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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Exhaustive methylation analysis revealed uneven profiles of methylation at IGF2/ICR1/H19 11p15 loci in Russell Silver syndrome.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The structural organisation of the human IGF2/ICR1/H19 11p15 domain is very complex, and the mechanisms underlying its regulation are poorly understood. The Imprinted Center Region 1 (ICR1) contains seven binding sites for the zinc-finger protein CTCF (CBS: CTCF Binding Sites); three additional differentially methylated regions (DMR) are located at the H19 promoter (H19DMR) and two in the IGF2 gene (DMR0 and DMR2), respectively. Loss of imprinting at the IGF2/ICR1/H19 domain results in two growth disorders with opposite phenotypes: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Russell Silver syndrome (RSS). Despite the IGF2/ICR1/H19 locus being widely studied, the extent of hypomethylation across the domain remains not yet addressed in patients with RSS.
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A novel tumor suppressor function of Kindlin-3 in solid cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Kindlin-3 (FERMT-3) is known to be central in hemostasis and thrombosis control and its deficiency disrupts platelet aggregation and causes Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency disease. Here we report that Kindlin-3 has a tumor suppressive role in solid cancer. Our present genetic and functional data show that Kindlin-3 is downregulated in several solid tumors by a mechanism involving gene hypermethylation and deletions. In vivo experiments demonstrated that Kindlin-3 knockdown in 2 tumor cell models (breast cancer and melanoma) markedly increases metastasis formation, in accord with the in vitro increase of tumor cell malignant properties. The metastatic phenotype was supported by a mechanism involving alteration in ?3-integrin activation including decreased phosphorylation, interaction with talin and the internalization of its active form leading to less cell attachment and more migration/invasion. These data uncover a novel and unexpected tumor suppressor role of Kindlin-3 which can influence integrins targeted therapies development.
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Altered gene expression in human placentas after IVF/ICSI.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Is gene expression in placental tissue of IVF/ICSI patients altered when compared with a spontaneously conceived group, and are these alterations due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in the case of imprinted genes?
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DNA Methylation status of key cell cycle regulators such as CDKNA2/p16 and CCNA1 correlates with treatment response to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil in locally advanced breast tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Purpose:To explore alterations in gene promoter methylation as a potential cause of acquired drug resistance to doxorubicin or combined treatment with 5-fluorouracil and Mitomycin C in human breast cancers. Experimental Design:Paired tumor samples from locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and 5`fluorouracil-mitomycin C were used in the genome-wide DNA methylation analysis as discovery cohort. An enlarged cohort from the same two prospective studies as those in the discovery cohort were used as a validation set in pyrosequencing analysis. Results:A total of 469 genes were differentially methylated after treatment with doxorubicin and revealed a significant association with canonical pathways enriched for immune cell response and cell cycle regulating genes including CDKN2A, CCND2, CCNA1, which were also associated to treatment response. Treatment with FUMI resulted in 343 differentially methylated genes representing canonical pathways such as retinoate biosynthesis, g?i signalling and LXR/RXR activation. Despite the clearly different genes and pathways involved in the metabolism and therapeutic effect of both drugs 46 genes were differentially methylated before and after treatment with both doxorubicin and FUMI. DNA methylation profiles in genes such as BRCA1, FOXC1, IGFBP3, and most notably repetitive elements like ALU, LINE1, were associated with TP53 mutations status. Conclusions:We identified and validated key cell cycle regulators differentially methylated before and after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy such as CDKN2A and CCNA1 and reported that methylation patterns of these genes may be potential predictive markers to anthracycline/mitomycine sensitivity.
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Clonogenic Cell Subpopulations Maintain Congenital Melanocytic Nevi.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Large congenital melanocytic nevi (lCMN) are benign melanocytic tumors associated with an increased risk of melanoma transformation. They result predominantly from a post-zygotic somatic NRAS mutation. These lesions persist and even increase after birth proportionally to the child's growth. Therefore, we asked here whether cells with clonogenic and tumorigenic properties persisted postnatally in lCMN. Subpopulations of lCMN cells expressed stem cell/progenitor lineage markers such as Sox10, Nestin, Oct4, and ABCB5. In vitro, 1 in 250 cells from fresh lCMN formed colonies that could be passaged and harbored the same NRAS mutation as the original nevus. In vivo, lCMN specimens xenografted in immunocompromised mice expanded 4-fold. BrdU(+)-proliferating and label-retaining melanocytes were found within the outgrowth skin tissue of these xenografts, which displayed the same benign nested architecture as the original nevus. lCMN cell suspensions were not able to expand when xenografted alone in Rag 2-/- mice. Conversely, when mixed with keratinocytes, these cells reconstituted the architecture of the human nevus with its characteristic melanocyte layout, lentiginous hyperplasia, and nested architecture. Overall, our data demonstrate that, after birth, certain lCMN cell subtypes still display features such as clonogenic potential and expand into nevus-like structures when cooperating with adjacent keratinocytes.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.437.
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Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in progression to in situ and invasive carcinoma of the breast with impact on gene transcription and prognosis.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a precursor of invasive breast carcinoma. DNA methylation alterations are thought to be an early event in progression of cancer, and may prove valuable as a tool in clinical decision making and for understanding neoplastic development.
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Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.
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Variation in genomic landscape of clear cell renal cell carcinoma across Europe.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing worldwide, and its prevalence is particularly high in some parts of Central Europe. Here we undertake whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the most common form of the disease, in patients from four different European countries with contrasting disease incidence to explore the underlying genomic architecture of RCC. Our findings support previous reports on frequent aberrations in the epigenetic machinery and PI3K/mTOR signalling, and uncover novel pathways and genes affected by recurrent mutations and abnormal transcriptome patterns including focal adhesion, components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and genes encoding FAT cadherins. Furthermore, a large majority of patients from Romania have an unexpected high frequency of A:T>T:A transversions, consistent with exposure to aristolochic acid (AA). These results show that the processes underlying ccRCC tumorigenesis may vary in different populations and suggest that AA may be an important ccRCC carcinogen in Romania, a finding with major public health implications.
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Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene® fixed samples compared to restored FFPE DNA.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers requires, however, genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from FFPE samples have been developed although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap freezing is the PAXgene® Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene® or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed in comparison to restored FFPE samples a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate for the first time that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared to restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array, without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time and cost-effective.
