The synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin-1 (SYT) is required to couple calcium influx to the membrane fusion machinery. However, the structural mechanism underlying this process is unclear. Here we report an unexpected circular arrangement (ring) of SYT's cytosolic domain (C2AB) formed on lipid monolayers in the absence of free calcium ions as revealed by electron microscopy. Rings vary in diameter from 18-43 nm, corresponding to 11-26 molecules of SYT. Continuous stacking of the SYT rings occasionally converts both lipid monolayers and bilayers into protein-coated tubes. Helical reconstruction of the SYT tubes shows that one of the C2 domains (most likely C2B, based on its biochemical properties) interacts with the membrane and is involved in ring formation, and the other C2 domain points radially outward. SYT rings are disrupted rapidly by physiological concentrations of free calcium but not by magnesium. Assuming that calcium-free SYT rings are physiologically relevant, these results suggest a simple and novel mechanism by which SYT regulates neurotransmitter release: The ring acts as a spacer to prevent the completion of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly, thereby clamping fusion in the absence of calcium. When the ring disassembles in the presence of calcium, fusion proceeds unimpeded.
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are evolutionarily conserved machines that couple their folding/assembly to membrane fusion. However, it is unclear how these processes are regulated and function. To determine these mechanisms, we characterized the folding energy and kinetics of four representative SNARE complexes at a single-molecule level using high-resolution optical tweezers. We found that all SNARE complexes assemble by the same step-wise zippering mechanism: slow N-terminal domain (NTD) association, a pause in a force-dependent half-zippered intermediate, and fast C-terminal domain (CTD) zippering. The energy release from CTD zippering differs for yeast (13 kBT) and neuronal SNARE complexes (27 kBT), and is concentrated at the C-terminal part of CTD zippering. Thus, SNARE complexes share a conserved zippering pathway and polarized energy release to efficiently drive membrane fusion, but generate different amounts of zippering energy to regulate fusion kinetics.
In mammalian cells, individual Golgi stacks fuse laterally to form the characteristic perinuclear ribbon structure. Yet the purpose of this remarkable structure has been an enigma. We report that breaking down the ribbon of mammalian cells strongly inhibits intra-Golgi transport of large cargoes without altering the rate of transport of smaller cargoes. In addition, insect cells that naturally harbor dispersed Golgi stacks have limited capacity to transport artificial oversized cargoes. These results imply that the ribbon structure is an essential requirement for transport of large cargoes in mammalian cells, and we suggest that this is because it enables the dilated rims of cisternae (containing the aggregates) to move across the stack as they transfer among adjacent stacks within the ribbon structure.
Complexin (Cpx) is a SNARE-binding protein that regulates neurotransmission by clamping spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion in the absence of Ca(2+) influx while promoting evoked release in response to an action potential. Previous studies indicated Cpx may cross-link multiple SNARE complexes via a trans interaction to function as a fusion clamp. During Ca(2+) influx, Cpx is predicted to undergo a conformational switch and collapse onto a single SNARE complex in a cis-binding mode to activate vesicle release. To test this model in vivo, we performed structure-function studies of the Cpx protein in Drosophila. Using genetic rescue approaches with cpx mutants that disrupt SNARE cross-linking, we find that manipulations that are predicted to block formation of the trans SNARE array disrupt the clamping function of Cpx. Unexpectedly, these same mutants rescue action potential-triggered release, indicating trans-SNARE cross-linking by Cpx is not a prerequisite for triggering evoked fusion. In contrast, mutations that impair Cpx-mediated cis-SNARE interactions that are necessary for transition from an open to closed conformation fail to rescue evoked release defects in cpx mutants, although they clamp spontaneous release normally. Our in vivo genetic manipulations support several predictions made by the Cpx cross-linking model, but unexpected results suggest additional mechanisms are likely to exist that regulate Cpx's effects on SNARE-mediated fusion. Our findings also indicate that the inhibitory and activating functions of Cpx are genetically separable, and can be mapped to distinct molecular mechanisms that differentially regulate the SNARE fusion machinery.
SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins mediate fusion by pulling biological membranes together via a zippering mechanism. Recent biophysical studies have shown that t- and v-SNAREs can assemble in multiple stages from the N-termini toward the C-termini. Here we show that functionally, membrane fusion requires a sequential, two-step folding pathway and assign specific and distinct functions for each step. First, the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the v-SNARE docks to the t-SNARE, which leads to a conformational rearrangement into an activated half-zippered SNARE complex. This partially assembled SNARE complex locks the C-terminal (CTD) portion of the t-SNARE into the same structure as in the postfusion 4-helix bundle, thereby creating the binding site for the CTD of the v-SNARE and enabling fusion. Then zippering of the remaining CTD, the membrane-proximal linker (LD), and transmembrane (TMD) domains is required and sufficient to trigger fusion. This intrinsic property of the SNAREs fits well with the action of physiologically vital regulators such as complexin. We also report that NTD assembly is the rate-limiting step. Our findings provide a refined framework for delineating the molecular mechanism of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion and action of regulatory proteins.
Cells contain small membrane-enclosed vesicles which transport many kinds of cargo between the compartments of the cell. The result is a choreographed program of secretory, biosynthetic, and endocytic protein traffic that serves the cell's internal physiologic needs.
Two classes of proteins that bind to each other and to Golgi membranes have been implicated in the adhesion of Golgi cisternae to each other to form their characteristic stacks: Golgi reassembly and stacking proteins 55 and 65 (GRASP55 and GRASP65) and Golgin of 45 kDa and Golgi matrix protein of 130 kDa. We report here that efficient stacking occurs in the absence of GRASP65/55 when either Golgin is overexpressed, as judged by quantitative electron microscopy. The Golgi stacks in these GRASP-deficient HeLa cells were normal both in morphology and in anterograde cargo transport. This suggests the simple hypothesis that the total amount of adhesive energy gluing cisternae dictates Golgi cisternal stacking, irrespective of which molecules mediate the adhesive process. In support of this hypothesis, we show that adding artificial adhesive energy between cisternae and mitochondria by dimerizing rapamycin-binding domain and FK506-binding protein domains that are attached to cisternal adhesive proteins allows mitochondria to invade the stack and even replace Golgi cisternae within a few hours. These results indicate that although Golgi stacking is a highly complicated process involving a large number of adhesive and regulatory proteins, the overriding principle of a Golgi stack assembly is likely to be quite simple. From this simplified perspective, we propose a model, based on cisternal adhesion and cisternal maturation as the two core principles, illustrating how the most ancient form of Golgi stacking might have occurred using only weak cisternal adhesive processes because of the differential between the rate of influx and outflux of membrane transport through the Golgi.
Intracellular trafficking between organelles is achieved by coat protein complexes, coat protomers, that bud vesicles from bilayer membranes. Lipid droplets are protected by a monolayer and thus seem unsuitable targets for coatomers. Unexpectedly, coat protein complex I (COPI) is required for lipid droplet targeting of some proteins, suggesting a possible direct interaction between COPI and lipid droplets. Here, we find that COPI coat components can bud 60-nm triacylglycerol nanodroplets from artificial lipid droplet (LD) interfaces. This budding decreases phospholipid packing of the monolayer decorating the mother LD. As a result, hydrophobic triacylglycerol molecules become more exposed to the aqueous environment, increasing LD surface tension. In vivo, this surface tension increase may prime lipid droplets for reactions with neighboring proteins or membranes. It provides a mechanism fundamentally different from transport vesicle formation by COPI, likely responsible for the diverse lipid droplet phenotypes associated with depletion of COPI subunits.
Synaptotagmin triggers rapid exocytosis of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles in response to Calcium (Ca(2+)) ions. Here, we use a novel Nanodisc-based system, designed to be a soluble mimetic of the clamped synaptic vesicle-bilayer junction, combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy to monitor the structural relationships among SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor), Synaptotagmin C2 domains, and the lipid bilayer in real time during the Ca(2+)-activation process. We report that Synaptotagmin remains rigidly fixed on the partially assembled SNARE complex with no detectable internal rearrangement of its C2 domains, even as it rapidly inserts into the bilayer. We hypothesize that this straightforward, one-step physical mechanism could explain how this Ca(2+)- sensor rapidly activates neurotransmitter release from the clamped state.
