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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
High dose of prebiotics reduces fecal water cytotoxicity in healthy subjects.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In vitro and animal studies have shown differential colonic fermentation of structurally different prebiotics. We evaluated the impact of two structurally different prebiotics (wheat bran extract (WBE, containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides) and oligofructose) on colonic fermentation and markers of bowel health in healthy volunteers.
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Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Yeast's role in bread making is primarily the fermentative production of carbon dioxide to leaven the dough. Fermentation also impacts dough matrix rheology, thereby affecting the quality of the end product. Surprisingly, the role of ethanol, the other yeast primary metabolite, has been ill studied in this context. Therefore, this study aims to assess the potential impact of ethanol on yeastless dough extensibility and spread and gluten agglomeration at concentrations at which it is produced in fermenting dough, i.e., up to 60 mmol per 100 g of flour. Reduced dough extensibility and dough spread were observed upon incorporation of ethanol in the dough formula, and were more pronounced for a weak than for a strong flour. Uniaxial and biaxial extension tests showed up to 50% decrease in dough extensibility and a dough strength increase of up to 18% for 60 mmol of ethanol/100 g of flour. Ethanol enhanced gluten agglomeration of a weak flour. Sequential extraction of flour in increasing ethanol concentrations showed that better gluten-solvent interaction is a possible explanation for the changed dough behavior.
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Impact of wheat bran derived arabinoxylanoligosaccharides and associated ferulic Acid on dough and bread properties.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The impact of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS) with varying bound or free ferulic acid (FA) content on dough and bread properties was studied in view of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. AXOS with an FA content of 0.1-1.7% caused an increase in dough firmness with increasing AXOS concentration. AXOS with a high FA content (7.2%), on the contrary, resulted in an increase in dough extensibility and a decrease in resistance to extension, similar to that for free FA, when added in levels up to 2%. Higher levels resulted in unmanageable dough. A limited impact on dough gluten network formation was observed. These results suggest that for highly feruloylated AXOS, the FA-mediated dough softening supersedes the firming effect displayed by the carbohydrate moiety of AXOS. The impact of the different AXOS on bread volume, however, was minimal. Furthermore, AXOS in bread were not engaged in covalent cross-linking and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity.
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Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of branched fructans produced in vitro with 13C-labeled substrates.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Fructans are carbohydrates predominantly based on fructose which are generally considered to be soluble dietary fibers with health-promoting properties. It is known that the nutritional properties of fructans are affected by their structure. This study focused on structural determination of branched fructans, as the most important dietary fructans are branched graminan-type fructans.
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Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content.
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Physical and molecular changes during the storage of gluten-free rice and oat bread.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Gluten-free bread crumb generally firms more rapidly than regular wheat bread crumb. We here combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), texture analysis, and time-domain proton nuclear magnetic resonance (TD (1)H NMR) to investigate the mechanisms underlying firming of gluten-free rice and oat bread. The molecular mobility of water and biopolymers in flour/water model systems and changes thereof after heating and subsequent cooling to room temperature were investigated as a basis for underpinning the interpretation of TD (1)H NMR profiles of fresh crumb. The proton distributions of wheat and rice flour/water model systems were comparable, while that of oat flour/water samples showed less resolved peaks and an additional population at higher T2 relaxation times representing lipid protons. No significant crumb moisture loss during storage was observed for the gluten-free bread loaves. Crumb firming was mainly caused by amylopectin retrogradation and water redistribution within bread crumb. DSC, texture, and TD (1)H NMR data correlated well and showed that starch retrogradation and crumb firming are much more pronounced in rice flour bread than in oat flour bread.
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Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C.
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A lipase based approach for studying the role of wheat lipids in bread making.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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While endogenous wheat lipids exert a major effect on bread quality, little is known on the way they impact on bread loaf volume (LV). Here we altered wheat flour lipid composition during bread making using lipases in situ. Lipopan F, Lecitase Ultra, and surfactants increased LV to similar extents. The increases in bread LV as a result of these enzymes were related to decreased levels of galactolipids and phospholipids and concomitant increased 'lyso'-lipid as well as free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The FFA formed were transferred to the free lipid fraction, while the 'lyso'-lipids remained in the bound lipid fraction. For optimal gas cell stabilisation, an equilibrium between the lipid classes present and hence, the type of mesophase formed, is essential. Sufficient levels of lipids forming lamellar mesophases and lipids forming hexagonal I mesophases, which respectively form condensed monolayers or emulsify (deleterious) non-polar lipids in dough liquor, are needed.
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Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology.
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Importance of thiol-functionalized molecules for the structure and properties of compression-molded glassy wheat gluten bioplastics.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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High-temperature compression molding of wheat gluten at low water levels yields a rigid plastic-like material. We performed a systematic study to determine the effect of additives with multiple thiol (SH) groups on gluten network formation during processing and investigate the impact of the resulting gluten network on the mechanical properties of the glassy end product. To this end, a fraction of the hydroxyl groups of different polyols was converted into SH functionalities by esterifying with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The monofunctional additive MPA was evaluated as well. During low-temperature mixing SH-containing additives decreased the gluten molecular weight, whereas protein cross-linking occurred during high-temperature compression molding. The extent of both processes depended on the molecular architecture of the additives and their concentration. After molding, the material strength and failure strain increased without affecting the modulus, provided the additive concentration was low. The strength decreased again at too high concentrations for polyols with low SH functionalization. Attributing these effects solely to the interplay of plasticization and the SH-facilitated introduction of cross-links is inadequate, since an improvement in both strength and failure strain was also observed in the presence of high levels of MPA. It is hypothesized that, regardless of the molecular structure of the additive, the presence of SH-containing groups induces conformational changes which contribute to the mechanical properties of glassy gluten materials.
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Ferulic Acid content and appearance determine the antioxidant capacity of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To investigate the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid (FA) in conjunction with prebiotic arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS), procedures for the production of FA-enriched, -depleted and cross-linked AXOS were developed, and samples were analyzed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Results showed that not only the level of FA but also the condition under which it appears (free, bound, or dimerized) impacts the antioxidant capacity of FA-containing AXOS samples. Although esterification of FA on AXOS and cross-linking of AXOS through dehydrodiferulic acid formation lowered the antioxidant capacity of FA by 30 and 55%, respectively, as determined with the TEAC test, the antioxidant capacity of these components still remained high compared to Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analog. Total antioxidant capacity of the AXOS samples determined by the ORAC assay resulted in less prominent differences between the different forms of FA than those seen with the TEAC test. Feruloylated AXOS can hence function as strong, water-soluble antioxidants.
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Fructan Metabolism in Developing Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Kernels.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Although fructans play a crucial role in wheat kernel development, their metabolism during kernel maturation is far from being understood. In this study, all major fructan-metabolizing enzymes together with fructan content, fructan degree of polymerization and the presence of fructan oligosaccharides were examined in developing wheat kernels (Triticum aestivum L. var. Homeros) from anthesis until maturity. Fructan accumulation occurred mainly in the first 2 weeks after anthesis, and a maximal fructan concentration of 2.5 ± 0.3 mg fructan per kernel was reached at 16 days after anthesis (DAA). Fructan synthesis was catalyzed by 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and 6-SFT (sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase), and to a lesser extent by 1-FFT (fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase). Despite the presence of 6G-kestotriose in wheat kernel extracts, the measured 6G-FFT (fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase) activity levels were low. During kernel filling, which lasted from 2 to 6 weeks after anthesis, kernel fructan content decreased from 2.5 ± 0.3 to 1.31 ± 0.12 mg fructan per kernel (42 DAA) and the average fructan degree of polymerization decreased from 7.3 ± 0.4 (14 DAA) to 4.4 ± 0.1 (42 DAA). FEH (fructan exohydrolase) reached maximal activity between 20 and 28 DAA. No fructan-metabolizing enzyme activities were registered during the final phase of kernel maturation, and fructan content and structure remained unchanged. This study provides insight into the complex metabolism of fructans during wheat kernel development and relates fructan turnover to the general phases of kernel development.
