JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Simultaneous treatment of HIV and tuberculosis is possible and necessary.]
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The proper timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-patients co-infected with tuberculosis has been debated. We review three studies on this matter. One study found a significant reduced mortality for patients with CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4+) ? 200 per mm3 who received ART early, whereas the other two studies found this difference for patients with CD4+ < 50 per mm3.The risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was significantly increased for the patients receiving ART early, but this contributed only to a small fraction of deaths related to HIV after the initiation of ART.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence and risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals before and after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy: persistent high risk among HIV-infected injecting drug users.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in individuals who for economic reasons were switched from a once-daily single-tablet regimen to a triple-tablet regimen.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the impact on virological outcomes of a switch from branded single-tablet regimen (STR) including tenofovir, efavirenz, and emtricitabine (STR-TEE) to generic triple-tablet regimen (TTR), including tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine (TTR-TEL), which was implemented on April 1, 2011 to obtain economic savings.
Related JoVE Video
Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Polymorphism in interleukin-7 receptor ? gene is associated with faster CD4? T-cell recovery after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding interleukin-7 receptor ? (IL7RA) as predictors for CD4? T-cell change after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected whites.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to the background population: impact of smoking and HIV.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Employment status in persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark: 1996-2011.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011.
Related JoVE Video
Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 adaptation to antigen processing results in population-level immune evasion and affects subtype diversification.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8(+) T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predicts myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation are associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, but their association and possible predictive value remain controversial among HIV-1-infected individuals. We sought to investigate the association of seven biomarkers with first-time myocardial infarction (MI) in an HIV-1-infected population.
Related JoVE Video
The origin and emergence of an HIV-1 epidemic: from introduction to endemicity.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe, at patient-level detail, the determining events and factors involved in the development of a country's HIV-1 epidemic.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term mortality in HIV-positive individuals virally suppressed for >3 years with incomplete CD4 recovery.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with low CD4 counts achieve viral suppression but not CD4 cell recovery. We aimed to identify (1) risk factors for failure to achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL after 3 years of sustained viral suppression and (2) the association of the achieved CD4 count with subsequent mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of neurocognitive function and CNS endpoints in the PROTEA trial: darunavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside analogues.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During treatment with protease inhibitor monotherapy, the number of antiretrovirals with therapeutic concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is lower, compared to standard triple therapy. However, the clinical consequences are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Poor CD4 response despite viral suppression is associated with increased non-AIDS-related mortality among HIV patients and their parents.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poor CD4 response to antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is associated with increased mortality. We analyzed the impact of CD4 increase on non-AIDS-related morbidity and on mortality in HIV patients and their parents.
Related JoVE Video
Early infant diagnosis of HIV in three regions in Tanzania; successes and challenges.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By the end of 2009 an estimated 2.5 million children worldwide were living with HIV-1, mostly as a consequence of vertical transmission, and more than 90% of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended early initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) to all HIV infected infants diagnosed within the first year of life, and since 2010, within the first two years of life, irrespective of CD4 count or WHO clinical stage. The study aims were to describe implementation of EID programs in three Tanzanian regions with differences in HIV prevalences and logistical set-up with regard to HIV DNA testing.
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of dialysis and end-stage renal disease among HIV patients in Denmark compared with the background population.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV patients have increased risk of impaired renal function. We aimed to estimate the incidence of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT) and start of chronic renal replacement therapy (cRRT) among HIV patients compared with population controls.
