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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Use and limits of (1-3)-?-d-glucan assay (Fungitell), compared to galactomannan determination (Platelia Aspergillus), for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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This study was undertaken to examine the performance of the Fungitell ?-glucan (BG) assay, to compare it with that of the galactomannan (GM) test for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancies, and to examine the rates of false-positive BG and GM test results due to ?-lactam antibiotics among sera of patients with Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia and selected sera with false-positive results from the GM test. Serum samples from 105 patients with proven (n = 14) or probable (n = 91) IA, 97 hematology patients at risk for invasive fungal infections, 50 healthy blood donors, and 60 patients with bacteremia were used to study the sensitivities and specificities of the assays. The GM test was more specific than the BG assay (97% versus 82%, respectively; P = 0.0001) and the BG assay was more sensitive than the GM test (81% versus 49%, respectively; P < 0.0001) for IA diagnosis. The study of 49 separate batches of ?-lactam antibiotics showed high and very similar rates of false-positive results for the GM and BG assays (29 and 33%, respectively; P = 0.82) but with an almost complete lack of concordance between the 2 assays. For patients with bacteremia, the rate of false-positive results was much higher with the BG test than with the GM test (37% versus 2%, respectively; P < 0.0001), with no significant difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteremia. In conclusion, the BG test may be useful for the diagnosis of IA because of its high sensitivity in comparison with the GM test, but the overall benefit of this assay remains limited because of its inadequate specificity and its cost.
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Performance of the BioPlex 2200 flow immunoassay in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The BioPlex 2200 automated analyzer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a recently developed multiplex analyzer that enables the detection of anti-Toxoplasma, -rubella, and -cytomegalovirus antibodies in the same assay. The aim of this study was to compare this new technology (using the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG/IgM kit) in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis (acute, chronic, or congenital infections and cases with discrepant results) to the technologies used in our routine practice, i.e., the Platelia IgG/IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and the Toxo-Screen direct agglutination assay (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Overall, most cases of false-positive/negative results obtained with the Platelia IgG or Toxo-Screen assay were corrected by the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG (87.5%). Furthermore, the analysis of 35 sequences of sera showed a trend toward a more rapid decrease of IgM titers by BioPlex 2200 than by Platelia. These results for IgM detection can be explained by a weaker detection of residual IgM. Indeed, among 23 serum samples from patients with probable past infection with long-lasting IgM (Platelia M positive and IgG avidity index, ?0.5), the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma IgM assay was positive for only 11 serum samples. In our panel of critical cases comprising 156 serum and 6 cord blood samples from 103 patients with acute, chronic, or congenital infection, the BioPlex 2200 IgG assay was a sensitive (97.8%) and specific (91.3%) method for IgG detection. The high specificity (97.4%) of IgM detection combined with the shorter kinetics of IgM titers may considerably reduce the number of residual IgM detections, thus yielding more precise diagnoses of acute infections.
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Bayesian development of a dose-response model for Aspergillus fumigatus and invasive aspergillosis.
Risk Anal.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major cause of mortality in immunocompromized hosts, most often consecutive to the inhalation of spores of Aspergillus. However, the relationship between Aspergillus concentration in the air and probability of IA is not quantitatively known. In this study, this relationship was examined in a murine model of IA. Immunosuppressed Balb/c mice were exposed for 60 minutes at day 0 to an aerosol of A. fumigatus spores (Af293 strain). At day 10, IA was assessed in mice by quantitative culture of the lungs and galactomannan dosage. Fifteen separate nebulizations with varying spore concentrations were performed. Rates of IA ranged from 0% to 100% according to spore concentrations. The dose-response relationship between probability of infection and spore exposure was approximated using the exponential model and the more flexible beta-Poisson model. Prior distributions of the parameters of the models were proposed then updated with data in a Bayesian framework. Both models yielded close median dose-responses of the posterior distributions for the main parameter of the model, but with different dispersions, either when the exposure dose was the concentration in the nebulized suspension or was the estimated quantity of spores inhaled by a mouse during the experiment. The median quantity of inhaled spores that infected 50% of mice was estimated at 1.8?×?10(4) and 3.2?×?10(4) viable spores in the exponential and beta-Poisson models, respectively. This study provides dose-response parameters for quantitative assessment of the relationship between airborne exposure to the reference A. fumigatus strain and probability of IA in immunocompromized hosts.
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Evidence of airborne excretion of Pneumocystis carinii during infection in immunocompetent rats. Lung involvement and antibody response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To better understand the role of immunocompetent hosts in the diffusion of Pneumocystis in the environment, airborne shedding of Pneumocystis carinii in the surrounding air of experimentally infected Sprague Dawley rats was quantified by means of a real-time PCR assay, in parallel with the kinetics of P. carinii loads in lungs and specific serum antibody titres. Pneumocystis-free Sprague Dawley rats were intratracheally inoculated at day 0 (d0) and then followed for 60 days. P. carinii DNA was detected in lungs until d29 in two separate experiments and thereafter remained undetectable. A transient air excretion of Pneumocystis DNA was observed between d14 and d22 in the first experiment and between d9 and d19 in the second experiment; it was related to the peak of infection in lungs. IgM and IgG anti-P. carinii antibody increase preceded clearance of P. carinii in the lungs and cessation of airborne excretion. In rats receiving a second challenge 3 months after the first inoculation, Pneumocystis was only detected at a low level in the lungs of 2 of 3 rats at d2 post challenge and was never detected in air samples. Anti-Pneumocystis antibody determinations showed a typical secondary IgG antibody response. This study provides the first direct evidence that immunocompetent hosts can excrete Pneumocystis following a primary acquired infection. Lung infection was apparently controlled by the immune response since fungal burdens decreased to become undetectable as specific antibodies reached high titres in serum. This immune response was apparently protective against reinfection 3 months later.
