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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An evaluation of the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief effect on health systems strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been criticized for its vertical or "stove-piping" structure, with resources targeting a specific disease rather than working to strengthen the underlying health system. This study aimed to evaluate whether PEPFAR activities were associated with system-wide improvements in both proximal and distal indicators of health systems strengthening.
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Vasodilation by in vivo activation of astrocyte endfeet via two-photon calcium uncaging as a strategy to prevent brain ischemia.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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ABSTRACT. Decreased cerebral blood flow causes brain ischemia and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia. In this study, we photomodulated astrocytes in the live animal by a combination of two-photon calcium uncaging in the astrocyte endfoot and in vivo imaging of neurovasculature and astrocytes by intravital two-photon microscopy after labeling with cell type specific fluorescent dyes. Our study demonstrates that photomodulation at the endfoot of a single astrocyte led to a 25% increase in the diameter of a neighboring arteriole, which is a crucial factor regulating cerebral microcirculation in downstream capillaries. Two-photon uncaging in the astrocyte soma or endfoot near veins does not show the same effect on microcirculation. These experimental results suggest that infrared photomodulation on astrocyte endfeet may be a strategy to increase cerebral local microcirculation and thus prevent brain ischemia.
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Using the tuberculosis cohort review to evaluate and improve the U.S. Armys tuberculosis control program.
MSMR
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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The challenges of tuberculosis (TB) control in the U.S. military are similar to those in other low-incidence populations; in addition, the U.S. Military Health System must account for geographic separation, frequent staff turnover, deployments to TB-endemic areas, and residence in congregate settings. The objective of this evaluation was to use a TB cohort review process to assess indicators of the quality and effectiveness of the TB control program in the U.S. Army. Ten cases of TB disease occurred at U.S. Army installations in 2011; all were pulmonary. Two cases occurred among the active component U.S. Army, a rate of 0.4 per 100,000 population; no case was attributable to infection acquired during deployment. Eight (80%) were foreign born. Seven (70%) were smear positive and one (10%) had multi-drug resistant TB. One (10%) case died. All (100%) of the nine remaining cases completed therapy. The median time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 98 days, but there was substantial variability (range 21-444). This is the first report of the cohort review methodology being applied to a military population. Most performance indicators in the U.S. Army met or approached national standards.
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Tuberculosis trends in the U.S. Armed Forces, active component, 1998-2012.
MSMR
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Members of the Armed Forces represent a segment of the U.S. population that may be at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and transmission due to overseas service in endemic areas and residence in congregate settings. The purpose of this study was to examine recent surveillance trends and risk factors associated with TB disease in the active component U.S. military. The rate of TB in the U.S. military -0.6 per 100,000 population (n=128) over the interval from 1998 to 2012 - was lower than the age-adjusted rate among the U.S. population (adjusted rate ratio=0.20) over the same time interval. During the last five years of the surveillance period, the most common factor associated with the diagnosis of TB disease during military service was latent infection at time of accession; also, as many as nine (24%) cases of TB were associated with deployment to Iraq or other military exposures. TB control activities should continue to mitigate unique military exposures such as crowding during recruit training and deployments to TB endemic areas.
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Tuberculosis among nonimmigrant visitors to US Military installations.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Nonimmigrant visitors are not required to be evaluated for tuberculosis (TB) before entering the country. Little literature exists describing the challenges of TB control among this demographic. This report reviews the challenges in managing TB in this population on U.S. military installations.
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Confirmed malaria cases among active component U.S. Army personnel, January-September 2012.
MSMR
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Of 26 cases of malaria reported among active component U.S. Army personnel during January through September 2012, 16 were laboratory-confirmed according to electronic medical records. Medical records and responses on postdeployment health assessment questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical characteristics, adherence to malaria prevention measures, and compliance with prescriptions for chemoprophylaxis. All but two cases were confirmed by peripheral blood smears. Twelve cases were caused by Plasmodium vivax, one by P. falciparum, and three unspecified diagnoses were deemed likely to be due to P. vivax. Fourteen cases were associated with deployment to Afghanistan. Adherence to Army malaria prevention measures during deployment and compliance with post-deployment primaquine chemprophylaxis were poor. Prescribed doses of primaquine often varied from current clinical or Department of Defense policy guidelines. Continued education, training and reinforcement of malaria prevention by medical and preventive medicine personnel are indicated, as is blood smear confirmation of suspected malaria cases. Unit commanders and supervisors play a crucial role in ensuring soldiers adherence to malaria prevention measures.
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Next-generation transgenic mice for optogenetic analysis of neural circuits.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Here we characterize several new lines of transgenic mice useful for optogenetic analysis of brain circuit function. These mice express optogenetic probes, such as enhanced halorhodopsin or several different versions of channelrhodopsins, behind various neuron-specific promoters. These mice permit photoinhibition or photostimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results also reveal the important influence of fluorescent tags on optogenetic probe expression and function in transgenic mice.
