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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 deficiency and ketone utilization.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Ketoacidosis is a potentially lethal condition caused by the imbalance between hepatic production and extrahepatic utilization of ketone bodies. We performed exome sequencing in a patient with recurrent, severe ketoacidosis and identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SLC16A1, also called MCT1). Genetic analysis in 96 patients suspected of having ketolytic defects yielded seven additional inactivating mutations in MCT1, both homozygous and heterozygous. Mutational status was found to be correlated with ketoacidosis severity, MCT1 protein levels, and transport capacity. Thus, MCT1 deficiency is a novel cause of profound ketoacidosis; the present work suggests that MCT1-mediated ketone-body transport is needed to maintain acid-base balance.
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Functional assessment of potential splice site variants in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Interpretation of genetic screening results in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) often is difficult. Pathogenicity of variants with uncertain clinical significance may be predicted by software algorithms. However, functional assessment can unambiguously demonstrate the effect of such variants.
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Targeted phosphotyrosine profiling of glycoprotein VI signaling implicates oligophrenin-1 in platelet filopodia formation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Platelet adhesion to subendothelial collagen is dependent on the integrin ?2?1 and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptors. The major signaling routes in collagen-dependent platelet activation are outlined; however, crucial detailed knowledge of the actual phosphorylation events mediating them is still limited. Here, we explore phosphotyrosine signaling events downstream of GPVI with site-specific detail.
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: pathogenic desmosome mutations in index-patients predict outcome of family screening: Dutch arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy genotype-phenotype follow-up study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease with incomplete penetrance and variable expression. Causative mutations in genes encoding 5 desmosomal proteins are found in ?50% of ARVD/C index patients. Previous genotype-phenotype relation studies involved mainly overt ARVD/C index patients, so follow-up data on relatives are scarce.
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Systematic review of pregnancy in women with inherited cardiomyopathies.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Pregnancy exposes women with inherited cardiomyopathies to increased risk for heart failure and arrhythmias. In this paper, we review the clinical course and management of pregnant women with the following inherited cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. We also discuss peripartum cardiomyopathy. Pregnancy is generally well tolerated in asymptomatic patients with inherited cardiomyopathies. However, worsening of the clinical condition can occur during pregnancy, despite intensive medical treatment. If prior cardiac events, poor functional class (New York Heart Association class III or IV), or advanced left ventricular systolic dysfunction are present, the risk of maternal cardiac complications during pregnancy are markedly increased. The postpartum condition is generally no worse than the antepartum condition, but no long-term follow-up studies have been reported. Preconception evaluation and counselling are important aspects of managing women with inherited cardiomyopathies. Genetic counselling and DNA testing should be offered to all women following the diagnosis of an inherited cardiomyopathy.
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Manifest disease, risk factors for sudden cardiac death, and cardiac events in a large nationwide cohort of predictively tested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers: determining the best cardiological screening strategy.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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We investigated the presence of a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD), and cardiac events during follow-up in predictively tested-not known to have a clinical diagnosis of HCM before the DNA test-carriers of a sarcomeric gene mutation and associations with age and gender to determine the best cardiological screening strategy.
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Mutation update for the PORCN gene.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Mutations in the PORCN gene were first identified in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome patients in 2007. Since then, several reports have been published describing a large variety of genetic defects resulting in the Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, and mutations or deletions were also reported in angioma serpiginosum, the pentalogy of Cantrell and Limb-Body Wall Complex. Here we present a review of the published mutations in the PORCN gene to date and report on seven new mutations together with the corresponding clinical data. Based on the review we have created a Web-based locus-specific database that lists all identified variants and allows the inclusion of future reports. The database is based on the Leiden Open (source) Variation Database (LOVD) software, and is accessible online at http://www.lovd.nl/porcn. At present, the database contains 106 variants, representing 68 different mutations, scattered along the whole coding sequence of the PORCN gene, and 12 large gene rearrangements, which brings up to 80 the number of unique mutations identified in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome patients.
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Cardiogenetic screening of first-degree relatives after sudden cardiac death in the young: a population-based approach.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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To investigate the yield of cardiogenetic screening of relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) and sudden unexplained death (SUD) victims in a population-based setting.
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UBE2A deficiency syndrome: Mild to severe intellectual disability accompanied by seizures, absent speech, urogenital, and skin anomalies in male patients.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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We describe three patients with a comparable deletion encompassing SLC25A43, SLC25A5, CXorf56, UBE2A, NKRF, and two non-coding RNA genes, U1 and LOC100303728. Moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), psychomotor retardation, severely impaired/absent speech, seizures, and urogenital anomalies were present in all three patients. Facial dysmorphisms include ocular hypertelorism, synophrys, and a depressed nasal bridge. These clinical features overlap with those described in two patients from a family with a similar deletion at Xq24 that also includes UBE2A, and in several patients of Brazilian and Polish families with point mutations in UBE2A. Notably, all five patients with an Xq24 deletion have ventricular septal defects that are not present in patients with a point mutation, which might be attributed to the deletion of SLC25A5. Taken together, the UBE2A deficiency syndrome in male patients with a mutation in or a deletion of UBE2A is characterized by ID, absent speech, seizures, urogenital anomalies, frequently including a small penis, and skin abnormalities, which include generalized hirsutism, low posterior hairline, myxedematous appearance, widely spaced nipples, and hair whorls. Facial dysmorphisms include a wide face, a depressed nasal bridge, a large mouth with downturned corners, thin vermilion, and a short, broad neck.