This protocol describes an assay that uses suspended nanomembranes called nanodiscs to analyze fusion events. A nanodisc is a lipid bilayer wrapped by membrane scaffold proteins. Fluorescent lipids and a protein that is part of a fusion machinery, VAMP2 in the example detailed herein, are included in the nanodiscs. Upon fusion of a nanodisc with a nonfluorescent liposome containing cognate proteins (for instance, the VAMP2 cognate syntaxin1/SNAP-25 complex), the fluorescent lipids are dispersed in the liposome and the increase in fluorescence, initially quenched in the nanodisc, is monitored on a plate reader. Because the scaffold proteins restrain pore expansion, the fusion pore eventually reseals. A reducing agent, such as dithionite, which can quench the fluorescence of accessible lipids, can then be used to determine the number of fusion events. A fluorescence-based approach can also be used to monitor the release of encapsulated cargo. From data on the total cargo release and the number of the much faster lipid-mixing events, the researcher may determine the amount of cargo released per fusion event. This assay requires 3 d for preparation and 4 h for data acquisition and analysis.
A core prediction of the vesicular transport model is that COPI vesicles are responsible for trafficking anterograde cargoes forward. In this study, we test this prediction by examining the properties and requirements of inter-Golgi transport within fused cells, which requires mobile carriers in order for exchange of constituents to occur. We report that both small soluble and membrane-bound secretory cargo and exogenous Golgi resident glycosyl-transferases are exchanged between separated Golgi. Large soluble aggregates, which traverse individual stacks, do not transfer between Golgi, implying that small cargoes (which can fit in a typical transport vesicle) are transported by a different mechanism. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that the carriers of both anterograde and retrograde cargoes are the size of COPI vesicles, contain coatomer, and functionally require ARF1 and coatomer for transport. The data suggest that COPI vesicles traffic both small secretory cargo and steady-state Golgi resident enzymes among stacked cisternae that are stationary. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01296.001.
We have designed a membrane staple, which consists of membrane-anchored repeats of the trans-aggregating FM domain that face the lumen of the secretory pathway. In the presence of the disaggregating drug these proteins transit the secretory pathway. When the drug is removed these proteins form electron-dense plaques which we term staples. Unexpectedly, when initially positioned within the cis-Golgi, staples remained at the cis face of the Golgi even after many hours. By contrast, soluble FM-aggregates transited the Golgi. Staples and soluble aggregates placed in cis-Golgi cisternae therefore have different fates. Whereas the membrane staples are located in the flattened, stacked central regions of the cisternae, the soluble aggregates are in the dilated rims. This suggests that while the cisternae are static on the time scale of protein traffic, the dilated rims are mobile and progress in the cis ? trans direction via a mechanism that we term Rim Progression. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00558.001.
F.-Ulrich Hartl and Arthur Horwich will share this years Lasker Basic Medical Science Award for the discovery of the cells protein-folding machinery, exemplified by cage-like structures that convert newly synthesized proteins into their biologically active forms. Their fundamental findings reveal mechanisms that operate in normal physiologic processes and help to explain the problems that arise in diseases of protein folding.
Diffraction-unlimited resolution provided by Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy allows for imaging cellular processes in living cells that are not visible by conventional microscopy. However, it has so far not been possible to study dynamic nanoscale interactions because multicolor live cell STED microscopy has yet to be demonstrated and suitable labeling technologies and protocols are lacking. Here we report the first realization of two-color STED imaging in living cells. Using improved SNAP(f) and CLIP(f) technologies to label epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR), we report resolutions of 78 nm and 82 nm for 22 sequential two-color scans in living cells.