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Impact of Acid and alkaline pretreatments on the molecular network of wheat gluten and on the mechanical properties of compression-molded glassy wheat gluten bioplastics.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Wheat gluten can be converted into rigid biobased materials by high-temperature compression molding at low moisture contents. During molding, a cross-linked protein network is formed. This study investigated the effect of mixing gluten with acid/alkali in 70% ethanol at ambient temperature for 16 h followed by ethanol removal, freeze-drying, and compression molding at 130 and 150 °C on network formation and on types of cross-links formed. Alkaline pretreatment (0-100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide or 25 mmol/L potassium hydroxide) strongly affected gluten cross-linking, whereas acid pretreatment (0-25 mmol/L sulfuric acid or 25 mmol/L hydrochloric acid) had limited effect on the gluten network. Molded alkaline-treated gluten showed enhanced cross-linking but also degradation when treated with high alkali concentrations, whereas acid treatment reduced gluten cross-linking. ?-Elimination of cystine and lanthionine formation occurred more pronouncedly at higher alkali concentrations. In contrast, formation of disulfide and nondisulfide cross-links during molding was hindered in acid-pretreated gluten. Bioplastic strength was higher for alkali than for acid-pretreated samples, whereas the flexural modulus was only slightly affected by either alkaline or acid pretreatment. Apparently, the ratio of disulfide to nondisulfide cross-links did not affect the mechanical properties of rigid gluten materials.
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Analysis of Storage and Structural Carbohydrates in Developing Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grains Using Quantitative Analysis and Microscopy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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In this paper, the content of all major carbohydrates and the spatial distribution of starch, arabinoxylan and ?-glucan in developing wheat kernels (Triticum aestivum L. var. Homeros) from anthesis until maturity were studied. By combining information from microscopy and quantitative analysis, a comprehensive overview on the changes in storage and structural carbohydrates in developing grains was obtained. In the phase of cell division and expansion, grains were characterized by a rapid accumulation of water and high concentrations of the water-soluble carbohydrates fructan, sucrose, glucose and fructose. During the grain filling phase, starch, protein, ?-glucan and arabinoxylan accumulated, while during grain maturation and desiccation, only a loss of moisture took place. The comprehensive approach of this study allowed finding correlations, which are discussed within the context of grain development. Particular attention was given to the transient presence of high fructan concentrations, which was associated with the most striking compositional changes during grain development.
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The Bread Dough Stability Improving Effect of Pyranose Oxidase from Trametes multicolor and Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger : Unraveling the Molecular Mechanism.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Glucose oxidase (GO) and pyranose oxidase (P2O) improve dough stability and bread quality. We here studied whether their mode of action resides in cross-linking of proteins and/or arabinoxylan (AX) molecules through the production of H2O2. Evidence for both was deduced from a decrease in extractability of protein and AX from dough made with P2O, GO, or H2O2, using sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer and water, respectively. The addition of H2O2, P2O, or GO to a glutathione solution sharply decreased its sulfhydryl (SH) content. P2O or GO can trigger protein cross-linking through the formation of disulfide (SS) bonds. As a result thereof, SH/SS interchange reactions between low molecular mass SH containing compounds and gluten proteins can be hampered. Furthermore, a decrease in the level of monomeric ferulic acid (FA) esterified to AX in dough points to a role of FA bridges in cross-linking of AX molecules. Our results indicate that the molecular mechanism of dough and bread improvement by P2O and GO resides in cross-linking of gluten proteins and AX by formation of H2O2. They furthermore show that the extent of cross-linking upon addition of P2O or GO strongly depends on the concentration (and production rate) of H2O2.
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Impact of pyranose oxidase from Trametes multicolor, glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger and hydrogen peroxide on protein agglomeration in wheat flour gluten-starch separation.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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The impact of pyranose oxidase (P2O), glucose oxidase (GO) and H2O2 on gluten agglomeration during wheat flour gluten-starch separation was studied. Analysis of gluten aggregate sizes in batter formed from wheat flour dough revealed that increasing levels of oxidising agents gradually decreased the tendency of gluten proteins to form large gluten aggregates. Low enzyme levels increased arabinoxylan (AX) and starch retention on the sieves, due to physical incorporation of AX and starch in the gluten aggregates. Higher enzyme levels increased retention of starch and AX on the smaller and larger sieves, respectively. Extensive oxidation leads to physical incorporation of AX and starch granules in the small gluten aggregates. AX is also crosslinked and hence more easily retained on the top sieves. Our results confirm that the size of gluten aggregates and the level of AX crosslinking and AX and starch incorporation in gluten proteins depend on the concentration of H2O2.
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Impact of amylases on biopolymer dynamics during storage of straight-dough wheat bread.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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When Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase (BStA), Pseudomonas saccharophila ?-amylase (PSA), or Bacillus subtilis ?-amylase (BSuA) was added to a bread recipe to impact bread firming, amylose crystal formation was facilitated, leading to lower initial crumb resilience. Bread loaves that best retained their quality were those obtained when BStA was used. The enzyme hindered formation of an extended starch network, resulting in less water immobilization and smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. BSuA led to extensive degradation of the starch network during bread storage with release of immobilized water, eventually resulting in partial structure collapse and poor crumb resilience. The most important effect of PSA was an increased bread volume, resulting in smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. A negative linear relation was found between NMR proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb and crumb firmness. The slope of that relation gave an indication of the strength of the starch network.
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Effects of dietary arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) and endogenous probiotics on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and gut microbiota of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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We investigated the effects of administration of putative endogenous probiotics Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis or Bacillus circulans, alone and in combination with arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), a new class of candidate prebiotics, in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Eight experimental diets were tested: basal diet (Diet 1), basal diet supplemented with 2% AXOS (Diet 2), or L. lactis ST G81 (Diet 3), L. lactis ST G45 (Diet 4), B. circulans ST M53 (Diet 5), L. lactis ST G81 + 2% AXOS (Diet 6), L. lactis ST G45 + 2% AXOS (Diet 7), B. circulans ST M53 + 2% AXOS (Diet 8). After four weeks, growth performance and feed conversion ratio significantly improved in fish fed diet 7. Innate immune responses of fish were boosted with both AXOS and probiotic diets, however synergistic effects of AXOS and probiotic diets were only observed for phagocytic and alternative complement activity. Phagocytic and respiratory burst activity of fish macrophage increased in fish fed diet 2 and 7, while humoral immune responses only increased in fish fed diet 7. Pyrosequencing analysis (16S rDNA) of the hindgut microbiota demonstrated that AXOS improved the colonization or/and growth capacity of L. lactis, as a higher relative abundance of L. lactis was observed in fish receiving diet 7. However, no observable colonization of B. circulans was found in the hindgut of fish fed diet 5 or 8, containing this bacterium. The dietary L. lactis ST G45 + 2% AXOS caused significant alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing in bacterial diversity, demonstrated by the fall in richness and Shannon diversity, and improved growth performance and boosted immune responses of Siberian sturgeon.
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Improved identification of wheat gluten proteins through alkylation of cysteine residues and peptide-based mass spectrometry.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The concentration and composition of wheat gluten proteins and the presence, concentration and location of cysteine residues therein are important for wheat flour quality. However, it is difficult to identify gluten proteins, as they are an extremely polymorphic mixture of prolamins. We here present methods for cysteine labeling of wheat prolamins with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and iodoacetamide (IDAM) which, as compared to label-free analysis, substantially improve identification of cysteine-containing peptides in enzymic prolamin digests by electrospray ionization--tandem mass spectrometry. Both chymotrypsin and thermolysin yielded cysteine-containing peptides from different gluten proteins, but more proteins could be identified after chymotryptic digestion. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, we were the first to label prolamins with isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT), which are commonly used for quantitative proteomics. However, more peptides were detected after labeling gluten proteins with 4-VP and IDAM than with ICAT.
