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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Differential effect of metabolic alkalosis and hypoxia on high-intensity cycling performance.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion and acute hypoxic exposure on repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling to task failure. Twelve subjects completed 4 separate intermittent cycling bouts cycling bouts to task failure (120% peak power output for 30-second interspersed with 30-second active recovery) under the following conditions: normoxia (FIO2% at 20.93%) alkalosis (NA), normoxia placebo (NP), hypoxia (FIO2% at 14.7%) alkalosis (HA), and hypoxia placebo (HP). For the NA and HA trials, the buffer solution (0.3 g·kg of NaHCO3) was dispensed into gelatin capsules and consumed over 90 minutes with 1 L of water. Whole-blood acid-base findings demonstrated metabolic alkalosis in both NA and HA before exercise (HCO3: 32.8 ± 1.8 mmol·L). Time to task failure was significantly impaired in the hypoxic conditions (NA: 199.1 ± 62.3 seconds, NP: 183.8 ± 45.0 seconds, HA: 127.8 ± 27.9 seconds, HP: 133.3 ± 28.7 seconds; p < 0.001; ? = 0.7). There was no difference between the HA and HP conditions (p = 0.41); however the 2 normoxic conditions approached significance with the NA condition on average resulting in approximately 15-second improvement in time to task failure (p = 0.09). These findings suggest that an acute decline in FIO2% consistent with hypoxic exposure is more inhibiting than metabolic acidosis during intermittent high-intensity cycling to task failure. In application, the use of hypoxia and NaHCO3 concurrently to improve performance under these conditions does not seem warranted.
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The application of differential ratings of perceived exertion to Australian Football League matches.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion for the examination of internal load during Australian Football League (AFL) matches.
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Muscle activation does not increase after a fatigue plateau is reached during 8 sets of resistance exercise in trained individuals.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The premise of eliciting the greatest acute fatigue is accepted and used for designing programs that include excessive, potentially dangerous volumes of high-intensity resistance exercise. There is no evidence examining acute fatigue and neuromuscular responses throughout multiple sets of moderate-to-high intensity resistance exercise. Fifteen resistance-trained male subjects performed a single exercise session using 8 sets of Bulgarian split squats performed at 75% maximal force output. Maximal force output (N) was measured after every set of repetitions. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis was monitored during all force trials and exercise repetitions. Repetitions per set decreased from the first to the third set (p < 0.001). Maximal force output decreased from preexercise to set 4 (p < 0.001). Electromyographic amplitudes during exercise did not change. Secondary subgroup analysis was performed based on the presence, or not, of a fatigue plateau (<5% reductions in maximal force output in subsequent sets). Nine participants exhibited a fatigue plateau, and 6 did not. Participants who plateaued performed less first-set repetitions, accrued less total volume, and did not exhibit increases in EMG amplitudes during exercise. Initial strength levels and neuromuscular demand of the exercise was the same between the subgroups. These data suggest that there are individual differences in the training session responses when prescribing based off a percentage of maximal strength. When plateaus in fatigue and repetitions per set are reached, subsequent sets are not likely to induce greater fatigue and muscle activation. High-volume resistance exercise should be carefully prescribed on an individual basis, with intrasession technique and training responsiveness continually monitored.
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The effect of pH on fatigue during submaximal isometric contractions of the human calf muscle.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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This study examined whether changes in pH throughout the physiologic range would have a differential effect on central and peripheral factors associated with fatigue and force production during submaximal lower limb isometric exercise to task failure.
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Lower hamstring extensibility in men compared to women is explained by differences in stretch tolerance.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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This study examined whether passive hamstring tissue stiffness and/or stretch tolerance explain the relationship between sex and hamstring extensibility.
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Hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a simulated soccer match.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development.
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The differential effect of metabolic alkalosis on maximum force and rate of force development during repeated, high-intensity cycling.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (Fmax) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFDmax) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. Fmax declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P < 0.006]. RFDmax also declined in both trials; however, a differential effect persisted between the ALK and PLA conditions. A main effect of condition was observed across the performance time period, with RFDmax on average higher during ALK (ALK: 8,729 ± 1,169 N/s; PLA: 7,691 ± 1,526 N/s; mean difference between conditions 1,038 ± 451 N/s, 95% CI = 17-2,059 N/s; P < 0.048). These results demonstrate a differential effect of alkalosis on maximum force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.
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A comparison of hyperhydration versus ad libitum fluid intake strategies on measures of oxidative stress, thermoregulation, and performance.
