cardiac events, defined as cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, and late revascularization (>90 days after CCTA) during a median follow-up period of 27.5 months. Secondary end points were the prevalence of nonobstructive coronary lesions and the number of patients reclassified regarding their cardiovascular risk. Two hundred twenty-nine patients (54%) had nonobstructive coronary lesions, and 107 patients (24%) obstructive coronary artery disease. During follow-up, there were 2 cases of unstable angina and 8 revascularizations for stable angina. Patients with obstructive coronary artery disease had a significantly higher event rate than those without obstructive CAD (risk ratio 13.9, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 48.0). In 217 patients (48%), the clinically assessed cardiovascular risk could be reclassified by CCTA from intermediate or high to low risk. In conclusion, although the event rate was low in asymptomatic patients, CCTA could reliably predict further cardiac events and could reclassify 2/3 of patients regarding their cardiovascular risk.
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Image quality and radiation exposure with a low tube voltage protocol for coronary CT angiography results of the PROTECTION II Trial.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dose using a 100 kVp tube voltage scan protocol compared with standard 120 kVp for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA).
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Trends in radiation protection in CT: present and future status.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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With the introduction of modern multislice scanner generations, computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a useful tool for evaluation of the coronary arteries. A common application of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is the examination of patients with intermediate pretest probability for obstructive coronary artery disease. Despite the widespread use of cardiac CT examinations in clinical practice, concern remains about the exposure to ionizing radiation and its potential hazards. Therefore, radiation dose and strategies for dose reduction have become an important focus of interest. Several smaller analyses have shown an effective radiation dose between 6.4 and 27.8 mSv for spiral CCTA image acquisition. The international Prospective Multicenter Study On RadiaTion Dose Estimates Of Cardiac CT AngIOgraphy I (PROTECTION I) study, the largest observational study on radiation dose estimates of cardiac CT so far, determined radiation dose estimates of CCTA, as well as the effect of different strategies to reduce dose in clinical practice. The median dose-length-product of 1965 CCTA examinations was 885 mGy x cm, which corresponds to a median estimated effective radiation dose of 12 mSv. However, a large variation in dose between study sites was observed, indicating a large potential to reduce dose for individual sites. Several dose-saving scanning techniques and algorithms have been developed. This article discusses these strategies as well as their effect on radiation dose and image quality. Because the contrast-enhanced CT angiography is the largest part of the total study dose, the following described strategies focus on radiation dose reduction for CCTA image acquisition.
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Prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography for prediction of cardiac events in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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We assessed the rate of cardiac events after detection or exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).
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Long-term risk of adverse outcomes and new malignancies in patients treated with oral sirolimus for prevention of restenosis.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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We sought to investigate the long-term efficacy of oral sirolimus therapy and its impact on the incidence of de novo malignancies in the OSIRIS (Oral Sirolimus to Inhibit Recurrent In-Stent Stenosis) trial population.
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International, multidisciplinary update of the 2006 Appropriateness Criteria for cardiac computed tomography.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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A multi-society document outlining appropriateness criteria for cardiac CT (CCT) was published in 2006. Since then, CCT has experienced rapid growth in technologic advances and clinical use. We sought to reassess opinion about the appropriate use of CCT among an international group of experts in the field.
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Impact of a reduced tube voltage on CT angiography and radiation dose: results of the PROTECTION I study.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a reduced 100-kV tube voltage on image quality and radiation exposure in a pre-defined subgroup analysis of the international, multicenter radiation dose survey PROTECTION I (Prospective Multicenter Study on RadiaTion Dose Estimates Of Cardiac CT AngIOgraphy I) study.
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Feasibility of dual-source cardiac CT angiography with high-pitch scan protocols.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) has become a frequently used diagnostic tool in clinical practice, but concern remains about the radiation exposure. Because of the second x-ray acquisition system, dual-source CT systems might allow for high-pitch CT data acquisition and thus for examination of the whole heart during a single heart beat, with the potential for radiation dose reduction.