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Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products.
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Biopolymer interactions, water dynamics, and bread crumb firming.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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To establish the relationship between biopolymer interactions, water dynamics, and crumb texture evolution in time, proton mobilities in starch and gluten model systems and bread were investigated with NMR relaxometry. Amylopectin recrystallization was observed as an increased amount of fast-relaxing protons, while network strengthening and changes in water levels were noted as a reduced mobility and amount, respectively, of slowly relaxing protons. Amylopectin recrystallization strengthened the starch network with concomitant inclusion of water and increased crumb firmness, especially at the beginning of storage. The inclusion of water and the thermodynamic immiscibility of starch and gluten resulted in local gluten dehydration during bread storage. Moisture migration from crumb to crust further reduced the level of plasticizing water of the biopolymer networks and contributed to crumb firmness at longer storage times. Finally, we noted a negative relationship between the mobility of slowly relaxing protons of crumb polymers and crumb firmness.
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The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network.
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Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.
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Prebiotic effects of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides on juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) with emphasis on the modulation of the gut microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The potential of a novel class of prebiotics, arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS), was investigated on growth performance and gut microbiota of juvenile Acipenser baerii. Two independent feeding trials of 10 or 12 weeks were performed with basal diets supplemented with 2% or 4% AXOS-32-0.30 (trial 1) and 2% AXOS-32-0.30 or AXOS-3-0.25 (trial 2), respectively. Growth performance was improved by feeding 2% AXOS-32-0.30 in both trials, although not significantly. Microbial community profiles were determined using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. AXOS significantly affected the relative abundance of bacteria at the phylum, family, genus and species level. The consumption of 2% AXOS-32-0.30 increased the relative abundance of Eubacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while the abundance of Bacillaceae was greater in response to 4% AXOS-32-0.30 and 2% AXOS-3-0.25. The abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus lactis was greater after 2% AXOS-32-0.30 intake. Redundancy analysis showed a distinct and significant clustering of the gut microbiota of individuals consuming an AXOS diet. In both trials, concentration of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) increased in fish fed 2% AXOS-32-0.30. Our data demonstrate a shift in the hindgut microbiome of fish consuming different preparation of AXOS, with potential application as prebiotics.
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Combined impact of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase and surfactants on starch pasting and gelation properties.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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In baking applications involving starch gelatinisation, surfactants such as sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) and Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase (BStA) can be used jointly. We here showed that SSL but not MAG delays wheat starch hydrolysis by BStA. The effects were explained in terms of different degrees of adsorption of the surfactants on the starch granule surface, retarded and/or decreased water uptake and delayed availability of gelatinised starch for hydrolysis by BStA. Additional experiments with waxy maize starch led to the conclusion that SSL impacts swelling power and carbohydrate leaching more by covering the starch granule surface than by forming amylose-lipid complexes. SSL postponed starch hydrolysis by BStA, but this did not influence subsequent starch gelation. Finally, when adding SSL or MAG on top of BStA to starch suspensions, the effect of the surfactants on gel strength predominated over that of BStA.
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Wheat gluten functionality as a quality determinant in cereal-based food products.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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The unique properties of wheat reside primarily in its gluten-forming storage proteins. Their intrinsic viscoelastic behavior is responsible for the characteristics of different wheat-based foods and for the use of wheat gluten proteins in different food products. Wheat-based food processing generally develops and sets the gluten protein network. Heat-induced gluten aggregation proceeds through cross-linking within and between its protein fractions. Prominent reactions include sulfhydryl (SH) oxidation and SH-disulfide (SS) interchange, which lead to SS cross-links. Other covalent bonds are also formed. Gluten functionality can be (bio-) chemically impacted. We focus on bread making, in which gluten proteins contribute to dough properties, bread loaf volume, and structure, and on pasta production, in which gluten proteins generate the desired cooking quality. Furthermore, it is speculated that the structure and texture of soft wheat products are also, at least to some degree, shaped by the heat-induced changes in the gluten protein fraction.
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Use of psychrophilic xylanases provides insight into the xylanase functionality in bread making.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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The bread-improving potential of three psychrophilic xylanases from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAH3A (XPH), Flavobacterium sp. MSY-2 (rXFH), and unknown bacterial origin (rXyn8) was compared to that of the mesophilic xylanases from Bacillus subtilis (XBS) and Aspergillus aculeatus (XAA). XPH, rXFH, and rXyn8 increased specific bread volumes up to 28%, 18%, and 18%, respectively, while XBS and XAA gave increases of 23% and 12%, respectively. This could be related to their substrate hydrolysis behavior. Xylanases with a high capacity to solubilize water-unextractable arabinoxylan (WU-AX) during mixing, such as XBS and XPH, increased bread volume more than xylanases that mainly solubilized WU-AX during fermentation, such as rXFH, rXyn8, and XAA. Irrespective of their intrinsic bread-improving potential, the dosages needed to increase bread volume to a similar extent were much lower for psychrophilic than for mesophilic xylanases. The xylanase efficiency mainly depended on the enzymes temperature activity profile and its inhibition sensitivity.
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Occurrence and functional significance of secondary carbohydrate binding sites in glycoside hydrolases.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Non-catalytic carbohydrate binding on independent carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) has been reported frequently for glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and reviewed thoroughly. However, various structural studies of GHs have revealed that non-catalytic carbohydrate binding sites can also occur on the surface of the structural unit comprising the active site. Here, the discovery of these sites, referred to as secondary binding sites (SBSs), and their putative roles in different GHs is reviewed for the first time. The majority of the SBSs have been discovered in starch-active enzymes, but there are also many reports of SBSs in various other enzymes. A wide variety of functions has been ascribed to these sites, including (1) targeting of the enzyme towards its substrate, (2) guiding the substrate into the active site groove, (3) substrate disruption, (4) enhancing processivity, (5) allosteric regulation, (6) passing on reaction products, and (7) anchoring to the cell wall of the parent microorganism. A lot of these putative functions are in agreement with the functions ascribed to non-catalytic binding in CBMs. Contrarily to CBMs, SBSs have a fixed position relative to the catalytic site, making them more or less suitable to take up specific functions.
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Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance allow quantifying substrate binding to different binding sites of Bacillus subtilis xylanase.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance were tested for their ability to study substrate binding to the active site (AS) and to the secondary binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A separately. To this end, three enzyme variants were compared. The first was a catalytically incompetent enzyme that allows substrate binding to both the AS and SBS. In the second enzyme, binding to the SBS was impaired by site-directed mutagenesis, whereas in the third enzyme, the AS was blocked using a covalent inhibitor. Both techniques were able to show that AS and SBS have a similar binding affinity.
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Prebiotic effects and intestinal fermentation of cereal arabinoxylans and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in rats depend strongly on their structural properties and joint presence.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Cereal arabinoxylan (AX) is one of the main dietary fibers in a balanced human diet. To gain insight into the importance of structural features of AX for their prebiotic potential and intestinal fermentation properties, a rat trial was performed.
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Inactive fluorescently labeled xylanase as a novel probe for microscopic analysis of arabinoxylan containing cereal cell walls.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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A new technique to visualize cereal cell walls by fluorescence microscopy was developed. The novel staining technique is based on an inactive fluorescently labeled xylanase binding to arabinoxylan (AX), an important polysaccharide in grain cell walls in terms of the technological and physiological functionalities of grain. The xylanase probe could stain AX in the seed coat, nucellar epidermis, aleurone layer, and starchy endosperm, but not the highly substituted AX of the pericarp layer. The advantage of this new staining technique over the existing immunolabeling techniques is that the staining procedure is clearly faster and less laborious, and uses a smaller probe that can easily be produced by marking a well characterized enzyme with a fluorescent label. In the future, the here proposed technology can be used to develop probes having specificity also for cell wall components other than AX and thus to study plant cell walls further through fluorescence microscopy.
