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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Frequent migration of introduced cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses among Middle Eastern countries.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In the early 2000s, two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses were introduced into the eastern Mediterranean basin: the Old World Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and the New World Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV). These viruses have been emerging in parallel over the last decade in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine.
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Transmission specificities of plant viruses with the newly identified species of the Bemisia tabaci species complex.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Bemisia tabaci has had a colorful nomenclatural past and is now recognized as a species complex. This new species framework has added many new areas of research including adding new insight into the virus transmission specificity of the species in the B. tabaci species complex. There is a wide disparity in what is known about the transmission of plant viruses by different members of the B. tabaci species complex. In this paper, we have synthesized the transmission specificities of the plant viruses transmitted by species belonging to the complex. There are five genera of plant viruses with members that are transmitted by species of the B. tabaci species complex. The transmission of viruses belonging to two of these, Begomovirus and Crinivirus, are well studied and much is known in regards to the relationship between species and transmission and etiology. This is in contrast to viruses of the genera, Torradovirus and Carlavirus, for which very little is known inregards to their transmission. This is the first attempt to integrate viral data within the new B. tabaci species complex framework. It is clear that matching historical transmission data with the current species framework is difficult due to the lack of awareness of the underlying genetic diversity within B. tabaci. We encourage all researchers to determine which species of B. tabaci they are using to facilitate association of phenotypic traits with particular members of the complex.
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RNA viral metagenome of whiteflies leads to the discovery and characterization of a whitefly-transmitted carlavirus in North America.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only resulted in the detection of begomoviruses. In contrast, whiteflies contained sequences similar to RNA viruses from divergent groups, with a diversity that extends beyond currently described viruses. The metagenomic analysis of whiteflies also led to the first report of a whitefly-transmitted RNA virus similar to Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV Florida) (genus Carlavirus) in North America. Further investigation resulted in the detection of CpMMV Florida in native and cultivated plants growing near the original field site of whitefly collection and determination of its experimental host range. Analysis of complete CpMMV Florida genomes recovered from whiteflies and plants suggests that the current classification criteria for carlaviruses need to be reevaluated. Overall, metagenomic analysis supports that DNA plant viruses carried by B. tabaci are dominated by begomoviruses, whereas significantly less is known about RNA viruses present in this damaging insect vector.
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Transmitting plant viruses using whiteflies.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species(5), are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by(9,10,16)). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by(2,6,7,9,10,11,17)). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)(3,13), ecology(2,12), require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals(14) or compounds(15), new cultural approaches(1,4,19), or the selection and development of resistant cultivars(7,8,18), requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging(7). Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process.
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Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed "vector-enabled metagenomics" (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral diseases.
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Inoculation of plants with begomoviruses by particle bombardment without cloning: Using rolling circle amplification of total DNA from infected plants and whiteflies.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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A new system for inoculation of plants with begomoviral DNA without cloning or the use insect vectors is described. Total DNA extracted from begomovirus-infected plants was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase, and inoculated to plants by particle bombardment. Infection rates of up to 100% were obtained using this technique. This technique successfully inoculated all the begomoviruses evaluated: five bipartite (Bean golden yellow mosaic virus, Cabbage leaf curl virus, Squash leaf curl virus, Tomato mottle virus, Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus) as well as one monopartite (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus). The success of the technique was not dependent upon plant species. Four species from three plant families [Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Cucurbita pepo (squash), and Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)], could all be inoculated by this technique. The success of the method was not dependent upon either the type or the age of the source of virus. Infectious DNA was obtained successfully from fresh, freeze-dried or desiccated plant material, from squashes of plant leaves on FTA cards, as well as from the insect vector. Plant material collected and dried as long as 25 years ago yielded infectious DNA by this method. In summary, this method can be used to obtain infectious DNA of single-stranded circular DNA viruses that can be activated for purposes of completing Kochs postulates, for preservation of pure virus cultures, and for many other applications where infectious DNA is required.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.