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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Seroprevalence of rift valley Fever, q Fever, and brucellosis in ruminants on the southeastern shore of lake chad.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Abstract The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever (RVF), brucellosis, and Q fever among domestic ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad was studied. The study area consisted of two parts, including mainland and islands. On the mainland, the study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages and camps. On the islands, samples were collected from all four available sites. A total of 985 serum samples were collected and 924 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for RVF. A total of 561 samples collected from islands were analyzed using ELISA for Q fever and both ELISA and Rose Bengal tests (RBT) for brucellosis. The apparent RVF seroprevalence by species was 37.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.2-41.3) in cattle, 18.8% (95% CI 12.3-25.2) in goats, and 10.8% (95% CI 3.0-18.5) in sheep. For brucellosis and Q fever, only cattle samples from islands were analyzed. For Q fever, the apparent seroprevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 5.6-10.1). For brucellosis, the RBT showed a prevalence of 5.7% (95% CI 3.8-7.6), and ELISA showed 11.9% (95% CI 9.3-14.6) with a kappa value of 0.53 showing a moderate agreement between the two tests. This study confirms the presence of the three diseases in the study area. More research is required to assess the importance for public health and conservation of the Kouri cattle breed.
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Diarrhoeal diseases among adult population in an agricultural community Hanam province, Vietnam, with high wastewater and excreta re-use.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Despite the potential health risks of wastewater and excreta use as fertiliser in agriculture, it is still widespread in Vietnam. However, the importance of diarrheal risk in adults' associated with the combined exposures to both excreta and wastewater use in agriculture is largely unknown. This study was carried out to determine diarrhoeal incidence and associated risk factors among the adult population exposed to wastewater and excreta used in agriculture in Hanam province, Vietnam.
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Effect of deworming on physical fitness of school-aged children in Yunnan, China: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic.
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Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.
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High prevalence and spatial distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in rural Cambodia.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia.
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Subtle to severe hepatobiliary morbidity in Opisthorchis viverrini endemic settings in Southern Laos.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Evidence of severe hepatobiliary morbidity associated with Opisthorchis viverrini liver fluke infection including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is scarce in Laos although O. viverrini infection is highly prevalent. We assessed hepatobiliary morbidity using abdominal ultrasonography (US) in O. viverrini adult patients in Saravan province, Southern Laos. A random sample of 431 O. viverrini patients from 10 villages underwent abdominal US. Mild, moderate and markedly advanced periductal fibrosis was diagnosed in 7.0%, 66.5%, and 17.0% of patients, respectively. Normal liver parenchyma was seen in only 9.5% of patients. Presence of gall stones (13.2%), sludge (1.4%), gall wall thickening (1.2%), bile duct dilatation (1.6%), fatty liver (12.0%), kidney stones (8.6%) and cysts (7.9%) were diagnosed in considerable frequencies. In five patients (1.2%) hepatobiliary lesions suggesting CCA were diagnosed. Tumour markers, i.e. Interleukin-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were within normal range. The number of CCA suspected liver masses and hepatobiliary morbidity diagnosed among clinically asymptomatic adult patients in O. viverrini endemic area presents a major public health concern in Laos. However, definitive diagnosis of Opisthorchis-related severe sequelae including CCA is urgently needed to gauge the burden of this deadly disease in Laos.
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Strongyloides stercoralis infection and re-infection in a cohort of children in Cambodia.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100 ?g/kg PO, 24 h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries.
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Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists' livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region.In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections.
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A tradition and an epidemic: determinants of the campylobacteriosis winter peak in Switzerland.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food borne infection in Switzerland. We investigated determinants of infections and illness experience in wintertime. A case-control study was conducted in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2013. Cases were recruited among laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis patients. Population-based controls were matched according to age group, sex and canton of residence. We determined risk factors associated with campylobacteriosis, and help seeking behaviour and illness perception. The multivariable analysis identified two factors associated with an increased risk for campylobacteriosis: consumption of meat fondue (matched odds ratio [mOR] 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-7.1) and travelling abroad (mOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.4). Univariable analysis among meat fondue consumers revealed chicken as the type of meat with the highest risk of disease (mOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.5). Most frequently reported signs and symptoms among patients were diarrhoea (98%), abdominal pain (81%), fever (66%), nausea (44%) and vomiting (34%). The median perceived disease severity was 8 on a 1-to-10 rating scale. Patients reported a median duration of illness of 7 days and 14% were hospitalised. Meat fondues, mostly "Fondue chinoise", traditionally consumed during the festive season in Switzerland, are the major driver of the epidemic campylobacteriosis peak in wintertime. At these meals, individual handling and consumption of chicken meat may play an important role in disease transmission. Laboratory-confirmed patients are severely ill and hospitalisation rate is considerable. Public health measures such as decontamination of chicken meat and improved food handling behaviour at the individual level are urgently needed.