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DNMT3L interacts with transcription factors to target DNMT3L/DNMT3B to specific DNA sequences: role of the DNMT3L/DNMT3B/p65-NF?B complex in the (de-)methylation of TRAF1.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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DNMT3L i.e. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3-like protein, is devoid of cytosine methyltransferase activity, despite clear homology to DNMT3A and DNMT3B, due to the mutation of key catalytic residues. However, DNMT3L participates in de novo methylation reactions through its direct interaction with DNMT3A and DNMT3B. In the present study, we investigated if DNMT3L interacts also directly with transcription factors (TFs). Using TF arrays, we identified 73 TFs that interacted with DNMT3L, 13 of which (ASH2L, ATF1, ATF3, BLZF1, CDX2, CERM, E2F3, E2F4, GCNF, GTF2I, GTF3C5, NFkB-p65 and RXR?) interacted only with DNMT3L, but not with DNMT3A/B. By focusing on the interaction with NFkB-p65, we demonstrate that DNMT3L forms a complex with DNMT3B and NFkB-p65 and that this complex is required for the control of DNA methylation at the TRAF1 promoter in the T98G glioma cell line. In addition, our experiments describe the DNA methylation at TRAF1 as being dynamic with a demethylation phase involving TET3. Thus, our data suggests that DNMT3L can address DNMT3A/B to specific sites by directly interacting with TFs that do not directly interact with DNMT3A/B. In summary, our data provide a new avenue for the direction of site-specific de novo DNA methylation catalyzed by DNMT3A/B.
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Ultrasensitive detection and identification of BRAF V600 mutations in fresh frozen, FFPE, and plasma samples of melanoma patients by E-ice-COLD-PCR.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A number of molecular diagnostic methods have been developed for the detection and identification of mutations in tumor samples, which are important for the choice of treatment in the context of personalized medicine. For the treatment of metastatic melanoma, Vemurafenib is recommended for patients with BRAF V600 activating mutations. However, the different assays developed to date for the detection of these mutations lack sensitivity or specificity or do not allow a sequencing-based identification or validation of the mutation. Recently, enhanced improved and complete enrichment co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature-polymerase chain reaction (E-ice-COLD-PCR) has been developed as a sensitive method for the detection and identification of mutations in KRAS codons 12/13. Here, we present the first E-ice-COLD-PCR assay for the detection and identification of BRAF codon 600 mutations, which has a large dynamic range, as 25 pg to 25 ng can be used as DNA input without any reduction in mutation enrichment efficiency, and which can detect down to 0.01 % of mutated alleles in a wild-type background. The assay has been validated on fresh frozen, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE), and plasma samples of melanoma patients and has allowed the detection and identification of BRAF mutations present in samples appearing as wild type using standard pyrosequencing, endpoint genotyping, or Sanger sequencing. Thus, the BRAF V600 E-ice-COLD-PCR assay is currently one of the most powerful molecular diagnostic tools for the ultrasensitive detection and identification of BRAF codon 600 mutations.
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Differential DNA methylation analysis of breast cancer reveals the impact of immune signaling in radiation therapy.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Radiotherapy (RT) is a central treatment modality for breast cancer patients. The purpose of our study was to investigate the DNA methylation changes in tumors following RT, and to identify epigenetic markers predicting treatment outcome. Paired biopsies from patients with inoperable breast cancer were collected both before irradiation (n = 20) and after receiving 10-24 Gray (Gy) (n = 19). DNA methylation analysis was performed by using Illumina Infinium 27K arrays. Fourteen genes were selected for technical validation by pyrosequencing. Eighty-two differentially methylated genes were identified in irradiated (n = 11) versus nonirradiated (n = 19) samples (false discovery rate, FDR = 1.1%). Methylation levels in pathways belonging to the immune system were most altered after RT. Based on methylation levels before irradiation, a panel of five genes (H2AFY, CTSA, LTC4S, IL5RA and RB1) were significantly associated with clinical response (p = 0.041). Furthermore, the degree of methylation changes for 2,516 probes correlated with the given radiation dose. Within the 2,516 probes, an enrichment for pathways involved in cellular immune response, proliferation and apoptosis was identified (FDR < 5%). Here, we observed clear differences in methylation levels induced by radiation, some associated with response to treatment. Our study adds knowledge on the molecular mechanisms behind radiation response.
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No evidence for copy number and methylation variation in H19 and KCNQ10T1 imprinting control regions in children born small for gestational age.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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There is a substantial genetic component for birthweight variation, and although there are known associations between fetal genotype and birthweight, the role of common epigenetic variation in influencing the risk for small for gestational age (SGA) is unknown. The two imprinting control regions (ICRs) located on chromosome 11p15.5, involved in the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and the growth restriction disorder Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), are prime epigenetic candidates for regulating fetal growth. We investigated whether common variation in copy number in the BWS/SRS 11p15 region or altered methylation levels at IGF2/H19 ICR or KCNQ10T1 ICR was associated with SGA.
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In utero undernutrition in male mice programs liver lipid metabolism in the second-generation offspring involving altered Lxra DNA methylation.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Obesity and type 2 diabetes have a heritable component that is not attributable to genetic factors. Instead, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role. We have developed a mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by in utero malnutrition. IUGR mice developed obesity and glucose intolerance with aging. Strikingly, offspring of IUGR male mice also developed glucose intolerance. Here, we show that in utero malnutrition of F1 males influenced the expression of lipogenic genes in livers of F2 mice, partly due to altered expression of Lxra. In turn, Lxra expression is attributed to altered DNA methylation of its 5' UTR region. We found the same epigenetic signature in the sperm of their progenitors, F1 males. Our data indicate that in utero malnutrition results in epigenetic modifications in germ cells (F1) that are subsequently transmitted and maintained in somatic cells of the F2, thereby influencing health and disease risk of the offspring.
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Synergistic chromatin repression of the tumor suppressor gene RARB in human prostate cancers.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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DNA methylation and polycomb proteins are well-known mediators of epigenetic silencing in mammalian cells. Usually described as mutually exclusive, this statement is today controversial and recent in vitro studies suggest the co-existence of both repressor systems. We addressed this issue in the study of Retinoic Acid Receptor ? (RAR?), a tumor suppressor gene frequently silenced in prostate cancer. We found that the RAR? promoter is hypermethylated in all studied prostate tumors and methylation levels are positively correlated with H3K27me3 enrichments. Thus, by using bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of immunoprecipitated H3K27me3 chromatin, we demonstrated that DNA methylation and polycomb repression co-exist in vivo at this locus. We found this repressive association in 6/6 patient tumor samples of different Gleason score, suggesting a strong interplay of DNA methylation and EZH2 to silence RAR? during prostate tumorigenesis.
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The 5p12 breast cancer susceptibility locus affects MRPS30 expression in estrogen-receptor positive tumors.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci linked to breast cancer susceptibility, but the mechanism by which variations at these loci influence susceptibility is usually unknown. Some variants are only associated with particular clinical subtypes of breast cancer. Understanding how and why these variants influence subtype-specific cancer risk contributes to our understanding of cancer etiology. We conducted a genome-wide expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) study in a discovery set of 287 breast tumors and 97 normal mammary tissue samples and a replication set of 235 breast tumors. We found that the risk-associated allele of rs7716600 in the 5p12 estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) susceptibility locus was associated with elevated expression of the nearby gene MRPS30 exclusively in ER-positive tumors. We replicated this finding in 235 independent tumors. Further, we showed the rs7716600 risk genotype was associated with decreased MRPS30 promoter methylation exclusively in ER-positive breast tumors. In vitro studies in MCF-7 cells carrying the protective genotype showed that estrogen stimulation decreased MRPS30 promoter chromatin availability and mRNA levels. In contrast, in 600MPE cells carrying the risk genotype, estrogen increased MRPS30 expression and did not affect promoter availability. Our data suggest the 5p12 risk allele affects MRPS30 expression in estrogen-responsive tumor cells after tumor initiation by a mechanism affecting chromatin availability. These studies emphasize that the genetic architecture of breast cancer is context-specific, and integrated analysis of gene expression and chromatin remodeling in normal and tumor tissues will be required to explain the mechanisms of risk alleles.