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Estimated radiation dose associated with cardiac CT angiography.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a useful diagnostic imaging modality in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However, the potential risks due to exposure to ionizing radiation associated with CCTA have raised concerns.
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The pre-clinical assessment of rapamycin-eluting, durable polymer-free stent coating concepts.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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All four currently FDA-approved drug-eluting stents (DESs) contain a durable polymeric coating which can negatively impact vascular healing processes and eventually lead to adverse cardiac events. Aim of this study was the pre-clinical assessment of two novel rapamycin-eluting stent (RES) coating technologies that abstain from use of a durable polymer. Two distinctive RES coating technologies were evaluated in vitro and in the porcine coronary artery stent model. The R-poly(S) stent platform elutes rapamycin from a biodegradable polymer that is top coated with the resin shellac to minimize the amount of polymer. The R-pro(S) stent platform allows dual drug release of rapamycin and probucol, blended by shellac. HPLC-based determination of pharmacokinetics indicated drug release for more than 28 days. At 30 days, neointimal formation was found to be significantly decreased for both DESs compared to bare-metal stents. Assessment of vascular healing revealed absence of increased inflammation in both DESs, which is commonly observed in DES with non-erodible polymeric coating. In conclusion, the pre-clinical assessment of RESs with resin-based or dual drug coating indicated an adequate efficacy profile as well as a beneficial effect for vascular healing processes. These results encourage the transfer of these technologies to clinical evaluation.
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Is there an evidence of pulmonary vein stenosis following epicardial microwave ablation of atrial fibrillation?
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Surgical ablation techniques using microwave energy are an alternative to catheter based ablation therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about potential procedure-related complications. We investigate, whether there is evidence of pulmonary vein stenosis (PVST) in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing epicardial microwave ablation.
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SCCT expert consensus document on computed tomography imaging before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)/transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
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Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the workup of patients who are candidates for implantation of a catheter-based aortic valve, a procedure referred to as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Contrast-enhanced CT imaging provides information on the suitability of the peripheral access vessels to accommodate the relatively large sheaths necessary to introduce the prosthesis. CT imaging also provides accurate dimensions of the ascending aorta, aortic root, and aortic annulus which are of importance for prosthesis sizing, and initial data indicate that compared with echocardiographic sizing, CT-based sizing of the prosthesis may lead to better results for postprocedural aortic valve regurgitation. Finally, CT permits one to predict appropriate fluoroscopic projections which are oriented orthogonal to the aortic valve plane. This consensus document provides recommendations about the use of CT imaging in patients scheduled for TAVR/TAVI, including data acquisition, interpretation, and reporting.
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Usefulness of coronary computed tomography angiography to predict mortality and myocardial infarction among Caucasian, African and East Asian ethnicities (from the CONFIRM [Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multice
Am. J. Cardiol.
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Studies examining coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) have demonstrated increased mortality related to coronary artery disease (CAD) severity but are limited to relatively nondiverse ethnic populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of CAD on CCTA according to ethnicity for patients without previous CAD in a prospective international CCTA registry of 11 sites (7 countries) who underwent 64-slice CCTA from 2005 to 2010. CAD was defined as any coronary artery atherosclerosis and obstructive CAD as ?50% stenosis. All-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were assessed by ethnicity using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards, controlling for baseline risk factors, medications, and revascularization. A total of 16,451 patients of mean age 58 years (55% men) were followed over a median of 2.0 years (interquartile range 1.4 to 3.2). Patients were 60.1% Caucasian, 34.4% East Asian, and 5.5% African. Death or MI occurred in 0.5% (38 of 7,109) among patients with no CAD, 1.6% (91 of 5,600) among those with nonobstructive CAD, and 3.8% (142 of 3,742) among those with ?50% stenosis (p <0.001 among all groups). The annualized incidence of death or MI comparing obstructive to no obstructive CAD among Caucasians was 2.2% versus 0.7% (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 4.43, p <0.001), among Africans 4.8% versus 1.1% (aHR 6.25, 95% CI 1.12 to 34.97, p = 0.037), and among East Asians 0.8% versus 0.1% (aHR 4.84, 95% CI 2.24 to 10.9, p <0.001). Compared to other ethnicities, East Asians had fewer than expected events (aHR 0.25, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p <0.001). In conclusion, the presence and severity of CAD visualized by CCTA predict death or MI across 3 large ethnicities, whereas normal results on CCTA identify patients at very low risk.