Related JoVE Video
Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection: elevated D-dimer but impaired platelet aggregation and clot initiation.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy and whether this was associated with microbial translocation.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial translocation in HIV infection is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and risk of myocardial infarction.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. It is hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical implications of a considerable CD4 decline despite antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression are unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a major CD4 decline could be a marker of cardiovascular disease or undiagnosed cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 in muscle is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and lipid disturbances in patients with HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a novel regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, increased FGF-21 mRNA expression in muscle was found in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the role for FGF-21 in muscle is not well understood. Patients with HIV-infection and lipodystrophy are characterised by various degree of lipid-driven insulin resistance. We hypothesized that muscle FGF-21 mRNA would be altered in HIV patients with lipodystrophy.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1-infected individuals in antiretroviral therapy react specifically with polyfunctional T-cell responses to Gag p24.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Still no effective HIV-1 prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines are available. However, as the proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment is increasing, knowledge about the residual immune response is important for the possible development of an HIV-1 vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
Statin therapy and mortality in HIV-infected individuals; a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that statins possess diverse immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. As statins might attenuate inflammation, statin therapy has been hypothesized to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We therefore used a Danish nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals to estimate the impact of statin use on mortality before and after a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease or diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetics of the Danish HIV epidemic: the role of very late presenters in sustaining the epidemic.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Denmark, 300 new individuals are diagnosed with HIV every year, despite decades of public health campaigns aimed to raise awareness of potential risk behavior for HIV transmission. It is important to identify the driving forces of the epidemic, to enable more targeted campaigns. The role of very late presenters (VLPs, defined by a CD4 T-cell count of <200 cells/?L at the time of diagnosis) in driving the epidemic is currently not known and was investigated in this study.
Related JoVE Video
Persisting inflammation and chronic immune activation but intact cognitive function in HIV-infected patients after long-term treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Impaired cognitive function in HIV-infected patients has been suggested. Treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) restores CD4? cell counts and suppresses viral replication, but immune activation and inflammation may persist. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive function in HIV-infected patients was related to immune activation and inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a nested case-control study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI).
Related JoVE Video
Anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients in the period 1995-2009: a Danish nationwide cohort study.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated an increased risk of non-AIDS cancers in HIV patients and, for some cancers, also in relatives of HIV patients. We aimed to estimate (1) the risk of anal carcinoma among HIV patients and their parents, and (2) the mortality after a diagnosis of anal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Persistent inflammation and endothelial activation in HIV-1 infected patients after 12 years of antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study investigated markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in HIV infected patients after 12 years of successful combination antiretroviral treatment (cART).
Related JoVE Video
Outcome of HIV-1-associated cryptococcal meningitis, Denmark 1988-2008.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk of HIV-1-associated Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis (CM) has decreased and the outcome has improved with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Outcome has not been reported in Denmark in the cART era.
Related JoVE Video
Late presenters, repeated testing, and missed opportunities in a Danish nationwide HIV cohort.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to estimate the incidence and predictors of late presentation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Denmark.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of cataract surgery in HIV-infected individuals: a Danish Nationwide Population-based cohort study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Premature aging has been suggested a risk factor for early death in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, the risk of age-related diseases, such as cataracts, should be increased in this population. In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we assessed the risk of cataract surgery in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population.
Related JoVE Video
Head and neck cancer in HIV patients and their parents: a Danish cohort study.
Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanism for the increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) observed in HIV patients is controversial. We hypothesized that family-related risk factors increase the risk of HNC why we estimated the risk of this type of cancer in both HIV patients and their parents.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009 was analyzed for TDR, and molecular-epidemiological links and progression of the infection were described based on data from standardized questionnaires, the prospective Danish HIV Cohort Study, and by phylogenetic analysis. Eighty-five individuals were found to be infected with virus harboring mutations resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed 12 transmission chains involving 37 TDR individuals. Of these 21 were also documented epidemiologically. The virus included in the transmission chain carried similar resistance mutations to the TDR index case, whereas controls chains from index cases without TDR were generally without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown to originate from local patients failing therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of cerebrovascular events in persons with and without HIV: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the risk of cerebrovascular events (CVEs) in HIV-infected individuals and evaluate the impact of proven risk factors, injection drug abuse (IDU), immunodeficiency, HAART and family-related risk factors.
Related JoVE Video
Comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis and mortality in persons infected and uninfected with HIV: a Danish population-based cohort study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV.