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Oxantel pamoate-albendazole for Trichuris trichiura infection.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Infections with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) are widespread and often occur concomitantly. These parasitic-worm infections are typically treated with albendazole or mebendazole, but both drugs show low efficacy against T. trichiura. Albendazole is the drug of choice against hookworm.
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Influence of nutrition on infection and re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths: a systematic review.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The relationship between nutrition and soil-transmitted helminthiasis is complex and warrants further investigation. We conducted a systematic review examining the influence of nutrition on infection and re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis) in humans. Emphasis was placed on the use of nutritional supplementation, alongside anthelminthic treatment, to prevent re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths.
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Demographic model of the swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD). The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef), age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years). The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm). The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants).
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Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factor assessment in cattle in rural livestock areas of Govuro District in the Southeast of Mozambique.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an infectious disease of cattle that also affects other domestic animals, free-ranging and farmed wildlife, and also humans. In Mozambique, scattered surveys have reported a wide variation of bTB prevalence rates in cattle from different regions. Due to direct economic repercussions on livestock and indirect consequences for human health and wildlife, knowing the prevalence rates of the disease is essential to define an effective control strategy.
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The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed.
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Differences in primary sites of infection between zoonotic and human tuberculosis: results from a worldwide systematic review.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Whilst global burden estimates for M. tuberculosis infection (MtTB) are well established, accurate data on the contribution of zoonotic TB (zTB) caused by M. bovis or M. caprae to human TB are scarce. The association of M. bovis infection with extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been suggested repeatedly, though there is little scientific evidence available to support this relationship. The present study aimed to determine globally the occurrence of extrapulmonary TB and the primary site (i.e. primary body location affected) of zTB in comparison with MtTB, based on previously published reports. A systematic literature review was conducted in 32 different bibliographic databases, selecting reports on zTB written in English, French, German, Spanish or Portuguese. Data from 27 reports from Africa, America, Europe and the Western Pacific Region were extracted for analyses. Low income countries, in Africa and South-East Asia, were highly underrepresented in the dataset. The median proportion of extrapulmonary TB cases was significantly increased among zTB in comparison with data from registries of Europe and USA, reporting mainly MtTB cases (47% versus 22% in Europe, 73% versus 30% in the USA). These findings were confirmed by analyses of eight studies reporting on the proportions of extrapulmonary TB in comparable populations of zTB and MtTB cases (median 63% versus 22%). Also, disparities of primary sites of extrapulmonary TB between zTB and MtTB were detected. Our findings, based on global data, confirm the widely suggested association between zTB and extrapulmonary disease. Different disability weights for zTB and MtTB should be considered and we recommend separate burden estimates for the two diseases.
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Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis-induced tuberculosis in humans.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ?1.4% in connection with overall TB incidence rates ?71/100,000 population/year suggested low incidence rates. For countries of Africa included in the study, we multiplied the observed median proportion of zoonotic TB cases of 2.8% with the continental average overall TB incidence rate of 264/100,000 population/year, which resulted in a crude estimate of 7 zoonotic TB cases/100,000 population/year. These generally low incidence rates notwithstanding, available data indicated substantial consequences of this disease for some population groups and settings.
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Cost estimate of bovine tuberculosis to ethiopia.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates. This study does not preclude in any way the urgent need to control BTB in the urban dairy herd of Addis Ababa for other than financial reasons.
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Rapid re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths after triple-dose albendazole treatment of school-aged children in Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, Peoples Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower.
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Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections associated with wastewater and human excreta use in agriculture in Vietnam.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We assessed the risk of helminth infections in association with the use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture in Hanam province, northern Vietnam. In two cross-sectional surveys, we obtained samples from 1,425 individuals from 453 randomly selected households. Kato-Katz thick smear and formalin-ether concentration techniques were used for helminth diagnosis in two stool samples per person. Socio-demographic and water, sanitation and hygiene related characteristics, including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater management, were assessed with a questionnaire.
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Epidemiology of brucellosis and q Fever in linked human and animal populations in northern togo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although brucellosis (Brucella spp.) and Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) are zoonoses of global importance, very little high quality data are available from West Africa.