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Characterization of two ?-xylosidases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and their contribution to the hydrolysis of prebiotic xylooligosaccharides.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Xylooligosaccharides have strong bifidogenic properties and are increasingly used as a prebiotic. Nonetheless, little is known about the degradation of these substrates by bifidobacteria. We characterized two recombinant ?-xylosidases, XylB and XylC, with different substrate specificities from Bifidobacterium adolescentis. XylB is a novel ?-xylosidase that belongs to the recently introduced glycoside hydrolase family 120. In contrast to most reported ?-xylosidases, it shows only weak activity on xylobiose and prefers xylooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization above two. The remaining xylobiose is efficiently hydrolyzed by the second B. adolescentis ?-xylosidase, XylC, a glycoside hydrolase of family 43. Furthermore, XylB releases more xylose from arabinose-substituted xylooligosaccharides than XylC (30% and 20%, respectively). The different specificities of XylB, XylC, and the recently described reducing-end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase RexA show how B. adolescentis can efficiently degrade prebiotic xylooligosaccharides.
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Cross-linking of wheat gluten proteins during production of hard pretzels.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The impact of the hot alkaline dip, prior to pretzel-baking, on the types and levels of cross-links between wheat proteins was studied. Protein extractability of pretzel dough in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer decreased during alkaline dipping [45 s, 1.0% (w/v) NaOH, 90°C], and even more during baking (3 min at 250°C) and drying (10 min at 135°C). Reducing agent increased the extractability partly, indicating that both reducible (disulfide, SS) and non-reducible (non-SS) protein cross-links had been formed. The decrease in cystine levels suggested ?-elimination of cystine releasing Cys and dehydroalanine (DHA). Subsequent reaction of DHA with Lys and Cys, induced the unusual and potentially cross-linking amino acids lysinoalanine (LAL) and lanthionine (LAN), respectively, in alkaline dipped dough (7 ?mol LAN/g protein) and in the end product (9 ?mol LAL and 50 ?mol LAN/g protein). The baking/drying step increased sample redness, decreased Lys levels more than expected based on LAL formation (57 ?mol/g protein), and induced a loss of reducing sugars (99 ?mol/g protein), which suggested the potential contribution of Maillard-derived cross-links to the observed extractability loss. However, levels of Maillard products which possibly cross-link proteins, are small compared to DHA-derived cross-links. Higher dipping temperatures, longer dipping times, and higher NaOH concentrations increased protein extractability losses and redness, as well as LAL and LAN levels in the end product. No indications for Maillard-derived cross-links or LAL in pretzel dough immediately after dipping were found, even when severe dipping conditions were used.
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Both substrate hydrolysis and secondary substrate binding determine xylanase mobility as assessed by FRAP.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) are enzymes that can hydrolyze the xylan backbone internally. Therefore, they are important for biomass breakdown and they are also often added in various biotechnological applications. In this study, the relationship between their substrate binding affinity and hydrolysis, on the one hand, and their movement over natural substrates, on the other hand, was investigated. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments using different Bacillus subtilis xylanase A (XBS) mutants were conducted on water-unextractable wheat flour arabinoxylan (WU-AX) and insoluble oat spelt xylan (OSX). To assess the importance of substrate hydrolysis, FRAP of a catalytically inactive mutant was compared to that of the wild-type enzyme. For the wild-type enzyme, substrate binding and a complete recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching was observed on both substrates. For the inactive mutant, however, substrate binding but no fluorescence recovery was observed on WU-AX, while very slow recovery was observed on OSX. Furthermore, the importance of substrate binding to a secondary xylan binding site (SBS) for enzyme mobility was studied by testing two mutants with a modified SBS (N54W-N141Q and G56A-T183A-W185A) that showed different behavior on the tested substrates. On OSX, the two modified enzymes both showed higher mobility than the wild-type enzyme. On WU-AX, in contrast, the N54W-N141Q mutant displayed a lower mobility than the wild-type enzyme, while the G56A-T183A-W185A mutant showed higher mobility. The results clearly demonstrate that both substrate hydrolysis and substrate targeting are key factors for XBS mobility.
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Evaluation of the xylan breakdown potential of eight mesophilic endoxylanases.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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In biomass degradation using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), there is a need for efficient biomass degrading enzymes that can work at lower temperatures suitable for yeast fermentation. As xylan is an important lignocellulosic biomass constituent, this study aimed at investigating the possible differences in xylan breakdown potential of endoxylanases using eight different endoxylanases at conditions relevant for SSF. Both solubilising and degrading capacities of the endoxylanases were investigated using water-insoluble and water-soluble oat spelt xylan as model substrates for biomass xylan. Results showed that selecting for combinations of endoxylanases that are efficient at solubilising xylan on the one hand and degrading it to large extent on the other hand, coupled to high specific activities, seems the best option for complete xylan breakdown in lignocellulosic biomass conversion using SSF.
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Prebiotic and other health-related effects of cereal-derived arabinoxylans, arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides, and xylooligosaccharides.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Arabinoxylans (AX) from cereals are cell wall components that constitute an important part of the dietary fiber intake in humans. Enzymatic hydrolysis of AX yields arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), consisting of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides (XOS). This reaction takes place in the production of AXOS and of cereal-derived food products such as bread and beer, as well as in the colon upon ingestion of AX. This review mainly focuses on the available evidence that AXOS and XOS exert prebiotic effects in the colon of humans and animals through selective stimulation of beneficial intestinal microbiota. In addition, in vitro experiments and in vivo intervention studies on animals or humans are discussed that have investigated potential health-related effects resulting from the dietary intake of AX, AXOS, or XOS.
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The secondary substrate binding site of the Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis GH8 xylanase is relevant for activity on insoluble but not soluble substrates.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Previously, it has been demonstrated that the glycoside hydrolase family 8 xylanase from the psychrophylic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (XPH) can bind substrate non-catalytically on the surface of its catalytic module. In the present study, the functional relevance of this secondary binding site (SBS) for the enzyme is investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and evaluation of activity and binding properties of mutant variants on a range of structurally different homoxylan and heteroxylan substrates. The SBS had an impact on the activity on insoluble substrates, whereas the activity on soluble substrates remained unaffected. Unexpectedly, the activity on a soluble oligomeric substrate was also affected for some mutants and results on a chromophoric polymeric model substrate were in contrast with the trends observed on the corresponding natural substrate. All in all, results show that the impact of the SBS on the activity of XPH is in part analogous to the functioning of some carbohydrate-binding modules in modular enzymes.
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Secondary substrate binding strongly affects activity and binding affinity of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger GH11 xylanases.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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The secondary substrate binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and evaluation of activity and binding properties of mutant enzymes on different substrates. Modification of the SBS resulted in an up to three-fold decrease in the relative activity of the enzymes on polymeric versus oligomeric substrates and highlighted the importance of several amino acids in the SBS forming hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic stacking interactions with substrates. Weakening of the SBS increased K(d) values by up to 70-fold in binding affinity tests using natural substrates. The impact that modifications in the SBS have both on activity and on binding affinity towards polymeric substrates clearly shows that such structural elements can increase the efficiency of these single domain enzymes on their natural substrates.
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Kinetics of heat-induced polymerization of gliadin.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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The kinetics of heat-induced polymerization of gliadin, that is, a mixture of monomeric wheat storage proteins, was studied using a model system. Samples were heated at pH 6.0 and 8.0 at 110, 120, and 130 °C for up to 240 min, and their extractabilities were compared under nonreducing and reducing (with 1% dithiothreitol) conditions. Extraction media were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) containing buffer (pH 6.8, SDS buffer) and/or 70% ethanol. Gliadin cross-linking mainly resulted from intermolecular disulfide (SS) bond formation. At higher temperatures and, preferably, alkaline pH, intramolecular SS bonds in gliadin underwent ?-elimination reactions, leading to the formation of dehydroalanine (DHA) and free sulfhydryl (SH) groups. The latter interchanged rapidly with SS bonds, leading to intermolecular SS bonds and gliadin extractability loss. When free SH groups had been formed, gliadin extractability in SDS buffer decreased following first-order reaction kinetics, the reaction rate constant of which increased with temperature and pH. Furthermore, the extractabilities of ?- and ?-gliadin in 70% ethanol decreased according to first-order reaction kinetics. ?-Gliadin extractability was much less affected. Under the experimental conditions, gliadin polymerization through SH-SS interchange occurred much more rapidly than ?-elimination of cystine.