Related JoVE Video
Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the distribution of antiretro-virals in breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers is essential, both for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and for research on the development of drug resistance. The ARK nevirapine (NVP)-test is an immunoassay method for nevirapine measurements, developed and validated for plasma use. In this study, the ARK NVP-test was evaluated for measurement of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method currently used to determine nevirapine in breast milk. This method, however, requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 ?L) and no pre-treatment of the samples.
Related JoVE Video
Addressing the fear and consequences of stigmatization - a necessary step towards making HAART accessible to women in Tanzania: a qualitative study.
AIDS Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been available free of charge in Tanga, Tanzania since 2005. However we have found that a high percentage of women referred from prevention of mother-to-child transmission services to the Care and Treatment Clinics (CTC) for HAART never registered at the CTCs. Few studies have focused on the motivating and deterring factors to presenting for HAART particularly in relation to women. This study seeks to remedy this gap in knowledge.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence and impact on mortality of severe neurocognitive disorders in persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish nationwide cohort study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk of neurocognitive disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is controversial. We aimed to compare the incidence and impact on mortality of severe neurocognitive disorders (SNCDs) in HIV-infected patients with that of the background population.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of non-HIV and HIV risk factors on survival in HIV-infected patients on HAART: a population-based nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We determined the impact of three factors on mortality in HIV-infected patients who had been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least one year: (1) insufficient response to (HAART) and presence of AIDS-defining diseases, (2) comorbidity, and (3) drug and alcohol abuse and compared the mortality to that of the general population.
Related JoVE Video
Lung cancer in HIV patients and their parents: a Danish cohort study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV patients are known to be at increased risk of lung cancer but the risk factors behind this are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of HIV-1 from patients with virological failure to a boosted protease inhibitor regimen.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens with unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs) has resulted in a high level of virological failure primarily due to the development of resistant virus. Current boosted PI regimens combine successfully low-dose ritonavir (r) with a second PI. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of patients, in a population based setting, who develop virological failure on a PI/r regimen. Through The Danish HIV Cohort Study 1,007 patients who received PI/r based treatment between 1995 and 2008 were identified. Twenty-three (2.3%) experienced virological failure, of whom 19 (83%) started PI/r treatment before 2001. Patients from Copenhagen (n=19) were selected to study the development of protease (PR) and gag cleavage site (CS) mutations during PI/r treatment and PI plasma levels at the time of virological failure. Three patients (16%) developed major PI resistance mutations. Mutations in the p7/p1 and p1/p6 gag CS only developed in patients with major or minor mutations in PR. Drug concentrations were low or undetectable in 10 out of the 19 patients. In total PR resistance mutations and low drug levels could account for 12 (63%) of the failure cases. In conclusion, virological failure to PI/r is a low and decreasing problem primarily caused by low plasma drug levels and to a lesser extent major PR mutations. Gag CS mutations did not contribute significantly to resistance development and virological failure.
Related JoVE Video
[Herpes zoster: clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful vesicular rash localized to one dermatome. Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is persistent pain three months after the rash started. In recent years several Cochrane reviews and clinical studies on how to treat HZ and PHN have been published. These studies show that early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms, that antiviral therapy and corticosteroids shorten the acute illness period, that opioids and anticonvulsants have effect on acute HZ pain and, finally, that tricyclic antidepressants, opioids and anticonvulsants all have proven efficiency in PHN therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Prevention of herpes zoster by vaccination].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are frequently occurring diseases in elderly and in immuno-compromised persons. The live attenuated HZ vaccine boosts an existing immune response, so that the already established varicella-zoster virus infection is kept latent. Vaccination has been shown to halve the risk of HZ, and the risk of PHN is reduced by two thirds in people = 60 years. The vaccine is approved for persons aged = 50 years. However, the clinical efficacy of the vaccine is best studied in people aged = 60 years. The vaccine has so far not shown any serious side-effects.