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Integrated analysis of high-resolution DNA methylation profiles, gene expression, germline genotypes and clinical end points in breast cancer patients.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease for which alterations in DNA methylation patterns have been shown to be of biological and clinical importance. Here we report on the integrated analysis of molecular alterations including the methylation status of 27 gene promoters analyzed by highly quantitative pyrosequencing, and the association to gene expression, germline genotype and clinical parameters including survival. Breast cancer specific deregulation of DNA methylation (both hyper- and hypomethylation) was found in twenty genes including ACVR1, OGG1, IL8 and TFF1. The methylation level in the promoter regions was significantly negatively correlated to gene expression for twelve genes (such as MST1R, ST6GAL1 and TFF1) indicating that a gain of aberrant methylation (hypermethylation) inhibits gene expression. Multiple associations between molecular and clinical parameters were identified, and multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that methylation was more strongly associated to clinical parameters than gene expression for the investigated genes. The methylation level of BCAP31 and OGG1 showed significant association to survival, and these associations were validated in a larger patient cohort (The Cancer Genome Atlas). Our study provides evidence for the promise of DNA methylation alterations for clinical applications.
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Germline and somatic genetic variations of TNFAIP3 in lymphoma complicating primary Sjogrens syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Several autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS), are associated with an increased risk for lymphoma. Polymorphisms of TNFAIP3, which encodes the A20 protein that plays a key role in controlling nuclear factor ?B activation, have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Somatic mutations of TNFAIP3 have been observed in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma subtype frequently associated with pSS. We studied germline and somatic abnormalities of TNFAIP3 in 574 patients with pSS, including 25 with lymphoma. Nineteen additional patients with pSS and lymphoma were available for exome sequence analysis. Functional abnormalities of A20 were assessed by gene reporter assays. The rs2230926 exonic variant was associated with an increased risk for pSS complicated by lymphoma (odds ratio, 3.36 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-8.42], and odds ratio, 3.26 [95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12], vs controls and pSS patients without lymphoma, respectively; P = .011). Twelve (60%) of the 20 patients with paired germline and lymphoma TNFAIP3 sequence data had functional abnormalities of A20: 6 in germline DNA, 5 in lymphoma DNA, and 1 in both. The frequency was even higher (77%) among pSS patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Some of these variants showed impaired control of nuclear factor ?B activation. These results support a key role for germline and somatic variations of A20 in the transformation between autoimmunity and lymphoma.
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Individual and combined effects of DNA methylation and copy number alterations on miRNA expression in breast tumors.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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The global effect of copy number and epigenetic alterations on miRNA expression in cancer is poorly understood. In the present study, we integrate genome-wide DNA methylation, copy number and miRNA expression and identify genetic mechanisms underlying miRNA dysregulation in breast cancer.
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Increased regulatory T-cell numbers are associated with farm milk exposure and lower atopic sensitization and asthma in childhood.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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European cross-sectional studies have suggested that prenatal and postnatal farm exposure decreases the risk of allergic diseases in childhood. Underlying immunologic mechanisms are still not understood but might be modulated by immune-regulatory cells early in life, such as regulatory T (Treg) cells.
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NRAS Mutation Is the Sole Recurrent Somatic Mutation in Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is a particular melanocytic in utero proliferation characterized by an increased risk of melanoma transformation during infancy or adulthood. NRAS and BRAF mutations have consistently been reported in CMN samples, but until recently results have been contradictory. We therefore studied a series of large and giant CMNs and compared them with small and medium CMNs using Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, high-resolution melting analysis, and mutation enrichment by an enhanced version of ice-COLD-PCR. Large-giant CMNs displayed NRAS mutations in 94.7% of cases (18/19). At that point, the role of additional mutations in CMN pathogenesis had to be investigated. We therefore performed exome sequencing on five specimens of large-giant nevi. The results showed that NRAS mutation was the sole recurrent somatic event found in such melanocytic proliferations. The genetic profile of small-medium CMNs was significantly different, with 70% of cases bearing NRAS mutations and 30% showing BRAF mutations. These findings strongly suggest that NRAS mutations are sufficient to drive melanocytic benign proliferations in utero.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 14 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.429.
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Quantitative DNA methylation analyses reveal stage dependent DNA methylation and association to clinico-pathological factors in breast tumors.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Aberrant DNA methylation of regulatory genes has frequently been found in human breast cancers and correlated to clinical outcome. In the present study we investigate stage specific changes in the DNA methylation patterns in order to identify valuable markers to understand how these changes affect breast cancer progression.
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Improving breast cancer survival analysis through competition-based multidimensional modeling.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. As with most cancers, it is a heterogeneous disease and different breast cancer subtypes are treated differently. Understanding the difference in prognosis for breast cancer based on its molecular and phenotypic features is one avenue for improving treatment by matching the proper treatment with molecular subtypes of the disease. In this work, we employed a competition-based approach to modeling breast cancer prognosis using large datasets containing genomic and clinical information and an online real-time leaderboard program used to speed feedback to the modeling team and to encourage each modeler to work towards achieving a higher ranked submission. We find that machine learning methods combined with molecular features selected based on expert prior knowledge can improve survival predictions compared to current best-in-class methodologies and that ensemble models trained across multiple user submissions systematically outperform individual models within the ensemble. We also find that model scores are highly consistent across multiple independent evaluations. This study serves as the pilot phase of a much larger competition open to the whole research community, with the goal of understanding general strategies for model optimization using clinical and molecular profiling data and providing an objective, transparent system for assessing prognostic models.
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Sensitive detection of KRAS mutations using enhanced-ice-COLD-PCR mutation enrichment and direct sequence identification.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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A number of methods allowing the detection of low levels of KRAS mutations have been developed in the last years. However, although these methods have become increasingly sensitive, they can rarely identify the mutated base directly without prior knowledge on the mutated base and are often incompatible with a sequencing-based read-out desirable in clinical practice. Here, we present a modified version of the ice-COLD-PCR assay called Enhanced-ice-COLD-PCR (E-ice-COLD-PCR) for KRAS mutation detection and identification, which allows the enrichment of the six most frequent KRAS mutations. The method is based on a nonextendable chemically modified blocker sequence, complementary to the wild-type (WT) sequence leading to the enrichment of mutated sequences. This assay permits the reliable detection of down to 0.1% mutated sequences in a WT background. A single genotyping assay of the amplification product by pyrosequencing directly following the E-ice-COLD-PCR is performed to identify the mutated base. This developed two-step method is rapid and cost-effective, and requires only a small amount of starting material permitting the sensitive detection and sequence identification of KRAS mutations within 3 hr. This method is applied in the current study to clinical colorectal cancer samples and enables detection of mutations in samples, which appear as WT using standard detection technologies.