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Foaming properties of wheat gliadin.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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We studied gliadin solubility, surface tension and foam behavior, and the presence of different gliadin types in gliadin aqueous solutions and foams as a function of pH. Gliadin has excellent foaming properties only at neutral and alkaline pH. Its solubility is minimal near neutral pH, while almost complete at acidic and alkaline pH. Surface tensions of gliadin solutions are minimal around neutral pH, higher at alkaline pH, and highest at acidic pH, which corresponds well with their respective foaming properties. Foams at acidic and alkaline pH values are enriched in ?-gliadin, while foams at pH 8.0 have a similar distribution of ?- and ?-gliadins. Thus, ?-gliadin predominantly contributes to the foaming properties of gliadin. The poor foaming properties of gliadin at pH 2.0 improve in the presence of 0.25 and 1.0% NaCl. It follows that the presence of positively charged amino acid residues hinders the formation of stable foam at acidic pH.
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Identification of isopeptide bonds in heat-treated wheat gluten peptides.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Results in this paper confirm heat-induced isopeptide bond formation in wheat gluten. Heating (24 h, 130 °C) of wheat gluten [moisture content 7.4%] decreased its extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer (pH 6.8), even after reduction of disulfide (SS) bonds. Thus, both SS bonds and non-SS bonds were responsible for the extractability loss. Cross-links of the lysinoalanine and lanthionine type were not present in the heated samples, but heat treatment reduced levels of available amino groups. Heating of purified and alkylated high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) under similar conditions also resulted in extractability loss, demonstrating that cross-linking did not solely depend on the availability of cysteine or cystine. These observations indicated that heat treatment had induced isopeptide bond formation, resulting in larger and unextractable molecules. Heating HMW-GS lysine- and glutamine-containing peptides induced the formation of isopeptide bonds, thereby supporting the above hypothesis. The level of isopeptide bond formation increased with heating time.
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Substrate specificity of three recombinant ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and their divergent action on arabinoxylan and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Bifidobacterium adolescentis possesses several arabinofuranosidases able to hydrolyze arabinoxylans (AX) and AX oligosaccharides (AXOS), the latter being bifidogenic carbohydrates with potential prebiotic properties. We characterized two new recombinant arabinofuranosidases, AbfA and AbfB, and AXH-d3, a previously studied arabinofuranosidase from B. adolescentis. AbfA belongs to glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 43 and removed arabinose from the C(O)2 and C(O)3 position of monosubstituted xylose residues. Furthermore, hydrolytic activity of AbfA was much larger towards substrates with a low amount of arabinose substitutions. AbfB from GH 51 only cleaved arabinoses on position C(O)3 of disubstituted xyloses, similar to GH 43 AXH-d3, making it to our knowledge, the first reported enzyme with this specificity in GH 51. AbfA acted synergistically with AbfB and AXH-d3. In combination with AXH-d3, it released 60% of arabinose from wheat AX. Together with recent studies on other AXOS degrading enzymes from B. adolescentis, these findings allowed us to postulate a mechanism for the uptake and hydrolysis of bifidogenic AXOS by this organism.
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The kinetics of ?-elimination of cystine and the formation of lanthionine in gliadin.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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When gliadin, a mixture of wheat storage proteins containing only intramolecular disulfide (SS) bonds, is heated at high temperatures and preferably at alkaline pH, the SS bonds are cleaved by ?-elimination reactions leading to decreased cystine levels and the generation of dehydroalanine (DHA) and free sulfhydryl (SH) groups. DHA and the free SH group of cysteine can further react to form the irreversible cross-link lanthionine (LAN). The kinetics of this reaction were studied by heating model systems containing gliadin at different pH values (pH 6.0, 8.0 and 11.0) at temperatures up to 120 °C. Multiresponse modeling was applied to simultaneously describe the course of the reaction partners, intermediates and products. The estimated kinetic parameters indicate that the reaction rate constant for the elimination reaction increases with temperature and pH. Moreover, the predominant reaction consuming the intermediary DHA is the cross-link with cysteine to form LAN following second-order reaction kinetics. The corresponding reaction rate constant is less dependent on temperature and pH. Use of the proposed kinetic model to estimate reaction product concentrations in cereal-based foods allowed us to conclude that the ?-elimination reaction may be less important during, e.g., bread making, but may well contribute to gluten network formation during the production of soft wheat products. It may also well be relevant in the production of bioplastics made from gluten.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a cold-active endo-?-1,4-D-xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 8.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Endo-?-1,4-D-xylanases are used in a multitude of industrial applications. Native crystals of a cold-adapted xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 8 were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a=46.6, b=110.8, c=150.2?Å at 100?K, and diffracted to 2.7?Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The asymmetric unit is likely to contain one molecule, with a VM of 2.07?Å3?Da(-1), corresponding to a solvent content of ?40%.
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Mutational analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase shows the role of six amino acids in the catalytic mechanism.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs, PF01663) release nucleoside 5-monophosphates from a wide range of nucleotide substrates. Only very recently, the first plant members of the NPP family were characterised (Joye et al. J Cereal Sci 51: 326-336, 2010), and little is known about their substrate-specifying residues. We elucidated the role of six amino acid residues of the recently identified and characterised Triticum aestivum L. NPP (Joye et al. J Cereal Sci 51: 326-336, 2010). Substitution of the highly conserved catalytic Thr132 into Ser or Ala completely abolished enzyme activity. Mutation of a highly conserved His255 residue into an apolar Ala suprisingly increased enzyme activity against most phosphodiester substrates. Four other residues moderately to highly conserved over NPPs of different organisms were studied as well. Mutation of the Asn153, Asn165 and Glu199 into an Arg, Ser and Asp residue, respectively, increased the relative enzyme activity against p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Furthermore, mutation of Phe194 into Ser increased the relative enzyme activity against adenosine 5-monophosphate-containing substrates, although the overall enzyme activity of this mutant enzyme decreased. We conclude that the structural requirements and the conservation of the amino acids of the catalytic site of TaNPPr and, by extension, probably of all NPPs, are very stringent.
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Combined meta-genomics analyses unravel candidate genes for the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.
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Variability in xylanase and xylanase inhibition activities in different cereals in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen and contribution of environment and genotype to this variability in common wheat.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Endo-1,4-beta-d-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8, xylanases) and xylanase inhibitors, that is, TAXI (Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) type xylanase inhibitors, which naturally occur in cereals, are believed to be at the basis of a significant part of the variability in biotechnological functional properties of cereals. Xylanase inhibitors in particular affect grain functionality during processing and in animal feeds when xylanases are used to improve processing parameters and product quality. In the present study the variability of xylanase, TAXI, and XIP activities was quantified in different cereals, including different wheat types [common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler)], barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.), and the contribution of genotype and environment to this variability in common wheat was estimated. Substantial differences in xylanase, TAXI, and XIP activities exist between the different cereal types and varieties. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the durum wheat samples show very high xylanase activities compared to the other cereals. High TAXI and XIP activities were measured in, for example, common wheat, spelt wheat, and rye, whereas low activities occur in barley and oat. For wheat, a significant part of the variability in inhibitor levels can be explained by genotype, whereas xylanase activity is most strongly determined by environment. The results obtained suggest that plant breeders and industry to certain extent can select for wheat varieties with high or low xylanase inhibition activities, but the relatively high contribution of the genotype-environment interaction term to the total variability in inhibition activities indicates that TAXI and XIP activities are not very stable breeding parameters.