Plasmalemmal neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) regulate the level of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA) and glutamate, after their release at brain synapses. Stimuli including protein kinase C (PKC) activation can lead to the internalization of some NTTs and a reduction in neurotransmitter clearance capacity. We found that the protein Flotillin-1 (Flot1), also known as Reggie-2, was required for PKC-regulated internalization of members of two different NTT families, the DA transporter (DAT) and the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, and we identified a conserved serine residue in Flot1 that is essential for transporter internalization. Further analysis revealed that Flot1 was also required to localize DAT within plasma membrane microdomains in stable cell lines, and was essential for amphetamine-induced reverse transport of DA in neurons but not for DA uptake. In sum, our findings provide evidence for a critical role of Flot1-enriched membrane microdomains in PKC-triggered DAT endocytosis and the actions of amphetamine.
Complexin prevents SNAREs from releasing neurotransmitters until an action potential arrives at the synapse. To understand the mechanism for this inhibition, we determined the structure of complexin bound to a mimetic of a prefusion SNAREpin lacking the portion of the v-SNARE that zippers last to trigger fusion. The central helix of complexin is anchored to one SNARE complex, while its accessory helix extends away at ~45° and bridges to a second complex, occupying the vacant v-SNARE binding site to inhibit fusion. We expected the accessory helix to compete with the v-SNARE for t-SNARE binding but found instead that the interaction occurs intermolecularly. Thus, complexin organizes the SNAREs into a zigzag topology that, when interposed between the vesicle and plasma membranes, is incompatible with fusion.
The core mechanism of intracellular vesicle fusion consists of SNAREpin zippering between vesicular and target membranes. Recent studies indicate that the same SNARE-binding protein, complexin (CPX), can act either as a facilitator or as an inhibitor of membrane fusion, constituting a controversial dilemma. Here we take energetic measurements with the surface force apparatus that reveal that CPX acts sequentially on assembling SNAREpins, first facilitating zippering by nearly doubling the distance at which v- and t-SNAREs can engage and then clamping them into a half-zippered fusion-incompetent state. Specifically, we find that the central helix of CPX allows SNAREs to form this intermediate energetic state at 9-15 nm but not when the bilayers are closer than 9 nm. Stabilizing the activated-clamped state at separations of less than 9 nm requires the accessory helix of CPX, which prevents membrane-proximal assembly of SNAREpins.
The crystal structure of complexin bound to a prefusion SNAREpin mimetic shows that the accessory helix extends away from the SNAREpin in an open conformation, binding another SNAREpin and inhibiting its assembly, to clamp fusion. In contrast, the accessory helix in the postfusion complex parallels the SNARE complex in a closed conformation. Here we use targeted mutations, FRET spectroscopy and a functional assay that reconstitutes Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis to show that the conformational switch from open to closed in complexin is needed for synaptotagmin-Ca(2+) to trigger fusion. Triggering fusion requires the zippering of three crucial aspartate residues in the switch region (residues 64-68) of v-SNARE. Conformational switching in complexin is integral to clamp release and is probably triggered when its accessory helix is released from its trans-binding to the neighboring SNAREpin, allowing the v-SNARE to complete zippering and open a fusion pore.
This essay looks backward on the past three decades of research toward understanding the mechanism of macromolecular traffic through and within the Golgi apparatus with an eye to the future. I also explain why I feel the Golgi should continue to hold the attention of molecular cell biologists.
Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins activate intracellular membrane fusion through binding to cognate SNAP receptor (SNARE) complexes. The synaptic target membrane SNARE syntaxin 1 contains a highly conserved H(abc) domain, which connects an N-peptide motif to the SNARE core domain and is thought to participate in the binding of Munc18-1 (the neuronal SM protein) to the SNARE complex. Unexpectedly, we found that mutation or complete removal of the H(abc) domain had no effect on Munc18-1 stimulation of fusion. The central cavity region of Munc18-1 is required to stimulate fusion but not through its binding to the syntaxin H(abc) domain. SNAP-25, another synaptic SNARE subunit, contains a flexible linker and exhibits an atypical conjoined Q(bc) configuration. We found that neither the linker nor the Q(bc) configuration is necessary for Munc18-1 promotion of fusion. As a result, Munc18-1 activates a SNARE complex with the typical configuration, in which each of the SNARE core domains is individually rooted in the membrane bilayer. Thus, the SNARE four-helix bundle and syntaxin N-peptide constitute a minimal complement for Munc18-1 activation of fusion.
Cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) is a permanent feature of yeast cells but occurs transiently in most animal cell types. Ist2p is a transmembrane protein that permanently localizes to the cER in yeast. When Ist2 is expressed in mammalian cells, it induces abundant cER containing Ist2. Ist2 cytoplasmic C-terminal peptide is necessary and sufficient to induce cER. This peptide sequence resembles classic coat protein complex I (COPI) coatomer protein-binding KKXX signals, and indeed the dimerized peptide binds COPI in vitro. Controlled dimerization of this peptide induces cER in cells. RNA interference experiments confirm that coatomer is required for cER induction in vivo, as are microtubules and the microtubule plus-end binding protein EB1. We suggest that Ist2 dimerization triggers coatomer binding and clustering of this protein into domains that traffic at the microtubule growing plus-end to generate the cER beneath the plasma membrane. Sequences similar to the Ist2 lysine-rich tail are found in mammalian STIM proteins that reversibly induce the formation of cER under calcium control.
Almost all known intracellular fusion reactions are driven by formation of trans-SNARE complexes through pairing of vesicle-associated v-SNAREs with complementary t-SNAREs on target membranes. However, the number of SNARE complexes required for fusion is unknown, and there is controversy about whether additional proteins are required to explain the fast fusion which can occur in cells. Here we show that single vesicles containing the synaptic/exocytic v-SNAREs VAMP/synaptobrevin fuse rapidly with planar, supported bilayers containing the synaptic/exocytic t-SNAREs syntaxin-SNAP25. Fusion rates decreased dramatically when the number of externally oriented v-SNAREs per vesicle was reduced below 5-10, directly establishing this as the minimum number required for rapid fusion. Docking-to-fusion delay time distributions were consistent with a requirement that 5-11 t-SNAREs be recruited to achieve fusion, closely matching the v-SNARE requirement.
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated lipid mixing can be efficiently recapitulated in vitro by the incorporation of purified vesicle membrane (-v) SNARE and target membrane (t-) SNARE proteins into separate liposome populations. Despite the strong correlation between the observed activities in this system and the known SNARE physiology, some recent works have suggested that SNARE-mediated lipid mixing may be limited to circumstances where membrane defects arise from artifactual reconstitution conditions (such as nonphysiological high-protein concentrations or unrealistically small liposome populations). Here, we show that the previously published strategies used to reconstitute SNAREs into liposomes do not significantly affect either the physical parameters of the proteoliposomes or the ability of SNAREs to drive lipid mixing in vitro. The surface density of SNARE proteins turns out to be the most critical parameter, which controls both the rate and the extent of SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. In addition, the specific activity of the t-SNARE complex is significantly influenced by expression and reconstitution protocols, such that we only observe optimal lipid mixing when the t-SNARE proteins are coexpressed before purification.
The Golgi apparatus is essential for protein sorting and transport. Many researchers have long been fascinated with the form and function of this organelle. Yet, despite decades of scrutiny, the mechanisms by which proteins are transported across the Golgi remain controversial. At a recent meeting, many prominent Golgi researchers assembled to critically evaluate the core issues in the field. This report presents the outcome of their discussions and highlights the key open questions that will help guide the field into a new era.
Pathogens use diverse molecular machines to penetrate host cells and manipulate intracellular vesicular trafficking. Viruses employ glycoproteins, functionally and structurally similar to the SNARE proteins, to induce eukaryotic membrane fusion. Intracellular pathogens, on the other hand, need to block fusion of their infectious phagosomes with various endocytic compartments to escape from the degradative pathway. The molecular details concerning the mechanisms underlying this process are lacking. Using both an in vitro liposome fusion assay and a cellular assay, we showed that SNARE-like bacterial proteins block membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells by directly inhibiting SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. More specifically, we showed that IncA and IcmG/DotF, two SNARE-like proteins respectively expressed by Chlamydia and Legionella, inhibit the endocytic SNARE machinery. Furthermore, we identified that the SNARE-like motif present in these bacterial proteins encodes the inhibitory function. This finding suggests that SNARE-like motifs are capable of specifically manipulating membrane fusion in a wide variety of biological environments. Ultimately, this motif may have been selected during evolution because it is an efficient structural motif for modifying eukaryotic membrane fusion and thus contribute to pathogen survival.