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Genome-wide association study in breast cancer survivors reveals SNPs associated with gene expression of genes belonging to MHC class I and II.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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We investigated the effect of genetic variation on gene expression in blood from a cohort of BC survivors. Further, we investigated the associations that were specific for BC survivors by performing identical analyses for a group of healthy women and comparing the results.
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Differences in transcription patterns between induced pluripotent stem cells produced from the same germ layer are erased upon differentiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Little is known about differences between induced pluripotent stem cells produced from tissues originating from the same germ layer. We have generated human myoblast-derived iPS cells by retroviral transduction of human primary myoblasts with the OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and MYC coding sequences and compared them to iPS produced from human primary fibroblasts. When cultivated in vitro, these iPS cells proved similar to human embryonic stem cells in terms of morphology, expression of embryonic stemness markers and gene promoter methylation patterns. Embryonic bodies were derived that expressed endodermal, mesodermal as well as ectodermal markers. A comparative analysis of transcription patterns revealed significant differences in the gene expression pattern between myoblast- and fibroblast-derived iPS cells. However, these differences were reduced in the mesenchymal stem cells derived from the two iPS cell types were compared.
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DNA methylation associated with polycomb repression in retinoic acid receptor ? silencing.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Retinoic acid receptor ? 2 (RAR?2) is a tumor suppressor gene whose loss of expression is recurrent in prostate cancers. Here we studied the epigenetic mechanisms leading to its stable silencing. First, we characterized all RAR? isoforms in 6 human tumor cell lines (prostate DU145, LNCaP, PC3, lung A549, breast Hs578T, and colon HCT116) by RT-PCR and Western blot. We excluded loss of heterozygosity (2D-FISH) and loss of RARa expression, an upstream regulator, as origin of RAR?2 silencing. All data concluded to an epigenetic silencing. In agreement, a DNA methylation inhibitor restored its expression. Second RAR?2 loss of expression was found associated with different epigenetic profiles in LNCaP and DU145 cells. According to bisulfite sequencing and ChIP analysis, we observed heavy methylation (97%) of the RAR?2 promoter with repressive histone mark H3K9me3 in LNCaP. While DNA methylation and polycomb repression are described to be mutually exclusive at CpG-rich promoters, we observed that in DU145, moderate DNA methylation (36%) and H3K9me3 mark were present concomitantly with H3K27me3, a signature of polycomb repression. In summary, we provide new insights on how the RAR?2 promoter is silenced, reveal the existence of two distinct repressive chromatin profiles at the same locus, and support a polycomb-mediated epigenetic repression process in prostate cancer.
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Identification of type 1 diabetes-associated DNA methylation variable positions that precede disease diagnosis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Monozygotic (MZ) twin pair discordance for childhood-onset Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is ?50%, implicating roles for genetic and non-genetic factors in the aetiology of this complex autoimmune disease. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of T1D in recent years, the non-genetic component has remained poorly defined. We hypothesized that epigenetic variation could underlie some of the non-genetic component of T1D aetiology and, thus, performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) for this disease. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of purified CD14+ monocytes (an immune effector cell type relevant to T1D pathogenesis) from 15 T1D-discordant MZ twin pairs. This identified 132 different CpG sites at which the direction of the intra-MZ pair DNA methylation difference significantly correlated with the diabetic state, i.e. T1D-associated methylation variable positions (T1D-MVPs). We confirmed these T1D-MVPs display statistically significant intra-MZ pair DNA methylation differences in the expected direction in an independent set of T1D-discordant MZ pairs (P?=?0.035). Then, to establish the temporal origins of the T1D-MVPs, we generated two further genome-wide datasets and established that, when compared with controls, T1D-MVPs are enriched in singletons both before (P?=?0.001) and at (P?=?0.015) disease diagnosis, and also in singletons positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies but disease-free even after 12 years follow-up (P?=?0.0023). Combined, these results suggest that T1D-MVPs arise very early in the etiological process that leads to overt T1D. Our EWAS of T1D represents an important contribution toward understanding the etiological role of epigenetic variation in type 1 diabetes, and it is also the first systematic analysis of the temporal origins of disease-associated epigenetic variation for any human complex disease.
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Methylation of specific CpG sites in the P2 promoter of parathyroid hormone-related protein determines the invasive potential of breast cancer cell lines.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is upregulated in primary breast cancers and a major candidate for osteoclastic bone resorption present at sites of breast cancer to bone metastases. Using a human model of mammary epithelial cell lines differing in tumorigenicity and PTHrP expression, we investigated the role of epigenetic modifications for PTHrP expression. Quantitative analysis of the DNA methylation patterns at a total of 104 CpGs in the promoter region of PTHrP by pyrosequencing showed the absence of methylation in all analyzed cell lines in the large CpG island upstream of exon 1C. In the second intron of promoter 2 (P2) a region was identified containing 4 CpG nucleotides for which differential methylation correlated with the PTHrP expression level. The functional importance of this control mechanism was confirmed by the ability of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine to induce PTHrP mRNA and iPTHrP protein expression in previously non-expressing cell lines and increase their production by metastatic NS2T2A1 cells. In particular, transcription from P2 was activated non-tumoral S1T3 cells upon treatment with 5-azacytidine. Our findings support the hypothesis that the methylation status of specific CpG dinucleotides is the dominant mechanism involved in silencing of PTHrP expression rather than the overall methylation of the CpG island. Methylation of the PTHrP P2 is a potential marker of breast cancer progression and might be used to evaluate the metastatic potential of breast tumors.
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Perinatal undernutrition affects the methylation and expression of the leptin gene in adults: implication for the understanding of metabolic syndrome.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Transient environmental influences, such as perinatal nutritional stress, may induce deleterious metabolic symptoms that last for the entire life of individuals, implying that epigenetic modifications play an important role in this process. We have investigated, in mice, the consequences of maternal undernutrition during gestation and lactation on DNA methylation and expression of the leptin gene, which plays a major regulatory role in coordinating nutritional state with many aspects of mammalian biology. We show that animals born to mothers fed a low-protein-diet (F1-LPD group) have a lower body weight/adiposity and exhibit a higher food intake than animals born to mothers fed a control diet (F1-CD group). These modifications persisted throughout life and were associated with lower levels of leptin mRNA and protein in starved F1-LPD mice, emphasizing that maternal protein-undernutrition affects the balance between food intake and energy expenditure in adults. Moreover, this nutritional stress resulted in the removal of methyls at CpGs located in the promoter of leptin, causing a permanent specific modification in the dynamics of the expression of leptin, which exhibits a stronger induction in the F1-LPD than in F1-CD mice in response to a meal. This study is an example of a molecular rationale linking transient environmental influences to permanent phenotypic consequences.
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Epigenetic regulation in murine offspring as a novel mechanism for transmaternal asthma protection induced by microbes.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from complex gene-environment interactions. Natural microbial exposure has been identified as an important environmental condition that provides asthma protection in a prenatal window of opportunity. Epigenetic regulation is an important mechanism by which environmental factors might interact with genes involved in allergy and asthma development.