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Reporting diarrhoea through a vernacular term in Quechua-speaking settings of rural Bolivia.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Field studies often use caregiver-reported diarrhoea and related symptoms to measure child morbidity. There are various vernacular terms to define diarrhoea that vary across the local cultural contexts. The relationship between vernacular definitions of diarrhoea and symptoms-based definitions is not well-documented. This paper describes the association of the vernacular Quechua term kechalera with the symptoms-based standard definition of diarrhoea in rural Bolivian settings. During a cluster randomized trial in rural Bolivia, both signs and symptoms of diarrhoea and reports of kechalera were collected for children aged less than five years. Reported kechalera were found to be associated with important changes in stool frequency, consistency, and presence of blood and mucus. Reported kechalera were highly related to three of four recorded categories of watery stool. The intermediate (milk-rice) stool consistency, which fits into the definition of watery stool, was not strongly related to kechalera. Mucus in the stool was also associated with kechalera; however, its presence in kechalera-free days accounted for at least 50% of the possible false negatives. The sensitivity and specificity of the term kechalera were estimated by Bayesian methods, allowing for both symptoms of diarrhoea and reports of kechalera to be subject to diagnosis error. An average specificity of at least 97% and the sensitivity of at least 50% were obtained. The findings suggest that the use of kechalera would identify fewer cases of diarrhoea than a symptom-based definition in rural Bolivia.
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Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan intestinal infection in resource-poor settings, including Vietnam. The study objective was to assess risk factors of E. histolytica infection in a community in Vietnam, where wastewater and human excreta are used in agriculture. A case-control study was conducted among residents of Hanam province, Northern Vietnam. Cases (n = 46) infected with E. histolytica and non-infected controls (n = 138) were identified in a cross-sectional survey among 794 randomly selected individuals and matched for age, sex and place of residence. Potential risk factors including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater were assessed with a questionnaire.
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Reconstructing the 2003/2004 H3N2 influenza epidemic in Switzerland with a spatially explicit, individual-based model.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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world has not faced a severe pandemic for decades, except the rather mild H1N1 one in 2009, pandemic influenza models are inherently hypothetical and validation is, thus, difficult. We aim at reconstructing a recent seasonal influenza epidemic that occurred in Switzerland and deem this to be a promising validation strategy for models of influenza spread.
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Efficacy of single-dose and triple-dose albendazole and mebendazole against soil-transmitted helminths and Taenia spp.: a randomized controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the Peoples Republic of China.
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Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of childhood mortality, with an estimated 1.3 million deaths per year. Promotion of Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) has been suggested as a strategy for reducing the global burden of diarrhoea by improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. Despite increasing support for the large-scale dissemination of SODIS, there are few reports describing the effectiveness of its implementation. It is, therefore, important to identify and understand the mechanisms that lead to adoption and regular use of SODIS.
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Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz and FLOTAC for assessing anthelmintic drug efficacy.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Sensitive diagnostic tools are required for an accurate assessment of prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in areas undergoing regular deworming, and for monitoring anthelmintic drug efficacy. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in the frame of a drug efficacy trial.
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Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel.
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Evaluation of pet contact as a risk factor for carriage of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in nursing home residents.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Pets, often used as companionship and for psychological support in the therapy of nursing home residents, have been implicated as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the importance of pets as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci in nursing homes.
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Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte dIvoire.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined.
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Albendazole and mebendazole administered alone or in combination with ivermectin against Trichuris trichiura: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole show limited efficacy in the treatment of trichuriasis. The combination of albendazole with ivermectin improves efficacy, but a mebendazole-ivermectin combination has not been previously investigated.
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Contacts between poultry farms, their spatial dimension and their relevance for avian influenza preparedness.
Geospat Health
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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Ongoing economic losses by and exposure of humans to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry flocks across Asia and parts of Africa and Europe motivate also outbreak-free countries such as Switzerland to invest in preparedness planning. Country-specific population data on between-farm contacts are required to anticipate probable patterns of pathogen spread. Information is scarce; in particular on how strongly small, non-commercial poultry farms are involved in between-farm contacts. We aimed to identify between-farm contacts of interest for HPAI spread at both commercial and non-commercial farms in a non-outbreak situation: whether or not commercial and non-commercial farms were involved in poultry and person movements and shared resources by company integration. Focus was on poultry movements for the purpose of purchase, sale and poultry show visits, their spatial dimension, their frequencies and the farm types they connected. Of the total 49,437 recorded poultry farms in Switzerland, 95% had less than 500 birds. The farm number resulted in densities of up to 8 poultry farms per km2 and a median number of 47 neighbour farms within a 3 km radius around the farms. Person movements and shared resources were identified in 78% of the surveyed farms (93% among commercials, 67% among non-commercials). Poultry trading movements over extensive spatial ranges were stated at 65% (79% among commercials, 55% among non-commercials). Movement frequencies depended on farm specialization and were higher for commercial than for non-commercial farms except for poultry show visits. Estimates however for the entire population revealed 3.5 times higher chances of a poultry purchase, and 14.6 times higher chances of exhibiting birds at poultry shows occurring in a given time by a farm smaller than 500 birds (non-commercial farm) than by a larger (commercial) farm. These findings indicate that both commercial and non-commercial farms are involved in neighbourhood and remote between-farm contacts relevant to HPAI spread. It is necessary to include all poultry farms, irrespective of their size and purpose in both livestock registration and disease surveillance systems, as well as in transmission models for poultry and zoonotic diseases.