Membrane fusion between vesicles and target membranes involves the zippering of a four-helix bundle generated by constituent helices derived from target- and vesicle-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). In neurons, the protein complexin clamps otherwise spontaneous fusion by SNARE proteins, allowing neurotransmitters and other mediators to be secreted when and where they are needed as this clamp is released. The membrane-proximal accessory helix of complexin is necessary for clamping, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we present experiments using a reconstituted fusion system that suggest a simple model in which the complexin accessory helix forms an alternative four-helix bundle with the target-SNARE near the membrane, preventing the vesicle-SNARE from completing its zippering.
The two universally required components of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery, SNARE and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins, play complementary roles in fusion. Vesicular and target membrane-localized SNARE proteins zipper up into an alpha-helical bundle that pulls the two membranes tightly together to exert the force required for fusion. SM proteins, shaped like clasps, bind to trans-SNARE complexes to direct their fusogenic action. Individual fusion reactions are executed by distinct combinations of SNARE and SM proteins to ensure specificity, and are controlled by regulators that embed the SM-SNARE fusion machinery into a physiological context. This regulation is spectacularly apparent in the exquisite speed and precision of synaptic exocytosis, where synaptotagmin (the calcium-ion sensor for fusion) cooperates with complexin (the clamp activator) to control the precisely timed release of neurotransmitters that initiates synaptic transmission and underlies brain function.
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins drive membrane fusion by assembling into a four-helix bundle in a zippering process. Here, we used optical tweezers to observe in a cell-free reconstitution experiment in real time a long-sought SNARE assembly intermediate in which only the membrane-distal amino-terminal half of the bundle is assembled. Our findings support the zippering hypothesis, but suggest that zippering proceeds through three sequential binary switches, not continuously, in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal halves of the bundle and the linker domain. The half-zippered intermediate was stabilized by externally applied force that mimicked the repulsion between apposed membranes being forced to fuse. This intermediate then rapidly and forcefully zippered, delivering free energy of 36 k(B)T (where k(B) is Boltzmanns constant and T is temperature) to mediate fusion.
Many biological processes rely on membrane fusion, and therefore assays to study its mechanisms are necessary. Here we report an assay with sensitivity to single-vesicle, and even to single-molecule events using fluorescently labeled vesicle-associated v-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) liposomes and target-membrane-associated t-SNARE-reconstituted planar, supported bilayers (t-SBLs). Docking and fusion events can be detected using conventional far-field epifluorescence or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. In this assay, fusion is dependent on SNAP-25, one of the t-SNARE subunits that is required for fusion in vivo. The success of the assay is due to the use of: (i) bilayers covered with a thin layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to control bilayer-bilayer and bilayer-substrate interactions, and (ii) microfluidic flow channels that present many advantages, such as the removal of nonspecifically bound liposomes by flow. The protocol takes 6-8 d to complete. Analysis can take up to 2 weeks.
Neurotransmitters are released through nascent fusion pores, which ordinarily dilate after bilayer fusion, preventing consistent biochemical studies. We used lipid bilayer nanodiscs as fusion partners; their rigid protein framework prevents dilation and reveals properties of the fusion pore induced by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor). We found that although only one SNARE per nanodisc is required for maximum rates of bilayer fusion, efficient release of content on the physiologically relevant time scale of synaptic transmission apparently requires three or more SNARE complexes (SNAREpins) and the native transmembrane domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). We suggest that several SNAREpins simultaneously zippering their SNARE transmembrane helices within the freshly fused bilayers provide a radial force that prevents the nascent pore from resealing during synchronous neurotransmitter release.
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