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C5-DNA methyltransferase inhibitors: from screening to effects on zebrafish embryo development.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression and plays an important role in normal developmental processes and diseases, such as cancer. DNA methyltransferases are the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation on the position 5 of cytidine in a CpG context. In order to identify and characterize novel inhibitors of these enzymes, we developed a fluorescence-based throughput screening by using a short DNA duplex immobilized on 96-well plates. We have screened 114 flavones and flavanones for the inhibition of the murine catalytic Dnmt3a/3L complex and found 36 hits with IC(50) values in the lower micromolar and high nanomolar ranges. The assay, together with inhibition tests on two other methyltransferases, structure-activity relationships and docking studies, gave insights on the mechanism of inhibition. Finally, two derivatives effected zebrafish embryo development, and induced a global demethylation of the genome, at doses lower than the control drug, 5-azacytidine.
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Combination of promoter hypomethylation and PDX1 overexpression leads to TBX15 decrease in vascular IUGR placentas.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Preeclampsia (PE) and vascular intra-uterine growth restriction (vIUGR) are two pathological obstetrical conditions originating from placental dysfunction. Recently, methylation changes at the placental level have been shown to be indicative of these diseases. The alteration of such epigenetic marks is therefore a novel pathway that might be critical for these pathologies. Here, we identified a region located in the distal promoter of the T-box-containing transcription factor TBX15 that is differentially methylated in pathological placentas. The level of methylation correlated significantly with the weight and stature of the newborn. The promoter was found to be hypomethylated in vIUGR coinciding with the down-regulation of its expression. PDX1, a transcription factor important for the regulation of insulin metabolism regulation was able to repress the TBX15 promoter in a methylation-dependent manner, which might, at least partially, explain the specific mRNA decrease of TBX15 observed in vIUGR placentas. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that TBX15 might be involved in the pathophysiology of placental diseases.
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Methylation profiling with a panel of cancer related genes: association with estrogen receptor, TP53 mutation status and expression subtypes in sporadic breast cancer.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided in subtypes based on histology, gene expression profiles as well as differences in genomic aberrations. Distinct global DNA methylation profiles have been reported in normal breast epithelial cells as well as in breast tumors. However, the influence of the tumor methylome on the previously described subgroups of breast cancer is not fully understood. Here we report the DNA methylation profiles of 80 breast tumors using a panel of 807 cancer related genes interrogating 1505 CpG sites. We identified three major clusters based on the methylation profiles; one consisting of mainly tumors of myoepithelial origin and two other clusters with tumors of predominantly luminal epithelial origin. The clusters were different with respect to estrogen receptor status, TP53 status, ErbB2 status and grade. The most significantly differentially methylated genes including HDAC1, TFF1, OGG1, BMP3, FZD9 and HOXA11 were confirmed by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in developmental processes including homeobox domain genes (HOXA9, HOXA11, PAX6, MYBL2, ISL1 and IPF1) and (ETS1, HDAC1, CREBBP, GAS7, SPI1 and TBX1). Extensive correlation to mRNA expression was observed. Pathway analyses identified a significant association with canonical (curated) pathways such as hepatic fibrosis including genes like EGF, NGFR and TNF, dendritic cell maturation and the NF-?B signaling pathway. Our results show that breast tumor expression subtypes harbor major epigenetic differences and tumors with similar gene expression profiles might belong to epigenetically different subtypes. Some of the transcription factors identified, with key roles in differentiation and development might play a role in inducing and maintaining the different phenotypes.
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Sex- and diet-specific changes of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation in mouse placenta under a high-fat diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Changes in imprinted gene dosage in the placenta may compromise the prenatal control of nutritional resources. Indeed monoallelic behaviour and sensitivity to changes in regional epigenetic state render imprinted genes both vulnerable and adaptable.
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Specific hypomethylated CpGs at the IGF2 locus act as an epigenetic biomarker for familial adenomatous polyposis colorectal cancer.
Epigenomics
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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The identification of specific biomarkers for colorectal cancer is of primary importance for early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate if methylation changes at the IGF2/H19 locus could be predictive for individuals at high risk for developing sporadic or hereditary colorectal cancer.
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Quality control and single nucleotide resolution analysis of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation products.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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DNA methylation patterns are altered in many diseases, and their analysis has become of great interest. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is a simple method to enrich the methylated fraction of the genome. However, it has been difficult to assess the quality and the detailed methylation patterns of the immunoprecipitated DNA. Here we present a simple method for the analysis of the immunoprecipitated DNA at single nucleotide resolution by bisulfite treatment and pyrosequencing of genomic regions. The presented method can be used as an initial quality measure prior to genome-wide read-out technologies such as microarrays and second-generation sequencing.
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International network of cancer genome projects.
, Thomas J Hudson, Warwick Anderson, Axel Artez, Anna D Barker, Cindy Bell, Rosa R Bernabé, M K Bhan, Fabien Calvo, Iiro Eerola, Daniela S Gerhard, Alan Guttmacher, Mark Guyer, Fiona M Hemsley, Jennifer L Jennings, David Kerr, Peter Klatt, Patrik Kolar, Jun Kusada, David P Lane, Frank Laplace, Lu Youyong, Gerd Nettekoven, Brad Ozenberger, Jane Peterson, T S Rao, Jacques Remacle, Alan J Schafer, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Michael R Stratton, Joseph G Vockley, Koichi Watanabe, Huanming Yang, Matthew M F Yuen, Bartha M Knoppers, Martin Bobrow, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Lynn G Dressler, Stephanie O M Dyke, Yann Joly, Kazuto Kato, Karen L Kennedy, Pilar Nicolás, Michael J Parker, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Carlos M Romeo-Casabona, Kenna M Shaw, Susan Wallace, Georgia L Wiesner, Nikolajs Zeps, Peter Lichter, Andrew V Biankin, Christian Chabannon, Lynda Chin, Bruno Clément, Enrique De Alava, Françoise Degos, Martin L Ferguson, Peter Geary, D Neil Hayes, Amber L Johns, Arek Kasprzyk, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Robert Penny, Miguel A Piris, Rajiv Sarin, Aldo Scarpa, Marc van de Vijver, P Andrew Futreal, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Mònica Bayés, David D L Botwell, Peter J Campbell, Xavier Estivill, Sean M Grimmond, Ivo Gut, Martin Hirst, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Partha Majumder, Marco Marra, John D McPherson, Zemin Ning, Xose S Puente, Yijun Ruan, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Harold Swerdlow, Victor E Velculescu, Richard K Wilson, Hong H Xue, Liu Yang, Paul T