Res Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Dehydration has been shown to augment cellular stress. Glycerol hyperhydration can delay dehydration, which may decrease the level of pre- and post-exercise oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the effects of glycerol (G) or water (W) hyperhydration with no hyperhydration (C) on oxidative stress, thermoregulation, and cycle performance. Seven trained males consumed 1.2 g of glycerol·kg?¹ body mass (BM) in 26 ml·kg?¹ BM water or equal volume water to achieve hyperhydration followed by a 90 min time trial. Total glutathione increased post exercise (PE) in all trials (p < 0.01), while oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05) and protein carbonyl concentrations (p < 0.001) were increased PE for the C trial only. Mean body temperature and heart rate increased with exercise but were not different between interventions. Total distance covered and power outputs were not different between interventions. Fluid intake attenuated oxidative stress but did not enhance thermoregulation or performance.
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The effect of carbohydrate and marine peptide hydrolysate co-ingestion on endurance exercise metabolism and performance.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of introducing a fish protein hydrolysate (PEP) concurrently with carbohydrate (CHO) and whey protein (PRO) on endurance exercise metabolism and performance. METHODS: In a randomised, double blind crossover design, 12 male volunteers completed an initial familiarisation followed by three experimental trials. The trials consisted of a 90 min cycle task corresponding to 50% of predetermined maximum power output, followed by a 5 km time trial (TT). At 15 min intervals during the 90 min cycle task, participants consumed 180 ml of CHO (67 g.hr-1 of maltodextrin), CHO-PRO (53.1 g.hr of CHO, 13.6 g.hr-1 of whey protein) or CHO-PRO-PEP (53.1 g.hr-1 of CHO, 11 g.hr-1 of whey protein and 2.4 g.hr-1of hydrolyzed marine peptides).Results and conclusions: During the 90 min cycle task, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in the CHO-PRO condition was significantly higher than CHO (p < 0.001) and CHO-PRO-PEP (p < 0.001). Additionally, mean heart rate for the CHO condition was significantly lower than that for CHO-PRO (p = 0.021). Time-to-complete the 5 km TT was not significantly different between conditions (m +/- SD: 456 +/- 16, 456 +/- 18 and 455 +/- 21 sec for CHO, CHO-PRO and CHO-PRO-PEP respectively, p = 0.98). Although the addition of hydrolyzed marine peptides appeared to influence metabolism during endurance exercise in the current study, it did not provide an ergogenic benefit as assessed by 5 km TT performance.
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Exercise-induced dehydration with and without environmental heat stress results in increased oxidative stress.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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While in vitro work has revealed that dehydration and hyperthermia can elicit increased cellular and oxidative stress, in vivo research linking dehydration, hyperthermia, and oxidative stress is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise-induced dehydration with and without hyperthermia on oxidative stress. Seven healthy male, trained cyclists (power output (W) at lactate threshold (LT): 199 ± 19 W) completed 90 min of cycling exercise at 95% LT followed by a 5-km time trial (TT) in 4 trials: (i) euhydration in a warm environment (EU-W, control), (ii) dehydration in a warm environment (DE-W), (iii) euhydration in a thermoneutral environment (EU-T), and (iv) dehydration in a thermoneutral environment (DE-T) (W: 33.9 ± 0.9 °C; T: 23.0 ± 1.0 °C). Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) increased significantly postexercise in dehydration trials only (DE-W: p < 0.01, DE-T: p = 0.03), and while not significant, total glutathione (TGSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) tended to increase postexercise in dehydration trials (p = 0.08 for both). Monocyte heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) concentration was increased (p = 0.01) while lymphocyte HSP32 concentration was decreased for all trials (p = 0.02). Exercise-induced dehydration led to an increase in GSSG concentration while maintenance of euhydration attenuated these increases regardless of environmental condition. Additionally, we found evidence of increased cellular stress (measured via HSP) during all trials independent of hydration status and environment. Finally, both 90-min and 5-km TT performances were reduced during only the DE-W trial, likely a result of combined cellular stress, hyperthermia, and dehydration. These findings highlight the importance of fluid consumption during exercise to attenuate thermal and oxidative stress during prolonged exercise in the heat.
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Acute neuromuscular and fatigue responses to the rest-pause method.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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To compare muscle recruitment, maximal force, and rate of force development changes following different resistance exercise protocols with a constant volume-load.