Related JoVE Video
Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: a differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important manifestation of LGV is a proctitis, with a clinical presentation and endoscopic findings resembling those of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). LGV is considered new in Scandinavia. This case report focuses on difficulties in differentiating LGV and IBD.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of unsafe sex among HIV patients in Denmark: a population-based cohort study.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: Sexual transmission continues to be the primary mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Western Europe. We aimed to describe predictors of unsafe sex and reasons given for such behaviour. Methods: We performed a survey examining sexual risk behaviours and reasons for unsafe sex in a nationwide cohort of adult Danish HIV-1-positive patients. Differences in characteristics between those who practiced safe and unsafe sex were estimated by binary logistic regression. The fraction with detectable viral load was determined in the 2 groups, and reasons for unsafe sex were evaluated. Results: Of 812 eligible patients, a total of 275 (34%) had engaged in unsafe sex with an HIV-negative partner or a partner with unknown HIV status in the previous year. On multivariate analysis, men who have sex with men (MSM) was the only statistically significant risk factor associated with unsafe sex (odds ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.72-6.12). The main reason for practicing unsafe sex was that the partner did not wish to use a condom (53%). Conclusions: A high proportion of HIV-positive patients engage in unsafe sex, especially MSM. The reasons for unsafe sex are primarily linked to negotiation issues concerning condom use, including assumptions about the sexual partners intent.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 continues to replicate and evolve in patients with natural control of HIV infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical assays (<50 to 75 copies/ml) without antiretroviral therapy. Although several recent studies have documented persistent low-grade viremia in HIV-1 controllers at a level not significantly different from that in HIV-1-infected individuals undergoing treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), it is unclear if plasma viruses are undergoing full cycles of replication in vivo or if the infection of new cells is completely blocked by host immune mechanisms. We studied a cohort of 21 HIV-1 controllers with a median level of viremia below 1 copy/ml, followed for a median of 11 years. Less than half of the cohort carried known protective HLA types (B*57/27). By isolating HIV-1 RNA from large volumes of plasma, we amplified single genome sequences of both pro-rt and env longitudinally. This study is the first to document that HIV-1 pro-rt and env evolve in this patient group, albeit at rates somewhat lower than in HIV-1 noncontrollers, in HLA B*57/27-positive, as well as HLA B*57/27-negative, individuals. Viral diversity and adaptive events associated with immune escape were found to be restricted in HIV-1 controllers, suggesting that replication occurs in the face of less overall immune selection.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of injecting drug use on response to highly active antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients infected through injecting drug use (injecting drug users, IDUs) compared to patients infected via other routes (non-IDUs). We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of all HIV-infected patients who initiated HAART during the study period of 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2007. We compared changes in CD4(+) cell counts, percentage of full viral suppression (< 500 copies/ml) and mortality from start of HAART, as well as differences in initial HAART regimen. Three thousand six hundred and fifteen patients were included in the study, representing 22,804 person-y of observation. A total of 346 (9.6%) were categorized as IDUs. Of IDUs, 55% gained full viral control within the first y after HAART compared to 76% of non-IDUs (p = 0.0002). Absolute CD4(+) cell count and survival were lower for IDUs compared to non-IDUs (adjusted mortality rate ratio 3.6 (95% CI 2.9-4.3)). IDUs were more likely to receive a first regimen based on protease inhibitors (PIs) compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens for non-IDUs, and IDUs initiated HAART later than non-IDUs. In conclusion, more than half of the HIV-infected patients in Denmark infected through injecting drug use gained full viral suppression after initiating HAART. Absolute CD4(+) cell count was lower and mortality higher among IDUs than non-IDUs.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of changes in bone density and turnover with abacavir-lamivudine versus tenofovir-emtricitabine in HIV-infected adults: 48-week results from the ASSERT study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abacavir-lamivudine and tenofovir DF-emtricitabine fixed-dose combinations are commonly used as first-line antiretroviral therapies. However, few studies have comprehensively compared their relative safety profiles.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction in coronary and peripheral vasomotor function in patients with HIV after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study with positron emission tomography and flow-mediated dilation.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not known. Our aim was to study the endothelial function of the coronary arteries by cardiac perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with HIV initiating ART. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Clinical, virological and immunological responses in Danish HIV patients receiving raltegravir as part of a salvage regimen.
Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor approved for treatment of HIV-infected patients harboring multiresistant viruses.
Related JoVE Video
Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific groups to provide opportunities for testing that are relevant to local communities.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of injecting drug use on mortality in Danish HIV-infected patients: a nation-wide population-based cohort study.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the impact of injecting drug use (IDU) on mortality in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term mortality in HIV patients virally suppressed for more than three years with incomplete CD4 recovery: a cohort study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mortality in patients with persistent low CD4 count despite several years of HAART with sustained viral suppression is poorly documented. We aimed to identify predictors for inadequate CD4 cell recovery and estimate mortality in patients with low CD4 count but otherwise successful HAART.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of myocardial infarction in parents of HIV-infected Individuals: a population-based Cohort Study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have indicated an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV infected individuals especially after start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is however controversial whether the increased risk of atherosclerotic disease is exclusively associated with the HIV disease and HAART or whether life-style related or genetic factors also increase the risk in this population. To establish whether the increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV patients partly reflects an increased risk of MI in their families, we estimated the relative risk of MI in parents of HIV-infected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Reactivation of hepatitis D virus after chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma despite lamivudine prophylaxis.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a case of reactivation of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in a patient treated with chemotherapy for a diffuse large B cell lymphoma despite lamivudine prophylaxis. This case suggests that previously cleared HDV should be considered when administering chemotherapy to patients with lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Referral success among HIV-infected women and HIV-exposed children referred for monitoring and treatment in Tanga, Tanzania.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long-term retention of patients in the rapidly expanding antiretroviral programs against HIV/AIDS is essential for the success of these programs. Unfortunately, high percentages of patients in need of treatment are lost to follow up in resource-poor settings. From June 2006 to March 2007 269 HIV-infected pregnant women were screened for participation in a Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) study in Tanga, Tanzania. Ninety-one women were referred to Care and Treatment Center (CTC) for monitoring and antiretroviral therapy regardless of inclusion in the PMTCT study. Both women and HIV-exposed children were traced at CTC from mid-February to mid-March 2008. Follow-up visits for all patients were examined. Only 10% (9/91) of the referred women were still attending CTC by February/March 2008 and 64% (58/91) never attended CTC. Not a single child could be traced at CTC. The largest loss of patients occurs between referral and the first attendance at CTC. Every effort must be made to clarify reasons for loss of patients at this point. Further, measures to improve patient retention must be increased as must initiatives to improve the ability to trace and retain children within the clinics.
Related JoVE Video
Cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities in optimally treated HIV patients.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurologically intact HIV patients with fully suppressed HIV viral loads. Concomitant analyses of circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were performed to correlate these abnormalities with potential signs of neuro-regenerating/protective activity, and concomitant analyses of circulating tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL) 6, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were performed to correlate these abnormalities with potential signs of neurodegenerative processes.
Related JoVE Video
T-cell dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients with impaired recovery of CD4 cells despite suppression of viral replication.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD4 T-cell recovery is impeded in some HIVinfected patients despite successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with suppressed HIV RNA. We hypothesized that T-cell dysfunction would be increased in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: a nationwide population-based Danish cohort study 1999-2005.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Newer antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV carry a lower risk of inducing drug resistance mutations. We estimated changes in incidence rates (IRs) of new mutations in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Related JoVE Video
Plasma cytokine levels in Tanzanian HIV-1-infected adults and the effect of antiretroviral treatment.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the role immune activation leading to the production and circulation of cytokines has in the pathogenesis of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on these parameters.