Spellman, Gary D Bader, Paul C Boutros, Paul Flicek, Gad Getz, Roderic Guigo, Guangwu Guo, David Haussler, Simon Heath, Tim J Hubbard, Tao Jiang, Steven M Jones, Qibin Li, Nuria López-Bigas, Ruibang Luo, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, B F Francis Ouellette, John V Pearson, Víctor Quesada, Benjamin J Raphael, Chris Sander, Terence P Speed, Lincoln D Stein, Joshua M Stuart, Jon W Teague, Yasushi Totoki, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Alfonso Valencia, David A Wheeler, Honglong Wu, Shancen Zhao, Guangyu Zhou, Mark Lathrop, Gilles Thomas, Teruhiko Yoshida, Myles Axton, Chris Gunter, Linda J Miller, Junjun Zhang, Syed A Haider, Jianxin Wang, Christina K Yung, Anthony Cros, Anthony Cross, Yong Liang, Saravanamuttu Gnaneshan, Jonathan Guberman, Jack Hsu, Don R C Chalmers, Karl W Hasel, Terry S H Kaan, William W Lowrance, Tohru Masui, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Catherine Vergely, David D L Bowtell, Nicole Cloonan, Anna deFazio, James R Eshleman, Dariush Etemadmoghadam, Brooke B Gardiner, Brooke A Gardiner, James G Kench, Robert L Sutherland, Margaret A Tempero, Nicola J Waddell, Peter J Wilson, Steve Gallinger, Ming-Sound Tsao, Patricia A Shaw, Gloria M Petersen, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Ronald A DePinho, Sarah Thayer, Kamran Shazand, Timothy Beck, Michelle Sam, Lee Timms, Vanessa Ballin, Youyong Lu, Jiafu Ji, Xiuqing Zhang, Feng Chen, Xueda Hu, Qi Yang, Geng Tian, Lianhai Zhang, Xiaofang Xing, Xianghong Li, Zhenggang Zhu, Yingyan Yu, Jun Yu, Jörg Tost, Paul Brennan, Ivana Holcatova, David Zaridze, Alvis Brazma, Lars Egevard, Egor Prokhortchouk, Rosamonde Elizabeth Banks, Mathias Uhlén, Juris Viksna, Fredrik Ponten, Konstantin Skryabin, Ewan Birney, Ake Borg, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Carlos Caldas, John A Foekens, Sancha Martin, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Andrea L Richardson, Christos Sotiriou, Giles Thoms, Laura van't Veer, Daniel Birnbaum, Hélène Blanché, Pascal Boucher, Sandrine Boyault, Jocelyne D Masson-Jacquemier, Iris Pauporté, Xavier Pivot, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Eric Tabone, Charles Theillet, Isabelle Treilleux, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Thomas Decaens, Dominique Franco, Marta Gut, Didier Samuel, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Roland Eils, Benedikt Brors, Jan O Korbel, Andrey Korshunov, Pablo Landgraf, Hans Lehrach, Stefan Pfister, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Guido Reifenberger, Michael D Taylor, Christof von Kalle, Partha P Majumder, Paolo Pederzoli, Rita A Lawlor, Massimo Delledonne, Alberto Bardelli, Thomas Gress, David Klimstra, Giuseppe Zamboni, Yusuke Nakamura, Satoru Miyano, Akihiro Fujimoto, Elias Campo, Silvia de Sanjosé, Emili Montserrat, Marcos Gonzalez-Díaz, Pedro Jares, Heinz Himmelbauer, Heinz Himmelbaue, Sílvia Beà, Samuel Aparicio, Douglas F Easton, Francis S Collins, Carolyn C Compton, Eric S Lander, Wylie Burke, Anthony R Green, Stanley R Hamilton, Olli P Kallioniemi, Timothy J Ley, Edison T Liu, Brandon J Wainwright.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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DNA methylation profiling in doxorubicin treated primary locally advanced breast tumours identifies novel genes associated with survival and treatment response.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and consists of a heterogeneous collection of diseases with distinct histopathological, genetic and epigenetic characteristics. In this study, we aimed to identify DNA methylation based biomarkers to distinguish patients with locally advanced breast cancer who may benefit from neoadjuvant doxorubicin treatment.
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The epigenetics of breast cancer.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2010
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Epigenetic changes can be defined as stable molecular alterations of a cellular phenotype such as the gene expression profile of a cell that are heritable during somatic cell divisions (and sometimes germ line transmissions) but do not involve changes of the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetic phenomena are mediated by several molecular mechanisms comprising histone modifications, polycomb/trithorax protein complexes, small non-coding or antisense RNAs and DNA methylation. These different modifications are closely interconnected. Epigenetic regulation is critical in normal growth and development and closely conditions the transcriptional potential of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms convey genomic adaption to an environment thereby ultimately contributing towards given phenotype. In this review we will describe the various aspects of epigenetics and in particular DNA methylation in breast carcinogenesis and their potential application for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment decision.
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Aberrant DNA methylation distinguishes hepatocellular carcinoma associated with HBV and HCV infection and alcohol intake.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent human cancers and a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The major risk factors for developing HCC are infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcoholism, and aflatoxins; however, critical gene targets remain largely unknown. Herein, we sought to establish DNA methylation patterns in HCC and corresponding cirrhotic tissues and to identify DNA methylation changes associated with major risk factors.
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Modulation of imprinted gene network in placenta results in normal development of in vitro manipulated mouse embryos.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Genomic imprinting regulates the expression of a group of genes monoallelically expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Allele-specific DNA methylation occurs at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of these genes. We have previously shown that in vitro fertilization and embryo culture result in methylation defects at the imprinted H19-Igf2 locus at the blastocyst stage. The current study was designed to evaluate the consequences of these manipulations on genomic imprinting after implantation in the mouse. Blastocysts were produced following three experimental conditions: (i) embryos maintained in culture medium after in vivo fertilization or (ii) in vitro fertilization and (iii) a control group with embryos obtained after in vivo fertilization and timed mating. Blastocysts were all transplanted into pseudopregnant females. Embryos and placentas were collected on day 10.5 of development. DNA methylation patterns of the H19, Igf2, Igf2r and Dlk1-Dio3 DMRs were analyzed by quantitative pyrosequencing. In contrast to blastocyst stage, methylation profiles were normal both in embryonic and placental tissues after in vitro fertilization and culture. Expression of a selected set of imprinting genes from the recently described imprinted gene network (IGN) (including Igf2 and H19) was analyzed in placental tissues by quantitative RT-PCR. Placentas obtained after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture displayed significantly disturbed levels of H19 and Igf2 mRNA, as well as of most other genes from the IGN. As embryos were phenotypically normal, we hypothesize that the modulation of a coordinated network of imprinted genes results in a compensatory process capable of correcting potential dysfunction of placenta.
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Frequent aberrant DNA methylation of ABCB1, FOXC1, PPP2R2B and PTEN in ductal carcinoma in situ and early invasive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive lesion of the breast that is frequently detected by mammography and subsequently removed by surgery. However, it is estimated that about half of the detected lesions would never have progressed into invasive cancer. Identifying DCIS and invasive cancer specific epigenetic lesions and understanding how these epigenetic changes are involved in triggering tumour progression is important for a better understanding of which lesions are at risk of becoming invasive.