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The effects of Energised Greens™ upon blood acid-base balance during resting conditions.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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The consumption of fresh fruit & vegetable in concentrate form (FVC) have recently become an alternative approach to combating excessive renal acid loads often associated with Western Diets. Additionally, these FVCs have been purported to induce metabolic alkalosis, which perhaps may enhance the blood buffering capacity of an individual. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the acid-base response after ingestion of an acute dose of fruit and vegetable extract (Energised Greens™ (EG), Nottingham, UK) and compare it to a standard, low dose (0.1 g·kg-1) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).
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The accuracy of the electrocardiogram during exercise stress test based on heart size.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Multiple studies have shown that the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) is less accurate for predicting ischemia, especially in women, and there is additional evidence to suggest that heart size may affect its diagnostic accuracy.
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The effects of a constant sprint-to-rest ratio and recovery mode on repeated sprint performance.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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It is unclear if a constant sprint-to-rest ratio allows full performance recovery between repeated sprints over different distances. This is important for the development of sprint-training programs. Additionally, there is conflicting evidence on whether active recovery enhances sprint performance. Three repeated sprint protocols were used (22 × 15, 13 × 30, and 8 × 50 m), with each having an active and passive recovery. Each trial was conducted with an initial sprint-to-rest ratio of 1:10. Repeated sprints were analyzed by comparing the first sprint to the last sprint. For the 15-m trials, there were no significant main effects for recovery or time and no significant interaction. For the 30-m trials, there was no main effect for recovery, but a main effect for time (F[1,10] = 15.995, p = 0.003; mean difference = 0.20 seconds, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.09-0.31 seconds, d = 1.4 [large effect]). There was no interaction of recovery and time in the 30-m trials. For the 50-m trials, there was no main effect for recovery, but a main effect for time (F[1,10] = 34.225, p = 0.0002; mean difference = 0.39 seconds, 95% CI = 0.24-0.55 seconds, d = 1.3 [large effect]). There was no interaction of recovery and time in the 50-m trials. The results demonstrate that a 1:10 sprint-to-rest ratio allows full performance recovery between 15-m sprints, but not between sprints of 30 or 50 m, and that recovery mode did not influence repeated sprint performance.
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Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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The purpose of the present investigation was to observe the ergogenic potential of 0.3 g·kg-1 of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in competitive, nonelite swimmers using a repeated swim sprint design that eliminated the technical component of turning. Six male (181.2 ± 7.2 cm; 80.3 ± 11.9 kg; 50.8 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 VO2max) and 8 female (168.8 ± 5.6 cm; 75.3 ± 10.1 kg; 38.8 ± 2.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 VO2max) swimmers completed 2 trial conditions (NaHCO3 [BICARB] and NaCl placebo [PLAC]) implemented in a randomized (counterbalanced), single blind manner, each separated by 1 week. Swimmers were paired according to ability and completed 8, 25-m front crawl maximal effort sprints each separated by 5 seconds. Blood acid-base status was assessed preingestion, pre, and postswim via capillary finger sticks, and total swim time was calculated as a performance measure. Total swim time was significantly decreased in the BICARB compared to PLAC condition (p = 0.04), with the BICARB condition resulting in a 2% decrease in total swim time compared to the PLAC condition (159.4 ± 25.4 vs. 163.2 ± 25.6 seconds; mean difference = 4.4 seconds; 95% confidence interval = 8.7-0.1). Blood analysis revealed significantly elevated blood buffering potential preswim (pH: BICARB = 7.48 ± 0.01, PLAC = 7.41 ± 0.01) along with a significant decrease in extracellular K+ (BICARB = 4.0 ± 0.1 mmol·L-1, PLAC = 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol·L-1). The findings suggest that 0.3 g·kg-1 NaHCO3 ingested 2.5 hours before exercise enhances the blood buffering potential and may positively influence swim performance.
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Incidence of caffeine in serum of patients undergoing dipyridamole myocardial perfusion stress test by an intensive versus routine caffeine history screening.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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The coronary vasodilatory effect of dipyridamole is competitively blocked by caffeine. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the incidence of having detectable serum caffeine and (2) evaluate whether an intensive caffeine history screening strategy was superior to routine history screening before dipyridamole myocardial perfusion imaging. One hundred ninety-four patients who were randomized to an intensive or a routine screening history strategy were prospectively evaluated. Serum caffeine levels were determined in all patients. Outcomes data, including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and history of revascularization, were obtained at 24 months. Nearly 1 in 5 patients (19%) who screened negative by history had detectable serum caffeine. In patients who screened negative by history, there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of caffeine seropositivity between the intensive and routine arms (16% vs 22%, respectively, p = 0.31). The incidence of combined end points of death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization was 22.9% and 7.3% in patients with and without detectable serum caffeine, respectively (p = 0.01). In conclusion, despite initial negative results on screening by history, a considerably high percentage of patients had positive serum caffeine levels. These results do not support the use of an intensive screening strategy. Detectable serum caffeine was associated with a higher incidence of adverse outcomes.