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MLL2 mutation spectrum in 45 patients with Kabuki syndrome.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Kabuki Syndrome (KS) is a rare syndrome characterized by intellectual disability and multiple congenital abnormalities, in particular a distinct dysmorphic facial appearance. KS is caused by mutations in the MLL2 gene, encoding an H3K4 histone methyl transferase which acts as an epigenetic transcriptional activator during growth and development. Direct sequencing of all 54 exons of the MLL2 gene in 45 clinically well-defined KS patients identified 34 (75.6%) different mutations. One mutation has been described previously, all others are novel. Clinically, all KS patients were sporadic, and mutations were de novo for all 27 families for which both parents were available. We detected nonsense (n=11), frameshift (n=17), splice site (n=4) and missense (n=2) mutations, predicting a high frequency of absent or non-functional MLL2 protein. Interestingly, both missense mutations located in the C-terminal conserved functional domains of the protein. Phenotypically our study indicated a statistically significant difference in the presence of a distinct facial appearance (p=0.0143) and growth retardation (p=0.0040) when comparing KS patients with an MLL2 mutation compared to patients without a mutation. Our data double the number of MLL2 mutations in KS reported so far and widen the spectrum of MLL2 mutations and disease mechanisms in KS.
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The importance of genetic counseling, DNA diagnostics, and cardiologic family screening in left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Left ventricular (LV) noncompaction (LVNC) is a distinct cardiomyopathy featuring a thickened bilayered LV wall consisting of a thick endocardial layer with prominent intertrabecular recesses with a thin, compact epicardial layer. Similar to hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy, LVNC is genetically heterogeneous and was recently associated with mutations in sarcomere genes. To contribute to the genetic classification for LVNC, a systematic cardiological family study was performed in a cohort of 58 consecutively diagnosed and molecularly screened patients with isolated LVNC (49 adults and 9 children).
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Four patients with speech delay, seizures and variable corpus callosum thickness sharing a 0.440 Mb deletion in region 1q44 containing the HNRPU gene.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Structural genome aberrations are frequently associated with highly variable congenital phenotypes involving mental retardation and developmental delay. Although some of these aberrations may result in recognizable phenotypes, a high degree of phenotypic variability often complicates a comprehensive clinical and genetic diagnosis. We describe four patients with overlapping deletions in chromosomal region 1q44, who show developmental delay, in particular of expressive speech, seizures, hypotonia, CNS anomalies, including variable thickness of the abnormal corpus callosum in three of them. High resolution oligonucleotide and SNP array-based segmental aneuploidy profiling showed that these three patients share a 0.440 Mb interstitial deletion, which does not overlap with previously published consensus regions of 1q44 deletions. Two copies of AKT3 and ZNF238, two previously proposed dosage sensitive candidate genes for microcephaly and agenesis of the corpus callosum, were retained in two of our patients. The deletion shared by our patients encompassed the FAM36A, HNRPU, EFCAB2 and KIF26B genes. Since HNRPU is involved in the regulation of embryonic brain development, this represents a novel plausible candidate gene for the combination of developmental delay, speech delay, hypotonia, hypo- or agenesis of the corpus callosum, and seizures in patients with 1q44 deletions. Since only one of the two patients with deletions including the ZNF124 gene showed a vermis hypoplasia, mere hemizygosity for this gene is not sufficient to cause this anomaly. Moreover, to reconcile the variability in the corpus callosum thickness, additional mechanisms, such as unmasking of hemizygous mutations, position effects and possible interactions with other loci need consideration.
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy diagnostic task force criteria: impact of new task force criteria.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) Diagnostic Task Force Criteria (TFC) proposed in 1994 are highly specific but lack sensitivity. A new international task force modified criteria to improve diagnostic yield. A comparison of diagnosis by 1994 TFC versus newly proposed criteria in 3 patient groups was conducted.
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Desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2 mutations in dutch arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomypathy patients: results from a multicenter study.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and type of mutations in the major desmosomal genes, Plakophilin-2 (PKP2), Desmoglein-2 (DSG2), and Desmocollin-2 (DSC2), in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) patients. We also aimed to distinguish relevant clinical and ECG parameters.
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New ECG criteria in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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Desmosomal changes, electric uncoupling, and surviving myocardial bundles in fibrofatty tissue characterize arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). Resultant activation delay is pivotal for reentry and thereby ventricular tachycardia (VT). Current task force criteria (TFC) for diagnosis have limited sensitivity. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of additional criteria on activation delay and VT to improve identification of affected individuals.