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Paclitaxel-eluting balloons, paclitaxel-eluting stents, and balloon angioplasty in patients with restenosis after implantation of a drug-eluting stent (ISAR-DESIRE 3): a randomised, open-label trial.
Lancet
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The best way to manage restenosis in patients who have previously received a drug-eluting stent is unknown. We investigated the efficacy of paclitaxel-eluting balloons (PEB), paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and balloon angioplasty in these patients.
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Gender differences in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
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Besides different risk profiles for cardiovascular events in men and women, several studies reported gender differences in mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As infarct size has been shown to correlate with mortality, it is widely accepted as surrogate marker for clinical outcome. Currently, cardiovascular imaging studies covering the issue of gender differences are rare. As magnetic resonance scar characterization parameters are emerging as additional prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction, we sought to evaluate gender differences in CMR infarct characteristics in patients after acute myocardial infarction. We prospectively analyzed patients (n = 448) with AMI and primary angioplasty, who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on a 1.5 T scanner in median 5 [4, 6] days after the acute event. [corrected]. CMR scar size was measured 15 min after gadolinium injection. In addition presence and extent of microvascular obstruction (MVO) was assessed. A matched pair analysis was performed in order to exclude confounding by gender related co-morbidities and gender differences in established clinical risk factors. Matching process according to clinical risk defined by GRACE score resulted in 93 mixed gender couples. Women were significantly older than men (64.4 ± 11.9 vs. 60.5 ± 12.3, p = 0.03) and presented with a significantly better ejection fraction before angioplasty (48.9 ± 8.4 vs. 46.2 ± 8.9, p = 0.04). Infarct size did not differ significantly between women and men (13.5 ± 10.7 vs. 15.1 ± 11.8, p = 0.32). Size of MVO was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.48 ± 1.3 vs. 1.2 ± 3.0, p = 0.03). Comparing scar characterization between women and men with similar risk profiles revealed no gender differences in scar size. Size of MVO, however, was significantly smaller in women and might reflect better cardioprotective mechanisms in women. Whether these changes have prognostic implications has to be tested on a larger patient population.
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Body mass index and the prevalence, severity, and risk of coronary artery disease: an international multicentre study of 13,874 patients.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
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Obesity is associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and cardiovascular events. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the presence, extent, severity, and risk of CAD in patients referred for coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA).
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Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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In current international guidelines, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is considered to be a class I treatment for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. However, evidence is based mainly on registry data, and there is a paucity of randomized clinical trials.
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Morphological assessment of renal arteries after radiofrequency catheter-based sympathetic denervation in a porcine model.
J. Hypertens.
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Catheter-based renal artery denervation has been successfully introduced as alternative treatment for patients suffering from drug-resistant essential hypertension. However, the local morphological changes within the vessel wall accompanying this technique remain elusive and we sought to characterize these by utilizing the simplicity radiofrequency catheter approach.
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Coronary CT angiography versus myocardial perfusion imaging for near-term quality of life, cost and radiation exposure: a prospective multicenter randomized pilot trial.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
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Clinical outcomes and resource utilization after coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) versus myocardial perfusion single-photon emission CT (MPS) in patients with stable angina and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been examined.
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Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: design and rationale of the Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock II (IABP-SHOCK II) trial.
Am. Heart J.
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In current guidelines, intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) is considered a class 1 indication in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. However, evidence is mainly based on retrospective or prospective registries with a lack of randomized clinical trials. Therefore, IABP is currently only used in 20% to 40% of cardiogenic shock cases. The hypothesis of this trial is that IABP in addition to early revascularization by either percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting will improve clinical outcome of patients in cardiogenic shock.