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Discordance among commercially available diagnostics for latent tuberculosis infection.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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There is uncertainty regarding how to interpret discordance between tests for latent tuberculosis infection.
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Deployment-related testing and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection, part II.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Current Topics in Military Tropical Medicine is a Continuing Medical Education series, which updates military medical personnel on questions related to clinical practice while deployed. This issue is Part II of a two-part series on the approach to decision to test, testing and management of latent tuberculosis infection. A representative case is explored in both parts to highlight how to approach service members and their units with regard to latent tuberculosis infection screening and intervention.
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Deployment-related testing and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection, Part I.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Current Topics in Military Tropical Medicine is a Continuing Medical Education series, which updates military medical personnel on questions related to clinical practice while deployed. This issue is Part I of a two-part series on the approach to decision to test, testing and management of latent tuberculosis infection. A representative case is explored in both parts to highlight how to approach service members and their units with regards to latent tuberculosis infection screening and intervention.
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Impact of targeted testing for latent tuberculosis infection using commercially available diagnostics.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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The interferon-? release assays (IGRAs) are increasingly being used as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST). Although IGRAs may have better specificity and certain logistic advantages to the TST, their use may contribute to overtesting of low-prevalence populations if testing is not targeted. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a risk factor questionnaire in predicting a positive test result for latent tuberculosis infection using the 3 commercially available diagnostics.
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The in-service examination score as a predictor of success on the American Board of Preventive Medicine certification examination.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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To date, there has been no study correlating the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) in-service exam (ISE) with the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) certification exam.
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Optogenetic probing of functional brain circuitry.
Exp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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Recently developed optogenetic technologies offer the promise of high-speed mapping of brain circuitry. Genetically targeted light-gated channels and pumps, such as channelrhodopsins and halorhodopsin, allow optical control of neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optogenetic probes of neuronal activity, such as Clomeleon and Mermaid, allow light to be used to monitor the activity of a genetically defined population of neurons. Combining these two complementary sets of optogenetic probes will make it possible to perform all-optical circuit mapping. Owing to the improved efficiency and higher speed of data acquisition, this hybrid approach should enable high-throughput mapping of brain circuitry.
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Chlorhexidine-impregnated cloths to prevent skin and soft-tissue infection in Marine recruits: a cluster-randomized, double-blind, controlled effectiveness trial.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) causes skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) in military recruits.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of TST conversion risk in deployed military and long-term civilian travelers.
J Travel Med
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) during travel is a significant potential infectious disease threat to travelers. However, there is uncertainty in the travel medicine community regarding the evidence base for both estimates of risk for latent TB infection (LTBI) in long-term travelers and for information regarding which travelers may benefit from pre- or post-travel TB screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion, used as a surrogate for LTBI, in long-term travelers from low- to high-risk countries.
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Active tuberculosis and recent overseas deployment in the U.S. military.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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The risk of active TB resulting from military deployment to endemic areas is unknown. It has typically been assumed that the risk of TB approximates the risk among local nationals in that country.
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Increased food intake and energy expenditure following administration of olanzapine to healthy men.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Atypical antipsychotic medications like olanzapine (OLZ) induce weight gain and increase the risk of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to assess potential mechanisms of OLZ-induced weight gain and accompanying metabolic effects. Healthy, lean, male volunteers received OLZ and placebo (PBO) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. In periods 1 and 2, subjects received OLZ (5 mg for 3 days then OLZ 10 mg for 12 days) or matching PBO separated by a minimum 12-day washout. Twenty-four hour food intake (FI), resting energy expenditure (REE), activity level, metabolic markers, and insulin sensitivity (IS) were assessed. In total, 30 subjects were enrolled and 21 completed both periods. Mean age and BMI were 27 years (range: 18-49 years) and 22.6 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2), respectively. Relative to PBO, OLZ resulted in a 2.62 vs. 0.08 kg increase in body weight (P < 0.001) and 18% (P = 0.052 or 345 kcal) increase in FI. Excluding one subject with nausea and dizziness on the day of OLZ FI measurement, the increase in FI was 547 kcal, (P < 0.05). OLZ increased REE relative to PBO (113 kcal/day, P = 0.003). Significant increases in triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-I), leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were observed. No significant differences in activity level or IS were observed. This study provides evidence that OLZ pharmacology drives the early increase in weight through increased FI, without evidence of decreased energy expenditure (EE), activity level, or short-term perturbations in IS.