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A genetic variants database for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is a hereditary cardiomyopathy characterized by fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. ARVD/C is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins. However, the pathogenicity of variants is not always clear. Therefore, we created an online database (www.arvcdatabase.info), providing information on variants in ARVD/C-associated genes. We searched the literature using ARVD/C and its underlying genes as search terms. From the selected papers and our unpublished data, we collected details on the type of mutation and information provided at the protein level. A "details page" contains clinical data and references. To aid the interpretation of missense mutations, we provide data from in silico prediction methods. In May 2009 the database contained 481 variants in eight genes. A total of 144 variants are considered pathogenic, 73 are unknown/unclassified, and 264 have no known pathogenicity. The database was converted into the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD) format, a gene-centered collection of DNA variations. The ARVD/C database will be useful for both researchers and clinicians. It can be searched to determine if variants have been published and whether they are considered pathogenic. External users are invited to add information to improve the quantity and quality of the data entered.
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Dominant-negative ALK2 allele associates with congenital heart defects.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Serious congenital heart defects occur as a result of improper atrioventricular septum (AVS) development during embryogenesis. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of AVS development, few genetic lesions have been identified that are responsible for AVS-associated congenital heart defects.
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Absence of connexin 40 gene polymorphism, as a marker of undetected atrial fibrillation in patients with unexplained cerebral ischemic events.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of cerebral infarction. Idiopathic AF is strongly associated with the human minor connexin 40 (Cx40) promotor polymorphism. We examined the prevalence of the minor Cx40 allele in patients with cerebral ischemia and no other cardiovascular disease (CVD), as an indication of underlying idiopathic AF.
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Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome facial dysmorphic features in a patient with a terminal 4p16.3 deletion telomeric to the WHSCR and WHSCR 2 regions.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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We report on a patient with developmental delay and several facial characteristics reminiscent of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, who carries a terminal 4p16.3 deletion of minimally 1.691 Mb and maximally 1.698 Mb. This deletion contains the FGFRL1 gene, but does not include the WHSC1 gene. Given its expression pattern and its involvement in bone and cartilage formation during embryonic development, the FGFRL1 gene represents a plausible candidate gene for part of the facial characteristics of Wolf-Hirshhorn syndrome in 4p16.3 deletion patients.
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Remodeling of the cardiac sodium channel, connexin43, and plakoglobin at the intercalated disk in patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.
Heart Rhythm
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Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is closely associated with desmosomal mutations in a majority of patients. Arrhythmogenesis in patients with AC is likely related to remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and increased levels of fibrosis. Recently, using experimental models, we also identified sodium channel dysfunction secondary to desmosomal dysfunction.
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Clinical and genetic characterization of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy caused by a plakophilin-2 splice mutation.
Cardiology
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is characterized by fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes. In around 50% of index patients, a genetic predisposition is demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to examine a plakophilin-2 (PKP2) splice site mutation, c.2489+4A>C, identified in 4 separately ascertained Dutch ARVD/C families.
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Incomplete segregation of MYH11 variants with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections and patent ductus arteriosus.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
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Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) is a serious condition with high morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 20% of non-syndromic TAAD cases are inherited in an autosomal-dominant pattern with variable expression and reduced penetrance. Mutations in myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11), one of several identified TAAD genes, were shown to simultaneously cause TAAD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We identified two large Dutch families with TAAD/PDA and detected two different novel heterozygote MYH11 variants in the probands. These variants, a heterozygote missense variant and a heterozygote in-frame deletion, were predicted to have damaging effects on protein structure and function. However, these novel alterations did not segregate with the TAAD/PDA in 3 out of 11 cases in family TAAD01 and in 2 out of 6 cases of family TAAD02. No mutation was detected in other known TAAD genes. Thus, it is expected that within these families other genetic factors contribute to the disease either by themselves or by interacting with the MYH11 variants. Such an oligogenic model for TAAD would explain the variable onset and progression of the disorder and its reduced penetrance in general. We conclude that in familial TAAD/PDA with an MYH11 variant in the index case caution should be exercised upon counseling family members. Specialized surveillance should still be offered to the non-carriers to prevent catastrophic aortic dissections or ruptures. Furthermore, our study underscores that segregation analysis remains very important in clinical genetics. Prediction programs and mutation evaluation algorithms need to be interpreted with caution.
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Dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 cause Cantú syndrome.
Nat. Genet.
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Cantú syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, osteochondrodysplasia and cardiac defects. By using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in ABCC9. Subsequently, we discovered novel dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 in 14 of the 16 individuals with Cantú syndrome examined. The ABCC9 protein is part of an ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channel that couples the metabolic state of a cell with its electrical activity. All mutations altered amino acids in or close to the transmembrane domains of ABCC9. Using electrophysiological measurements, we show that mutations in ABCC9 reduce the ATP-mediated potassium channel inhibition, resulting in channel opening. Moreover, similarities between the phenotype of individuals with Cantú syndrome and side effects from the K(ATP) channel agonist minoxidil indicate that the mutations in ABCC9 result in channel opening. Given the availability of ABCC9 antagonists, our findings may have direct implications for the treatment of individuals with Cantú syndrome.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.