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Dual thienopyridine low-response to clopidogrel and prasugrel in a patient with STEMI, cardiogenic shock and early stent thrombosis is overcome by ticagrelor.
Platelets
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Little is known about the antiplatelet action of the thienopyridines, clopidogrel and prasugrel, as well as the non-thienopyridine, ticagrelor, in patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock since systematic comparisons of these antiplatelet agents in this devastating condition are limited so far. This is a report of a patient with STEMI undergoing urgent PCI in cardiogenic shock followed by repeated angioplasty after suffering early stent thrombosis (ST) who showed dual thienopyridine treatment failure of clopidogrel and prasugrel, which was successfully overcome by switching the patient to the non-thienopyridine derivative ticagrelor.
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Image quality and radiation exposure with prospectively ECG-triggered axial scanning for coronary CT angiography: the multicenter, multivendor, randomized PROTECTION-III study.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dose using a prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered axial scan protocol compared with standard retrospective ECG-gated helical scanning for coronary computed tomography angiography.
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Acute beneficial hemodynamic effects of a novel 3D-echocardiographic optimization protocol in cardiac resynchronization therapy.
PLoS ONE
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Post-implantation therapies to optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) focus on adjustments of the atrio-ventricular (AV) delay and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV) interval. However, there is little consensus on how to achieve best resynchronization with these parameters. The aim of this study was to examine a novel combination of doppler echocardiography (DE) and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for individualized optimization of device based AV delays and VV intervals compared to empiric programming.
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Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve in patients with degenerative vs. functional mitral regurgitation.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
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Objectives. To prospectively assess the outcome of percutaneous edge-to-edge repair in patients with degenerative vs. functional mitral regurgitation (MR). Background. The optimal patient population eligible for percutaneous edge-to-edge repair has yet to be defined. Methods. We analyzed 119 patients treated by percutaneous edge-to-edge repair for symptomatic MR, 72 patients with degenerative and 47 patients with functional MR. The primary endpoints were defined as procedural success (MR grade reduction ? 1 grade) as well as a composite endpoint defined as freedom from MR 3+ or 4+, mitral valve reintervention and death 12 months after clip implantation. In patients with successful clip placement we further analyzed MR grade, NYHA functional class, distance in the 6 minute walking test and left ventricular volumes 12 months after clip implantation. Results. The primary success rate of all intended clipping procedures was 83.3% for degenerative and 89.4% for functional MR (P = 0.42). Regarding the composite endpoint we observed an event free survival of 59.7% in patients treated for degenerative MR and 63.8% in patients treated for functional MR (P = 0.73). We observed a highly significant reduction in MR grade as well as improvement in NYHA functional status in both groups 12 months after clip implantation. However, there was a more pronounced MR grade reduction in patients treated for degenerative MR compared to patients treated for functional MR. Conclusions. Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve is feasible and comparably effective in patients with degenerative and functional MR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Dangerous liaison: successful percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair in patients with end-stage systolic heart failure can cause left ventricular thrombus formation.
EuroIntervention
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Aims: To evaluate the characteristics and clinical outcome of patients with new formation of left ventricular (LV) thrombus after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. Methods and results: Between 2009 and 2012 we intended to treat 150 patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair in our centre. Post-procedural transthoracic echocardiographic examinations scheduled during the hospital stay revealed the new formation of LV thrombi in three out of 150 patients. All three patients suffered from end-stage systolic heart failure with a LV ejection fraction (LVEF) below 20% and were successfully treated in terms of MR reduction (reduction of at least two MR grades). No thrombus formation was observed in patients with a LVEF >20% treated in our centre (a total of 136 patients). The frequency of new LV thrombus formation in the cohort of patients with a LVEF ?20% treated in our centre was 21% (three out of 14 patients). Conclusions: New formation of LV thrombus was detected in patients with severely depressed LVEF (?20%) after successful reduction of MR following percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. This phenomenon could be a play of chance, but percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip® system is a new procedure. Special care is needed when performing new procedures, and the unexpected post-procedural finding of LV thrombus formation in approximately 20% in this cohort is worth reporting.
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