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Hypermethylation of the IGF2 differentially methylated region 2 is a specific event in insulinomas leading to loss-of-imprinting and overexpression.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Prediction of the evolution of endocrine pancreatic tumors remains difficult based on histological criteria alone. We have previously demonstrated that epigenetic changes are an early event in a mouse model developing insulinomas. Particularly, overexpression of the imprinted IGF2 was caused by the hypermethylation of CpGs in the differentially methylated region 2 (DMR2). Here, we investigated whether IGF2 hypermethylation is also observed in human insulinomas and whether this alteration is common to other human endocrine tumors of the pancreas and the digestive tract. We analyzed the methylation status of 40 CpGs located in the DMR0 and DMR2 of the IGF2 as well as in the H19 DMR by pyrosequencing in a cohort of 62 patients with pancreatic or small intestine endocrine tumors. Altered methylation patterns were observed in all tumor types for the different regions of IGF2, but not for H19. However, hypermethylation of the IGF2 DMR2 was specific for insulinomas and did not occur in any of the other types of tumors which were characterized by a loss of methylation in this region. Gain of methylation in the IGF2 DMR2 in insulinomas correlated with loss-of-imprinting and promoter 4 mediated overexpression of IGF2 at the RNA and protein level. Furthermore, a decreasing degree of methylation in the different regions of IGF2 correlated well with increasing degree of malignancy according to the WHO classification of pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs), suggesting that methylation of IGF2 might be a useful biomarker for classification and staging of PETs.
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Data integration from two microarray platforms identifies bi-allelic genetic inactivation of RIC8A in a breast cancer cell line.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), a large number of deleted genomic regions have been identified in human cancers. However, subsequent efforts to identify target genes selected for inactivation in these regions have often been challenging.
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Identification and quantification of differentially methylated loci by the pyrosequencing technology.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Most available protocols for gene-specific DNA methylation analysis are either labor intensive, not quantitative, or limited to the measurement of the methylation status of only one or very few CpG positions. Pyrosequencing is a real-time sequencing technology that overcomes these limitations. After bisulfite modification of genomic DNA, a region of interest is amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with one of the two primers being biotinylated. The PCR-generated template is rendered single stranded and a pyrosequencing primer is annealed to analyze quantitatively CpGs within 120 bases. Advantages of the pyrosequencing technology are the ease of its implementation, the high quality and the quantitative nature of the results, and its ability to identify differentially methylated positions in close proximity. A minimum amount of 10 ng of bisulfite-treated DNA is necessary to obtain high reproducibility and avoid random amplification. The required DNA amount can be provided by an individual sample or a pool of samples to rapidly investigate the presence of variable DNA methylation patterns. The use of pools and serial pyrosequencing, that is, the successive use of several pyrosequencing primers on the same DNA template, significantly reduces cost, labor, and analysis time as well as saving precious DNA samples for the analysis of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns.
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DNA methylation: an introduction to the biology and the disease-associated changes of a promising biomarker.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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DNA methylation occurring on the 5 position of the pyrimidine ring of cytosines in the context of the dinucleotide sequence CpG forms one of the multiple layers of epigenetic mechanisms controlling and modulating gene expression through chromatin structure. It closely interacts with histone modifications and chromatin-remodeling complexes to form the genomic chromatin landscape. DNA methylation is essential for proper mammalian development, crucial for imprinting, and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability as well as in dosage compensation. DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental stimuli such as diet or toxins whereby the epigenome seems to be most vulnerable during early in utero development. Aberrant DNA methylation changes have been detected in several diseases, particularly cancer where genome-wide hypomethylation coincides with gene-specific hypermethylation. DNA methylation patterns can be used to detect cancer at very early stages, to classify tumors as well as predict and monitor the response to antineoplastic treatment. As a stable nucleic acid-based modification with limited dynamic range that is technically easy to handle, DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for many applications.
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Quantification of target proteins using hydrogel antibody arrays and MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A2M2S).
N Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2009
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Mass spectrometry-based analysis techniques are widely applied in proteomics. This study presents a novel method for quantitative multiplex candidate protein profiling. It applies immunocapture of differentially labeled protein complements on hydrogel antibody arrays and subsequent quantification by MS. To make this approach quantitative a labeling approach was devised. The impact of labeling on the antibody/antigen interaction was assessed in detail by surface plasmon resonance. Owing to there solution by mass more than two protein samples can be compared simultaneously. Direct labeling of crude samples such as sera was developed and so enables the absolute quantification of target proteins straight from crude samples without a protein purification step. It was used to measure the concentration of apolipoprotein A-1 in serum. This method has been termed A2M2S for Affinity Array sand MALDI Mass Spectrometry.
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Identification of regions correlating MGMT promoter methylation and gene expression in glioblastomas.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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The O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) is methylated in several cancers, including gliomas. However, the functional role of cysteine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) island (CGI) methylation in MGMT silencing is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MGMT CGI methylation correlates inversely with RNA expression of MGMT in glioblastomas and to determine the CpG region whose methylation best reflects the level of expression. The methylation level of CpG sites that are potentially related to expression was investigated in 54 glioblastomas by pyrosequencing, a highly quantitative method, and analyzed with respect to their MGMT mRNA expression status. Three groups of patients were identified according to the methylation pattern of all 52 analyzed CpG sites. Overall, an 85% rate of concordance was observed between methylation and expression (p < 0.0001). When analyzing each CpG separately, six CpG sites were highly correlated with expression (p < 0.0001), and two CpG regions could be used as surrogate markers for RNA expression in 81.5% of the patients. This study indicates that there is good statistical agreement between MGMT methylation and expression, and that some CpG regions better reflect MGMT expression than do others. However, if transcriptional repression is the key mechanism in explaining the higher chemosensitivity of MGMT-methylated tumors, a substantial rate of discordance should lead clinicians to be cautious when deciding on a therapeutic strategy based on MGMT methylation status alone.
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Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation profiles in lung cancer identifies aberrant DNA methylation of specific genes and its association with gender and cancer risk factors.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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The global increase in lung cancer burden, together with its poor survival and resistance to classical chemotherapy, underscores the need for identification of critical molecular events involved in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we have applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states in a panel of five cancer-associated genes (CDH1, CDKN2A, GSTP1, MTHFR, and RASSF1A) to a large case-control study of lung cancer. Our analyses revealed a high frequency of aberrant hypermethylation of MTHFR, RASSF1A, and CDKN2A in lung tumors as compared with control blood samples, whereas no significant increase in methylation levels of GSTP1 and CDH1 was observed, consistent with the notion that aberrant DNA methylation occurs in a tumor-specific and gene-specific manner. Importantly, we found that tobacco smoking, sex, and alcohol intake had a strong influence on the methylation levels of distinct genes (RASSF1A and MTHFR), whereas folate intake, age, and histologic subtype had no significant influence on methylation states. We observed a strong association between MTHFR hypermethylation in lung cancer and tobacco smoking, whereas methylation levels of CDH1, CDKN2A, GSTP1, and RASSF1A were not associated with smoking, indicating that tobacco smoke targets specific genes for hypermethylation. We also found that methylation levels in RASSF1A, but not the other genes under study, were influenced by sex, with males showing higher levels of methylation. Together, this study identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns in lung cancer and thus exemplifies the mechanism by which environmental factors may interact with key genes involved in tumor suppression and contribute to lung cancer.