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Variation in basal heat shock protein 70 is correlated to core temperature in human subjects.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2009
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Heat shock proteins are highly conserved proteins and play an important chaperone role in aiding the folding of nascent proteins within cells. The heat shock protein response to various stressors, both in vitro and in vivo, is well characterised. However, basal levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) have not previously been investigated. Monocyte-expressed Hsp70 was determined every 4 h, over a 24 h time period, in 17 healthy male subjects (177 +/- 6.4 cm, 75.7 +/- 10.9 kg, 19.8 +/- 4.3 years) within a temperature and activity controlled environment. Core temperature was measured at 5-min intervals during the 24 h period. Hsp70 showed significant diurnal variation (F = 7.4; p < 0.001), demonstrating peaks at 0900 and 2100 hours, and a nadir at 05.00. Core temperature followed a similar temporal trend (range = 35.96-38.10 degrees C) and was significantly correlated with Hsp70 expression (r(s) = 0.44; p < 0.001). These findings suggest a high responsiveness of Hsp70 expression in monocytes to slight variations in core temperature.
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Evaluation of true maximal oxygen uptake based on a novel set of standardized criteria.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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In this study, criteria are used to identify whether a subject has elicited maximal oxygen uptake. We evaluated the validity of traditional maximal oxygen uptake criteria and propose a novel set of criteria. Twenty athletes completed a maximal oxygen uptake test, consisting of an incremental phase and a subsequent supramaximal phase to exhaustion (verification phase). Traditional and novel maximal oxygen uptake criteria were evaluated. Novel criteria were: oxygen uptake plateau defined as the difference between modelled and actual maximal oxygen uptake >50% of the regression slope of the individual oxygen uptake-workrate relationship; as in the first criterion, but for maximal verification oxygen uptake; and a difference of
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Soccer-specific fatigue and eccentric hamstrings muscle strength.
J Athl Train
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Epidemiologic findings of higher incidences of hamstrings muscle strains during the latter stages of soccer match play have been attributed to fatigue.
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The influence of exogenous carbohydrate provision and pre-exercise alkalosis on the heat shock protein response to prolonged interval cycling.
Amino Acids
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The aim of this study was to observe the intracellular heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) response to prolonged interval cycling following the ingestion of carbohydrates (CHO) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)). Six recreationally active males (mean ± SD; age 23.2 ± 2.9 years, height 179.5 ± 5.5 cm, body mass 76.5 ± 6.8 kg, and peak power output 315 ± 36 W) volunteered to complete a 90 min interval cycling exercise on four occasions. The trials were completed in a random and blinded manner following ingestion of either: placebo and an artificial sweetener (P-P), NaHCO(3) and sweetener (B-P), placebo and CHO (P-CHO), and NaHCO(3) and CHO (B-CHO). Both HSP72 and HSP32 were significantly increased in monocytes and lymphocytes from 45 min post-exercise (p ? 0.039), with strong relationships between both cell types (HSP72, r = 0.83; HSP32, r = 0.89). Exogenous CHO had no influence on either HSP72 or HSP32, but the ingestion of NaHCO(3) significantly attenuated HSP32 in monocytes and lymphocytes (p ? 0.042). In conclusion, the intracellular stress protein response to 90 min interval exercise is closely related in monocytes and lymphocytes, and HSP32 appears to be attenuated with a pre-exercise alkalosis.
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Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
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As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame), and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise.
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The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.
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Practical recommendations for coaches and athletes: a meta-analysis of sodium bicarbonate use for athletic performance.
J Strength Cond Res
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Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a buffering agent that is suggested to improve performance by promoting the efflux of hydrogen ions from working cells and tissues. Research surrounding its efficacy as an ergogenic aid is conflicting, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. This study performed a meta-analysis of relevant research articles to allow the development of concise practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. The overall effect size for the influence of NaHCO3 on performance was moderate, and was significantly lower for specifically trained as opposed to recreationally trained participants.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.