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Environment and genotype effects on the content of dietary fiber and its components in wheat in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Within the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen, the variability of the contents of dietary fiber (DF) and components thereof was studied in wheat. Furthermore, the contribution of genotype and environment to this variability was estimated. The levels of total DF (TDF), total nonstarch polysaccharide (TOTNSP), water-extractable nonstarch polysaccharide (WENSP), total arabinoxylan (TOTAX), lignin, and beta-glucan in whole meal, flour, and/or bran varied approximately 1.8-fold. The highest variability was observed for the water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) level in flour and bran (approximately 3.7-fold). Genotype and environment contributed to a similar extent to the variability in TDF, TOTNSP, and TOTAX content in wheat. The observed relatively high impact of genotype-environment interaction suggests that the levels of these constituents are weak breeding parameters. The WENSP level is a more stable parameter as the effect of the interaction term was much less than the impact of genotype. For TOTAX and WEAX in flour, WEAX in bran, beta-glucan in whole meal, and extract viscosity, wheat genotype determined approximately 50% or higher of the variation observed, whereas the impact of the genotype-environment interaction was relatively low. These findings suggest that the health-related and technological functionality of wheat can be directed to a certain extent by selection of appropriate wheat varieties.
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Effects of genotype and environment on the content and composition of phytochemicals and dietary fiber components in rye in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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The effects of genotype and environment on the content of bioactive components in rye were determined with four varieties being grown on one site for three years and on three additional sites in the third year and a fourth variety being included in all trials except year 1. Clear differences were observed in the extent to which the contents of dietary fiber components (arabinoxylan, beta-glucan, total dietary fiber) and phytochemicals (folates, alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols, phenolic acids) varied between varieties and between the same varieties grown in different sites (United Kingdom, France, Hungary, Poland) and years (2005-2007 in Hungary), with sterols being the most stable and phenolic acids the least. However, no single variety could be selected as having the highest overall level of bioactive components or as being more stable in comparison across environments.
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The HEALTHGRAIN wheat diversity screen: effects of genotype and environment on phytochemicals and dietary fiber components.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Analysis of the contents of bioactive components (tocols, sterols, alkylresorcinols, folates, phenolic acids, and fiber components) in 26 wheat cultivars grown in six site x year combinations showed that the extent of variation due to variety and environment differed significantly between components. The total contents of tocols, sterols, and arabinoxylan fiber were highly heritable and hence an appropriate target for plant breeding. However, significant correlations between the contents of bioactive components and environmental factors (precipitation and temperature) during grain development also occurred, with even highly heritable components differing in amount between grain samples grown in different years on different sites.
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Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse.
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2-D DIGE reveals changes in wheat xylanase inhibitor protein families due to Fusarium graminearum DeltaTri5 infection and grain development.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Wheat contains three different classes of proteinaceous xylanase inhibitors (XIs), i.e. Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitors (TAXIs) xylanase-inhibiting proteins (XIPs), and thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitors (TLXIs) which are believed to act as a defensive barrier against phytopathogenic attack. In the absence of relevant data in wheat kernels, we here examined the response of the different members of the XI protein population to infection with a DeltaTri5 mutant of Fusarium graminearum, the wild type of which is one of the most important wheat ear pathogens, in early developing wheat grain. Wheat ears were inoculated at anthesis, analyzed using 2-D DIGE and multivariate analysis at 5, 15, and 25 days post anthesis (DPA), and compared with control samples. Distinct abundance patterns could be distinguished for different XI forms in response to infection with F. graminearum DeltaTri5. Some (iso)forms were up-regulated, whereas others were down-regulated. This pathogen-specific regulation of proteins was mostly visible at five DPA and levelled off in the samples situated further from the inoculation point. Furthermore, it was shown that most identified TAXI- and XIP-type XI (iso)forms significantly increased in abundance from the milky (15 DPA) to the soft dough stages (25 DPA) on a per kernel basis, although the extent of increase differed greatly. Non-glycosylated XIP forms increased more strongly than their glycosylated counterparts.
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Structural determinants of the substrate specificities of xylanases from different glycoside hydrolase families.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Xylanases are of widespread importance in several food and non-food biotechnological applications. They degrade heteroxylans, a structurally heterogeneous group of plant cell wall polysaccharides, and other important components in various industrial processes. Because of the highly complex structures of heteroxylans, efficient utilization of xylanases in these processes requires an in-depth knowledge of their substrate specificity. A significant number of studies on the three-dimensional structures of xylanases from different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families in complex with the substrate provided insight into the different mechanisms and strategies by which xylanases bind and hydrolyze structurally different heteroxylans and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). Combined with reports on the hydrolytic activities of xylanases on decorated XOS and heteroxylans, major advances have been made in our understanding of the link between the three-dimensional structures and the substrate specificities of these enzymes. In this review, authors gave a concise overview of the structure-function relationship of xylanases from GH5, 8, 10, and 11. The structural basis for inter- and intrafamily variation in xylanase substrate specificity was discussed as are the implications for heteroxylan degradation.
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Functional analysis of glycoside hydrolase family 8 xylanases shows narrow but distinct substrate specificities and biotechnological potential.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The potential of glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 8 xylanases in biotechnological applications is virtually unexplored. Therefore, the substrate preference and hydrolysis product profiles of two GH8 xylanases were evaluated to investigate their activities and substrate specificities. A GH8 xylanase from an uncultured bacterium (rXyn8) shows endo action but very selectively releases xylotriose from its substrates. It has a higher activity than the Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis GH8 endo-xylanase (PhXyl) on xylononaose and smaller xylo-oligosaccharides. PhXyl preferably degrades xylan substrates with a high degree of polymerization. It is sterically more hindered by arabinose substituents than rXyn8, producing larger end hydrolysis products. The specificities of rXyn8 and PhXyl differ completely from these of the previously described GH8 xylanases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BaRexA) and Bacillus halodurans (BhRex). As reducing-end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanases, they selectively release xylose from the reducing end of small xylo-oligosaccharides. The findings of this study show that GH8 xylanases have a narrow substrate specificity, but also one that strongly varies between family members and is distinct from that of GH10 and GH11 xylanases. Structural comparison of rXyn8, PhXyl, BaRexA, and BhRex showed that subtle amino acid changes in the glycon as well as the aglycon subsites probably form the basis of the observed differences between GH8 xylanases. GH8 xylanases, therefore, are an interesting group of enzymes, with potential towards engineering and applications.
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Molecular basis of processing wheat gluten toward biobased materials.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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The unique properties of the wheat grain reside primarily in the gluten-forming storage proteins of its endosperm. Wheat glutens structural and functional properties have led to an expanding diversity of applications in food products. However, its viscoelastic properties and low water solubility also are very interesting features for nonfood applications. Moreover, gluten is annually renewable and perfectly biodegradable. In the processing and setting of gluten containing products, temperature plays a very important role. In this review, the structure and reactivity of gluten are discussed and the importance of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (SS) groups is demonstrated. Wheat gluten aggregation upon thermosetting proceeds through direct covalent cross-linking in and between its protein groups, glutenin and gliadin. Predominant reactions include SH oxidation and SH/SS interchange reactions leading to the formation of SS cross-links. Additionally, thermal treatment of gluten can result in the formation of other than SS covalent bonds. We here review two main technological approaches to make gluten-based materials: wet processes resulting in thin films and dry processes, such as extrusion or compression molding, exploiting the thermoplastic properties of proteins under low moisture conditions and potentially resulting in very useful materials. Gluten bioplastics can also be reinforced with natural fibers, resulting in biocomposites. Although a lot of progress has been made the past decade, the current gluten materials are still outperformed by their synthetic polymer counterparts.