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Distribution of RGS9-2 in neurons of the mouse striatum.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins negatively modulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling activity by accelerating G protein hydrolysis of GTP, hastening pathway shutoff. A wealth of data from cell culture experiments using exogenously expressed proteins indicates that RGS9 and other RGS proteins have the potential to down-regulate a significant number of pathways. We have used an array of biochemical and tissue staining techniques to examine the subcellular localization and membrane binding characteristics of endogenous RGS9-2 and known binding partners in rodent striatum and tissue homogenates. A small fraction of RGS9-2 is present in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction, whereas the majority is present primarily associated with the plasma membrane and structures insoluble in non-ionic detergents that efficiently extract the vast majority of its binding partners, R7BP and G(beta5). It is specifically excluded from the cell nucleus in mouse striatal tissue. In cultured striatal neurons, RGS9-2 is found at extrasynaptic sites primarily along the dendritic shaft near the spine neck. Heterogeneity in RGS9-2 detergent solubility along with its unique subcellular localization suggests that its mechanism of membrane anchoring and localization is complex and likely involves additional proteins beside R7BP. An important nuclear function for RGS9-2 seems unlikely.
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Multiphoton adaptation of a commercial low-cost confocal microscope for live tissue imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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The Nikon C1 confocal laser scanning microscope is a relatively inexpensive and user-friendly instrument. We describe a straightforward method to convert the C1 for multiphoton microscopy utilizing direct coupling of a femtosecond near-infrared laser into the scan head and fiber optic transmission of emission light to the three-channel detector box. Our adapted system can be rapidly switched between confocal and multiphoton mode, requires no modification to the original system, and uses only a few custom-made parts. The entire system, including scan mirrors and detector box, remain under the control of the user-friendly Nikon EZ-C1 software without modification.
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Blood pressure lowering effects of a new long-acting inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive candidate mechanism for blood pressure (BP) lowering. In this study, a novel long-acting phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, PF-00489791, was evaluated in 133 patients with mild to moderate hypertension, randomized into 1 of 4 groups: placebo, 4 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg titrated after 14 days of dosing to 40 mg. Study medication was administered once daily for 28 days. Ambulatory BP monitoring was used. There was a statistically significant decrease (compared with placebo) in mean daytime systolic BP on day 28 at the 10 and 20/40 mg doses (by approximately 5 and approximately 7 mm Hg, respectively). Changes in mean daytime diastolic BP corresponded with those in systolic BP. The magnitude of BP lowering was greater on day 1 than on days 14 and 28, but the response was sustained between days 14 and 28. PF-00489791 also exerted BP lowering effects on mean 24-hour ambulatory BP. There was a dose-related increase in plasma cGMP concentration (statistically significant at the 20/40 mg dose). There was an increased incidence of headaches at the 10 and 20/40 mg doses (22% and 21%, respectively, compared with 12% with placebo) and an increased incidence of dyspepsia/gastroesophageal reflux disease and musculoskeletal adverse events at the 20/40 mg dose. In conclusion, PF-00489791 causes a clinically meaningful and sustained BP lowering in patients with hypertension. It is generally safe and well tolerated at the clinically efficacious doses.
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Comparison of methods for delivering a lifestyle modification program for obese patients: a randomized trial.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Physicians frequently prescribe medications for weight loss but offer minimal lifestyle counseling despite the additional benefits of combining both interventions.
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Effects of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition on apolipoprotein A-II-containing HDL subspecies and apolipoprotein A-II metabolism.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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This study was designed to establish the mechanism responsible for the increased apolipoprotein (apo) A-II levels caused by the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib. Nineteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl), nine of whom were also treated with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily, received placebo for 4 weeks, followed by 120 mg of torcetrapib daily for the next 4 weeks. Six subjects in the nonatorvastatin cohort participated in a third phase, in which they received 120 mg of torcetrapib twice daily for 4 weeks. At the end of each phase, subjects underwent a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]L-leucine to determine the kinetics of HDL apoA-II. Relative to placebo, torcetrapib significantly increased apoA-II concentrations by reducing HDL apoA-II catabolism in the atorvastatin (-9.4%, P < 0.003) and nonatorvastatin once- (-9.9%, P = 0.02) and twice- (-13.2%, P = 0.02) daily cohorts. Torcetrapib significantly increased the amount of apoA-II in the alpha-2-migrating subpopulation of HDL when given as monotherapy (27%, P < 0.02; 57%, P < 0.003) or on a background of atorvastatin (28%, P < 0.01). In contrast, torcetrapib reduced concentrations of apoA-II in alpha-3-migrating HDL, with mean reductions of -14% (P = 0.23), -18% (P < 0.02), and -18% (P < 0.01) noted during the atorvastatin and nonatorvastatin 120 mg once- and twice-daily phases, respectively. Our findings indicate that CETP inhibition increases plasma concentrations of apoA-II by delaying HDL apoA-II catabolism and significantly alters the remodeling of apoA-II-containing HDL subpopulations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.