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Performance of analytical methods for overdispersed counts in cluster randomized trials: sample size, degree of clustering and imbalance.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Many different methods have been proposed for the analysis of cluster randomized trials (CRTs) over the last 30 years. However, the evaluation of methods on overdispersed count data has been based mostly on the comparison of results using empiric data; i.e. when the true model parameters are not known. In this study, we assess via simulation the performance of five methods for the analysis of counts in situations similar to real community-intervention trials. We used the negative binomial distribution to simulate overdispersed counts of CRTs with two study arms, allowing the period of time under observation to vary among individuals. We assessed different sample sizes, degrees of clustering and degrees of cluster-size imbalance. The compared methods are: (i) the two-sample t-test of cluster-level rates, (ii) generalized estimating equations (GEE) with empirical covariance estimators, (iii) GEE with model-based covariance estimators, (iv) generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and (v) Bayesian hierarchical models (Bayes-HM). Variation in sample size and clustering led to differences between the methods in terms of coverage, significance, power and random-effects estimation. GLMM and Bayes-HM performed better in general with Bayes-HM producing less dispersed results for random-effects estimates although upward biased when clustering was low. GEE showed higher power but anticonservative coverage and elevated type I error rates. Imbalance affected the overall performance of the cluster-level t-test and the GEEs coverage in small samples. Important effects arising from accounting for overdispersion are illustrated through the analysis of a community-intervention trial on Solar Water Disinfection in rural Bolivia.
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Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) to reduce childhood diarrhoea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea.
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Risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in rural livestock production systems of Ethiopia.
Prev. Vet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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This study shows a representative stratified cluster sample survey of the prevalence of comparative intradermal tuberculin test in cattle from four regions in Ethiopia. Using a cut-off for positivity of 2 mm, it assesses possible risk factors for tuberculin-positive reaction in cattle. Seventy-three villages in 24 kebeles (administrative units) were randomly selected, from which 2216 cattle from 780 owners were tested. In addition, 450 of these cattle owners were interviewed for risk factor assessment. Ninety-nine percent of the tested cattle in this rural livestock production system were traditional zebus. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bovine tuberculosis (BTB)e was 3%, with the highest found in Meskan Mareko, in Central Ethiopia (7.9%) and the lowest in Woldia, in the North East edge of the Rift Valley (1.2%). Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) with random effect on kebeles was used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors and human tuberculosis (TB) infection. Purchase of cattle and presence of other livestock in the herd were statistically significant, with OR: 1.7, p-values of 0.03 and OR: 2, p = 0.05, respectively. Family members diagnosed with TB or showing clinical signs of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) were reported in 86 households (19%). None of the assessed potential risk factors of disease transmission between cattle and human (food consumption, livestock husbandry and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were statistically significant.
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Risk perception of travelers to tropical and subtropical countries visiting a swiss travel health center.
J Travel Med
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This study assessed the risk perception ratings of travelers pre- and post-travel and in comparison to the ratings by travel health experts. While most surveys on travel health knowledge, attitudes, and practices focus on malaria and vaccine-preventable diseases, noninfectious travel risks were included in this study.
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Dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium egg output and associated infection parameters following treatment with praziquantel in school-aged children.
Parasit Vectors
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Praziquantel is the drug of choice in preventive chemotherapy targeting schistosomiasis. Increasing large-scale administration of praziquantel requires monitoring of drug efficacy to detect early signs of development of resistance. Standard protocols for drug efficacy monitoring are necessary. Here, we determined the optimal time point for praziquantel efficacy assessment against Schistosoma haematobium and studied the dynamics of infection parameters following treatment.
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Clinical manifestations of human brucellosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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The objectives of this systematic review, commissioned by WHO, were to assess the frequency and severity of clinical manifestations of human brucellosis, in view of specifying a disability weight for a DALY calculation.
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Efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide, albendazole, and nitazoxanide-albendazole against Trichuris trichiura infection: a randomized controlled trial.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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The currently used anthelmintic drugs, in single oral application, have low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infection, and hence novel anthelmintic drugs are needed. Nitazoxanide has been suggested as potential drug candidate.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.