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Mutagenesis and subsite mapping underpin the importance for substrate specificity of the aglycon subsites of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 11 xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis (BsXynA) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to probe the role of aglycon active site residues with regard to activity, binding of decorated substrates and hydrolysis product profile. Targets were those amino acids identified to be important by 3D structure analysis of BsXynA in complex with substrate bound in the glycon subsites and the +1 aglycon subsite. Several aromatic residues in the aglycon subsites that make strong substrate-protein interactions and that are indispensable for enzyme activity, were also important for the specificity of the xylanase. In the +2 subsite of BsXynA, Tyr65 and Trp129 were identified as residues that are involved in the binding of decorated substrates. Most interestingly, replacement of Tyr88 by Ala in the +3 subsite created an enzyme able to produce a wider variety of hydrolysis products than wild type BsXynA. The contribution of the +3 subsite to the substrate specificity of BsXynA was established more in detail by mapping the enzyme binding site of the wild type xylanase and mutant Y88A with labelled xylo-oligosaccharides. Also, the length of the cord - a long loop flanking the aglycon subsites of GH11 xylanases - proved to impact the hydrolytic action of BsXynA. The aglycon side of the active site cleft of BsXynA, therefore, offers great potential for engineering and design of xylanases with a desired specificity.
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Tolerance of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides and their prebiotic activity in healthy subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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The tolerance and prebiotic effect following oral intake by healthy human subjects of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), produced by partial enzymic hydrolysis of the wheat fibre arabinoxlyan, were studied. A total of twenty healthy subjects participated in the present randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study. They consumed 10 g AXOS or placebo per d each for 3 weeks with a 4-week wash-out period in between. Before and immediately after each intake period, blood samples were taken to measure haematological and clinical chemistry parameters and the subjects completed a questionnaire about gastrointestinal symptoms. Additionally, urine was collected over 48 h for analysis of p-cresol and phenol content by GC-MS, and faeces were collected over 72 h for analysis of microbiota using real-time PCR. Of the subjects, ten also performed a urine and faeces collection 2 weeks after the start of intake (during intervention). A limited number of tested blood parameters were influenced in a statistically significantly way by either AXOS or placebo intake, but these changes remained within the normal range. Blood lipids remained unchanged. AXOS had no statistically significant effect on the range of gastrointestinal symptoms, except for a mild increase in flatulence. Urinary p-cresol excretion, an indicator of protein fermentation, was significantly decreased after 2 weeks of AXOS intake. The levels of bifidobacteria were significantly increased after 2 and 3 weeks of AXOS intake as well as after 3 weeks of placebo. However, the effect of AXOS on bifidobacteria was more pronounced than that of placebo. In conclusion, AXOS are a well-tolerated prebiotic at the dose of 10 g/d. AXOS intake increases faecal bifidobacteria and reduces urinary p-cresol excretion.
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Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50% jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4% (untreated bran) to 61% of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70%) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16% jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50% jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1% (untreated pericarp) to 63%. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.
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Sugar-snap cookie dough setting: the impact of sucrose on gluten functionality.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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In sugar-snap cookie making, sucrose influences the physicochemical transformations of the flour components and is responsible for both cookie sweetness and texture. Sucrose, together with low moisture levels, raises the starch gelatinization temperature to such an extent that little if any of it gelatinizes during baking. However, there is no agreement on the effects that it has on gluten during cookie making. The present study revealed that increasing sucrose levels in the recipe increasingly delay or inhibit gluten cross-linking, as judged from the loss of sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein. This causes cookies containing higher sucrose levels to set later and to have a larger diameter. Gluten entanglement and/or cross-linking result in resistance to collapse, at the same time, cause setting during baking and, hence, determine cookie diameter.
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Hydrolysis of amylopectin by amylolytic enzymes: level of inner chain attack as an important analytical differentiation criterion.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Differences in amylase action pattern on amylopectin were demonstrated by the relation between the decrease in potassium iodide-iodine binding of waxy maize starch and the increase in reducing value during hydrolysis, as expressed by the RV(80) value (i.e., the reducing value for a potassium iodide-iodine binding value of 80% of that of the starting material). In the initial stages of the hydrolysis, the ratio of the increase in the level of reducing polysaccharides to the increase in the total level of reducing sugars formed during amylolysis of amylopectin can be considered as a measure of the level of inner chain attack (LICA) in the overall hydrolysis of the amylopectin structure and correlated with the respective RV(80) value. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase and Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase, with the lowest RV(80) and the highest LICA values, hydrolysed the inner chains of amylopectin to a greater extent than did porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. In the initial stages of hydrolysis, Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase, like the Bacillus cereus beta-amylase, did not display any significant degree of internal hydrolysis of amylopectin, in line with the high RV(80) and very low LICA values for these enzymes. However, at the later stages of hydrolysis, the maltogenic amylase probably exhibited a significant degree of internal hydrolysis of amylopectin, which itself seems to depend on temperature. The temperature dependence of the hydrolysis pattern of this enzyme is relevant for interpretation of its action as antifirming enzyme in bread-making applications.
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Hydrolysis of amylopectin by amylolytic enzymes: structural analysis of the residual amylopectin population.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Amylopectin fine structures were studied following limited hydrolysis of gelatinised waxy maize starch by amylases with a different level of inner chain attack (LICA). This was done by size exclusion chromatography as well as by debranching the (partially hydrolysed) amylopectin samples and studying the size distributions of the released chains. Alpha-amylases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Aspergillus oryzae, with a relatively high LICA, drastically altered amylopectin chain length distribution and reduced the amylopectin molecular size (MS) significantly even at a low to moderate degree of hydrolysis (DH). Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), with a rather low LICA but a high multiple attack action on amylose, reduced the amylopectin MS much slower. Following hydrolysis by PPA to a DH of 10% and enzymic debranching of the amylopectin residue, several subpopulations of chains consisting of 2-12 glucose units were detected, indicating a multiple attack action on the amylopectin side chains. During the early stages of hydrolysis, the maltogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (BStA) preferentially hydrolysed the exterior chains of amylopectin. However, during the later phases, BStA also hydrolysed inner chains, presumably with a high multiple attack action. The present results clearly show that different enzymes can be used for (limited) conversion of amylopectin into structures differing in molecular weight and chain length distributions.
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Post-translational processing of beta-d-xylanases and changes in extractability of arabinoxylans during wheat germination.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Endo-1,4-beta-d-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8, beta-d-xylanase) activity, and arabinoxylan (AX) level and extractability were monitored for the first time simultaneously in wheat kernels (Triticum aestivum cv. Glasgow) up to 24 days post-imbibition (DPI), both in the absence and presence of added gibberellic acid (GA). Roughly three different stages (early, intermediate and late) can be discriminated. Addition of GA resulted in a faster increase of water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) level in the early stage (up to 3-4 DPI). This increase was not accompanied by the discernible presence of homologues of the barley X-I beta-d-xylanase as established by immunodetection. This suggests that other, yet unidentified beta-d-xylanases operate in this early time window. The intermediate stage (up to 13 DPI) was characterized by the presence of unprocessed 67 kDa X-I like beta-d-xylanase, which was much more abundant in the presence of GA. The occurrence of higher levels of the unprocessed enzyme was related with higher beta-d-xylanase activities and a further increase in WEAX level, pointing to in vivo activity of the unprocessed 67 kDa beta-d-xylanase. During the late stage (up to 24 DPI) gradual processing of the 67 kDa beta-d-xylanase occurred and was associated with a drastic increase in beta-d-xylanase activity. Up to 120-fold higher activity was recorded at 24 DPI, with approx. 85% thereof originating from the kernel remnants. The WEAX level decreased during the late stage, suggesting that the beta-d-xylanase is processed into more active forms to achieve extensive AX breakdown.