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Methylation profile of the promoter region of IRF5 in primary Sjögrens syndrome.
Eur. Cytokine Netw.
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The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), in the type I interferon pathway is involved in the genetic susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. A 5-bp insertion/deletion (CGGGG indel) polymorphism in the promoter region of IRF5 associated with primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) could be epigenetically deregulated in this condition. Therefore, we investigated DNA methylation patterns of the promoter region of IRF5 to determine whether its epigenetic deregulation could explain the increased expression of IRF5 mRNA in pSS patients, along with the risk of pSS induced by the genetic polymorphism. DNA extracted from total peripheral blood mononuclear cells, isolated CD4(+) T cells, B lymphocytes and monocytes from 19 pSS patients and 24 healthy controls underwent methylation analysis by pyrosequencing. Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) were cultured from minor salivary glands. Regions of interest in the CGGGG repeat and ATG initiation codon region were amplified by PCR and analysed by pyrosequencing. The effect of the demethylating agent 5-AzaC on IRF5 mRNA expression in controls was quantified by RT-PCR. Among the healthy controls, the mean methylation of the nine CpG pairs of the CGGGG repeat region and the 18 CpG pairs of the ATG region was < 15% in CD4(+) T cells, B lymphocytes, monocytes and SGECs. Patients and controls did not differ in methylation profiles as regards CD4(+) T cells and B lymphocytes. IRF5 mRNA expression did not differ with or without 5-AzaC in controls. The absence of aberrant DNA methylation profiles for the putative regulatory regions of IRF5 in CD4(+) T cells, B lymphocytes, and monocytes from patients with pSS, does not support the hypothesis that epigenetic deregulation in combination with the genetic polymorphism explains the increase in IRF5 mRNA levels in pSS patients.
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Establishment and characterization of a highly tumourigenic and cancer stem cell enriched pancreatic cancer cell line as a well defined model system.
PLoS ONE
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Standard cancer cell lines do not model the intratumoural heterogeneity situation sufficiently. Clonal selection leads to a homogeneous population of cells by genetic drift. Heterogeneity of tumour cells, however, is particularly critical for therapeutically relevant studies, since it is a prerequisite for acquiring drug resistance and reoccurrence of tumours. Here, we report the isolation of a highly tumourigenic primary pancreatic cancer cell line, called JoPaca-1 and its detailed characterization at multiple levels. Implantation of as few as 100 JoPaca-1 cells into immunodeficient mice gave rise to tumours that were histologically very similar to the primary tumour. The high heterogeneity of JoPaca-1 was reflected by diverse cell morphology and a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations. Comparative whole-genome sequencing of JoPaca-1 and BxPC-3 revealed mutations in genes frequently altered in pancreatic cancer. Exceptionally high expression of cancer stem cell markers and a high clonogenic potential in vitro and in vivo was observed. All of these attributes make this cell line an extremely valuable model to study the biology of and pharmaceutical effects on pancreatic cancer.
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Lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) cells induces genome-wide epigenetic modifications.
PLoS ONE
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Epigenetic modifications may occur during in vitro manipulations of stem cells but these effects have remained unexplored in the context of cell and gene therapy protocols. In an experimental model of ex vivo gene modification for hematopoietic gene therapy, human CD34(+) cells were cultured shortly in the presence of cytokines then with a gene transfer lentiviral vector (LV) expected to transduce cells but to have otherwise limited biological effects on the cells. At the end of the culture, the population of cells remained largely similar at the phenotypic level but some epigenetic changes were evident. Exposure of CD34(+) cells to cytokines increased nuclear expression of epigenetic regulators SIRT1 or DNMT1 and caused genome-wide DNA methylation changes. Surprisingly, the LV caused additional and distinct effects. Large-scale genomic DNA methylation analysis showed that balanced methylation changes occurred in about 200 genes following culture of CD34(+) cells in the presence of cytokines but 900 genes were modified following addition of the LV, predominantly increasing CpG methylation. Epigenetic effects resulting from ex vivo culture and from the use of LV may constitute previously unsuspected sources of biological effects in stem cells and may provide new biomarkers to rationally optimize gene and cell therapy protocols.
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DNA methylation based biomarkers: practical considerations and applications.
Biochimie
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A biomarker is a molecular target analyzed in a qualitative or quantitative manner to detect and diagnose the presence of a disease, to predict the outcome and the response to a specific treatment allowing personalized tailoring of patient management. Biomarkers can belong to different types of biochemical molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA or lipids, whereby protein biomarkers have been the most extensively studied and used, notably in blood-based protein quantification tests or immunohistochemistry. The rise of interest in epigenetic mechanisms has allowed the identification of a new type of biomarker, DNA methylation, which is of great potential for many applications. This stable and heritable covalent modification mostly affects cytosines in the context of a CpG dinucleotide in humans. It can be detected and quantified by a number of technologies including genome-wide screening methods as well as locus- or gene-specific high-resolution analysis in different types of samples such as frozen tissues and FFPE samples, but also in body fluids such as urine, plasma, and serum obtained through non-invasive procedures. In some cases, DNA methylation based biomarkers have proven to be more specific and sensitive than commonly used protein biomarkers, which could clearly justify their use in clinics. However, very few of them are at the moment used in clinics and even less commercial tests are currently available. The objective of this review is to discuss the advantages of DNA methylation as a biomarker, the practical considerations for their development, and their use in disease detection, prediction of outcome or treatment response, through multiple examples mainly focusing on cancer, but also to evoke their potential for complex diseases and prenatal diagnostics.
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Complete pipeline for Infinium(®) Human Methylation 450K BeadChip data processing using subset quantile normalization for accurate DNA methylation estimation.
Epigenomics
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Huge progress has been made in the development of array- or sequencing-based technologies for DNA methylation analysis. The Illumina Infinium(®) Human Methylation 450K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., CA, USA) allows the simultaneous quantitative monitoring of more than 480,000 CpG positions, enabling large-scale epigenotyping studies. However, the assay combines two different assay chemistries, which may cause a bias in the analysis if all signals are merged as a unique source of methylation measurement.
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IGF2/H19 hypomethylation in a patient with very low birthweight, preocious pubarche and insulin resistance.
BMC Med. Genet.
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Insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is an imprinted gene, which has an important role in fetal growth as established in mice models. IGF2 is downregulated through hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region (DMR) in Silver Russell syndrome (SRS), characterised by growth restriction. We have previously reported that severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction associated with insulin resistance and precocious pubarche in a woman without body asymmetry or other SRS features resulted from a balanced translocation affecting the regulation of her IGF2 gene expression. We hypothesised that severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction associated with insulin resistance and precocious pubarche in the absence of SRS are also caused by downregulation of IGF2 through hypomethylation, gene mutation or structural chromosomal abnormalities.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.