Related JoVE Video
Positive selection pressure introduces secondary mutations at Gag cleavage sites in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 harboring major protease resistance mutations.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) specifically target the HIV-1 protease enzyme. Mutations in the enzyme can result in PI resistance (termed PI mutations); however, mutations in the HIV-1 gag region, the substrate for the protease enzyme, might also lead to PI resistance. We analyzed gag and pol sequence data from the following 313 HIV-1-infected patients: 160 treatment-naïve patients, 93 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with no major PI mutations), and 60 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with major PI mutations). Additional sequences from 13 patients were included for longitudinal analysis. We assessed positive selection pressure on the gag/protease region using a test for the overall influence of positive selection and a total of five tests to identify positively selected single codons. We found that positive selection pressure was the driving evolutionary force for the gag region in all three patient groups. An increase in positive selection was observed in gag cleavage site regions p7/p1/p6 only after the acquisition of major PI mutations, suggesting that amino acids in gag cleavage sites under positive selection pressure could function as compensatory mutations for major PI mutations in the protease region. Isolated gag mutations did not appear to confer PI resistance, but mutations in the gag cleavage sites could substitute for minor PI resistance mutations in the protease region.
Related JoVE Video
Mortality after hospitalization for pneumonia among individuals with HIV, 1995-2008: a Danish cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-infected persons are at increased risk of pneumonia, even with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). We examined the impact of pneumonia on mortality and identified prognostic factors for death among HIV-infected.
Related JoVE Video
Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group-associated antigen proteins p17 and p24 correlated with epitope abundance, which was strongly influenced by proteasomal digestion profiles, affinity for the transporter protein TAP, and trimming mediated by the endoplasmatic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAAP, and was moderately influenced by HLA affinity. Structural and functional analyses demonstrated that proteasomal cleavage preferences modulated the number and length of epitope-containing peptides, thereby affecting the response avidity and clonality of T cells. Cleavage patterns were affected by both flanking and intraepitope CTL-escape mutations. Our analyses show that antigen processing shapes CTL response hierarchies and that viral evolution modifies cleavage patterns and suggest strategies for in vitro vaccine optimization.
Related JoVE Video
[Major breakthroughs in the medical treatment].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major breakthroughs within other medical specialities are mentioned.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection predisposes to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Here, we describe the incidence, presentation, and prognosis of PML in HIV-1-infected patients during the period before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1995-1996) and during the early HAART (1997-1999) and late HAART (2000-2006) periods.
Related JoVE Video
Adjuvanted HLA-supertype restricted subdominant peptides induce new T-cell immunity during untreated HIV-1-infection.
Clin. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the potential of inducing additional T-cell immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection directed to subdominant HIV-1 epitopes from common HLA-supertypes. Ten treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were immunized with peptides in the adjuvant CAF01. One individual received placebo. T-cell immunogenicity was examined longitudinally by a flow cytometry (CD107a, IFN?, TNF?, IL-2 and/or MIP1? expression) as well as IFN? ELISPOT. Safety was evaluated by clinical follow up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T-cell counts and viral load. New CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses specific for one or more vaccine epitopes were induced in 10/10 vaccinees. The responses were dominated by CD107a and MIP1? expression. There were no significant changes in HIV-1 viral load or CD4 T-cell counts. Our study demonstrates that the peptide/CAF01 vaccine is safe and that it is possible to generate new HIV-1 T-cell responses to defined epitopes in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of HIV or second syphilis infection in Danish men with newly acquired syphilis in the period 2000-2010.
Sex Transm Infect
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV in persons diagnosed with newly acquired syphilis, and syphilis in HIV-infected persons, are of interest as these infections are markers of unsafe sex.
Related JoVE Video
HLA-G 3 untranslated region 14-base pair deletion: association with poor survival in an HIV-1-infected Zimbabwean population.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to evaluate whether the HLA-G 14-base pair (bp) polymorphism (rs16375) has an impact on human immunodeficiency virus HIV progression and survival in an antiretroviral therapy-naive Zimbabwean cohort (n = 312). Rs16375 was genotyped using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction system; CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA were measured with flow cytometry and commercially available polymerase chain reaction; survival was followed up for 4.3 years. The homozygous HLA-G -14-bp genotype is associated with higher viral load (P = .004), lower CD4 cell count (P = .01), and increased mortality (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.033-3.522; P = .04) compared with HLA-G +14-bp carriers.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.