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Truncated derivatives of a multidomain thermophilic glycosyl hydrolase family 10 xylanase from Thermotoga maritima reveal structure related activity profiles and substrate hydrolysis patterns.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Efficient heteroxylan degradation in the context of economically feasible lignocellulosic biomass biorefining requires xylanolytic enzymes with optimal thermostability and specificity. Therefore, the structure activity relationship of a modular thermophilic glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanase (xylanase A from Thermotoga maritima MSB8, rXTMA) was investigated through construction of six truncated derivatives, lacking at least one of the 2 N- and/or 2 C-terminal modules. The temperatures for optimal activity and stability of the xylanases were strongly influenced by the presence of the different modules and ranged from 60 to 80 degrees C and 50 to 80 degrees C, respectively. In contrast, the pH for optimal activity was only slightly affected (pH 6.0 to 7.0). The tested xylanases retained over 80% activity after 2h pre-incubation at 50 degrees C between pH 5.0 and 11.0. Most unexpectedly, changes in the modular structure led to a 26-fold wide range of specific activities of the enzymes towards xylohexaose, while the activity towards insoluble polymeric heteroxylan was comparable for all but one xylanase. rXTMADeltaC, lacking the C-terminal modules, had a 60% higher specific activity towards the latter substrate than the wild type enzyme. These results show that key properties of XTMA can be tuned to allow for optimal performance of the enzyme in biotechnological processes such as in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.
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Identification of structural determinants for inhibition strength and specificity of wheat xylanase inhibitors TAXI-IA and TAXI-IIA.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI)-type inhibitors are active against microbial xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 11, but the inhibition strength and the specificity towards different xylanases differ between TAXI isoforms. Mutational and biochemical analyses of TAXI-I, TAXI-IIA and Bacillus subtilis xylanase A showed that inhibition strength and specificity depend on the identity of only a few key residues of inhibitor and xylanase [Fierens K et al. (2005) FEBS J 272, 5872-5882; Raedschelders G et al. (2005) Biochem Biophys Res Commun335, 512-522; Sorensen JF & Sibbesen O (2006) Protein Eng Des Sel 19, 205-210; Bourgois TM et al. (2007) J Biotechnol 130, 95-105]. Crystallographic analysis of the structures of TAXI-IA and TAXI-IIA in complex with glycoside hydrolase family 11 B. subtilis xylanase A now provides a substantial explanation for these observations and a detailed insight into the structural determinants for inhibition strength and specificity. Structures of the xylanaseinhibitor complexes show that inhibition is established by loop interactions with active-site residues and substrate-mimicking contacts in the binding subsites. The interaction of residues Leu292 of TAXI-IA and Pro294 of TAXI-IIA with the -2 glycon subsite of the xylanase is shown to be critical for both inhibition strength and specificity. Also, detailed analysis of the interaction interfaces of the complexes illustrates that the inhibition strength of TAXI is related to the presence of an aspartate or asparagine residue adjacent to the acid/base catalyst of the xylanase, and therefore to the pH optimum of the xylanase. The lower the pH optimum of the xylanase, the stronger will be the interaction between enzyme and inhibitor, and the stronger the resulting inhibition.
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Computational design-based molecular engineering of the glycosyl hydrolase family 11 B. subtilis XynA endoxylanase improves its acid stability.
Protein Eng. Des. Sel.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Rational protein engineering was applied to improve the limited stability of the glycosyl hydrolase family 11 (GH11) endo-beta-1,4-xylanase from Bacillus subtilis under acidic conditions. Since the pH dependence of protein stability is governed by the ionisation states of the side chains of its titrable amino acid residues, we explored the strategy of changing pH-stability profiles by altering pK(a) values of key residues through in silico designed mutations. To this end, computational predictions and molecular modelling were carried out using the recently developed pKD software package. Four endoxylanase variants, in which the pK(a) values of either Asp4 and Asp11 or His149 were targeted to shift downwards through incorporation of three to five point mutations, were generated and recombinantly expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. All four mutants showed considerably increased functional stability at acid pH levels. They retained approximately 30-70% and approximately 75-95% of their activity after incubation at pH 3 and 4, respectively, in comparison with only approximately 23% and approximately 57%, respectively, for the wild-type enzyme under the experimental conditions. No acidophilic adaptation of the catalytic activity had occurred. In addition, their functional stability and catalytic activity profiles under different temperature and ionic strength conditions were significantly altered. These findings contribute to general understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the pH-dependent stability of GH11 proteins, and hence they can be applied to enhance the stability and effectiveness of many GH11 endoxylanases used in industry today.
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Comparison of prebiotic effects of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and inulin in a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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In this study, the prebiotic potential of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) was compared with inulin in two simulators of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. Microbial breakdown of both oligosaccharides and short-chain fatty acid production was colon compartment specific, with ascending and transverse colon being the predominant site of inulin and AXOS degradation, respectively. Lactate levels (+5.5 mM) increased in the ascending colon during AXOS supplementation, while propionate levels (+5.1 mM) increased in the transverse colon. The concomitant decrease in lactate in the transverse colon suggests that propionate was partially formed over the acrylate pathway. Furthermore, AXOS supplementation strongly decreased butyrate in the ascending colon, this in parallel with a decrease in Roseburia spp. and Bacteroides/Prevotella/Porphyromonas (-1.4 and -2.0 log CFU) levels. Inulin treatment had moderate effects on lactate, propionate and butyrate levels. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that inulin changed microbial metabolism by modulating the microbial community composition. In contrast, AXOS primarily affected microbial metabolism by switching on AXOS-degrading enzymes (xylanase, arabinofuranosidase and xylosidase), without significantly affecting microbial community composition. Our results demonstrate that AXOS has a higher potency than inulin to shift part of the sugar fermentation toward the distal colon parts. Furthermore, due to its stronger propionate-stimulating effect, AXOS is a candidate prebiotic capable of lowering cholesterol and beneficially affecting fat metabolism of the host.
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Arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) reduce preneoplastic lesions in the colon of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH).
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2009
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Prebiotics are non-digestible compounds that beneficially affect the host by stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of resident colonic bacteria in the gut. Reported beneficial effects of prebiotics include reduced gut infections, better absorption of minerals, and notably, antitumorigenic effects. Arabinoxylan (AX)-oligosaccharides (AXOS) have been suggested to exert prebiotic effects in the gut, but their effect on colon carcinogenesis has not been studied so far.
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Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) contains XIP but not TAXI and TLXI type xylanase inhibitors.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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An XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein) type xylanase inhibitor was purified from Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains and characterized for the first time. Cation exchange and affinity chromatography with immobilized Trichoderma longibrachiatum glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase resulted in electrophoretically pure protein with a molecular mass of 27-29 kDa and a pI value of 6.7. The experimentally determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified XIP protein is 87.5%, identical to that of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) XIP and 79.2% identical to that of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) XIP-I. The biochemical properties of pearl millet XIP are comparable to those described earlier for sorghum XIP, except for the higher specific activity toward a T. longibrachiatum GH family 11 xylanase. On the basis of immunoblot neither TAXI nor TLXI type xylanase inhibitors were detected in pearl millet grains.
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Fractionation and characterization of brewers spent grain protein hydrolysates.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of the hydrolysates with graded ammonium sulfate or ethanol precipitation was performed to obtain fractions homogeneous in terms of molecular weight (MW) and hydrophobicity. The emulsifying and foaming capacities of the resultant fractions were determined. MW distributions and surface hydrophobicities of fractions with protein contents exceeding 75% were investigated to determine relationships between technofunctional and physicochemical properties. It was found that the emulsifying and foaming properties are determined by different physicochemical properties of the proteins or peptides. Neither MW nor hydrophobicity alone determines the emulsifying and foaming properties of protein hydrolysates. BSG protein hydrolysates with good emulsifying properties contained less than 40% of fragments with MW exceeding 14 500. Moreover, these hydrolysates had a high surface hydrophobicity. BSG protein hydrolysates with good foaming properties contained less than 10% of material with MW lower than 1700. Hydrolysates with good foaming properties showed low surface hydrophobicities, except for protein hydrolysates with higher levels of protein fragments with MW exceeding 14 500 than of such fragments with MW in a 1700-14 500 range.
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