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Prospective evaluation of clinical and biological markers to predict the outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in hematological patients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Early evaluation of treatment efficacy in invasive aspergillosis (IA), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients, remains a challenge. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the performance of different markers in predicting the outcome of patients with IA. Both clinical and biological criteria were assessed 7, 14, 21, and 45 days after inclusion in the study, and mortality was assessed at day 60. The association between baseline data and their evolution and the day 45 response to treatment was analyzed. A total of 57 patients (4 with proven, 44 with probable, and 9 with possible aspergillosis according to the revised EORTC/MSG [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group] definitions) were included. At day 45, 30 patients (53%) were determined to be responders, 25 (44%) were nonresponders, and 2 were not able to be evaluated. Twenty patients died within the 60 days of follow-up. We found that a poor day 45 outcome was associated with patients who had high baseline serum galactomannan (GM) antigen levels and those receiving steroids at the time of IA. A consistently negative serum GM index was associated with a good outcome, and the day 14 clinical evaluation was predictive of the day 45 outcome. No association was found between Aspergillus antibodies or DNA detection and patients outcome. We conclude that the GM index value at diagnosis of IA, GM index kinetics, and clinical evaluation at day 14 are good markers for predicting the outcome of patients with IA and should be taken into account for adapting antifungal treatment.
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Sequential air-liquid exposure of human respiratory cells to chemical and biological pollutants.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Although indoor air has wide ranging effects on human health, the effects of environmental, chemical, and biological pollutants on the respiratory system are not fully understood. In order to clarify the health effects of airborne pollutant exposure, it would appear that toxicological evidence is needed to complement epidemiological observations to support by providing biological plausibility. The aim of this study is to manage air-liquid successive exposures to different pollutants such as a chemical pollutant (formaldehyde--FA), and a biological contaminant (Aspergillus fumigatus--Asp) using our in vitro model. Human alveolar cells (A549) were exposed at the air-liquid interface in an exposure module, firstly to an environmental level of FA (50 ?g/m³) (or air) for 30 min, and 14 h later to Asp (7×10? spores/m³) (or air) for 30 min. After 10 h post-incubation, cellular viability was assessed. Inflammation biomarkers (IL-8, MCP-1) were assayed by ELISA and by RT-PCR. Whatever the conditions, no cytotoxic effect was observed. FA followed by air exposure did not induce modification of production and expression of cytokines, confirming results with a unique FA exposure. Air followed by Asp exposure tended to induce IL-8 expression whereas IL-8 production tended to increase after FA and Asp exposure compared to FA and air exposure. The reaction of cells to sequential exposure to FA and Asp was moderate. These results show the feasibility of our model for sequential exposures to different types of environmental pollutants, allowing using it for preliminary assessment of cellular activity modification induced by airborne contaminants.
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Dynamics of Pneumocystis carinii air shedding during experimental pneumocystosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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To better understand the diffusion of Pneumocystis in the environment, airborne shedding of Pneumocystis carinii in the surrounding air of experimentally infected rats was quantified by means of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, in parallel with the kinetics of P. carinii loads in their lungs. P. carinii DNA was detected in the air 1 week after infection and increased until 4-5 weeks after infection before stabilizing. A significant correlation was shown between lung burdens and the corresponding airborne levels, suggesting the possibility of estimating the fungal lung involvement through quantification of Pneumocystis in the exhaled air.
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Quantification and spread of Pneumocystis jirovecii in the surrounding air of patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis has been demonstrated in animal models and is highly probable in humans. However, information concerning burdens of Pneumocystis jirovecii (human-derived Pneumocystis) in exhaled air from infected patients is lacking. Our objective is to evaluate P. jirovecii air diffusion in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.
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Disseminated infection with a new genovar of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a renal transplant recipient.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Disseminated microsporidiosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Here, we report about a previously undescribed genovar of Encephalitozoon cuniculi causing disseminated infection in a non-HIV-infected renal transplant recipient. Disseminated microsporidiosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic fever in renal allograft recipients, even those without urinary symptoms.
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Genotype of 88 Toxoplasma gondii isolates associated with toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients and correlation with clinical findings.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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We report the genotyping analysis of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in samples collected from 88 immunocompromised patients, along with clinical and epidemiological data. Most of these samples were collected in France during the current decade by the Toxoplasma Biological Resource Center. Lack of specific anti-Toxoplasma treatment, pulmonary toxoplasmosis, and involvement of multiple organs were the 3 main risk factors associated with death for this patient group. Genotyping results with 6 microsatellite markers showed that type II isolates were predominant among patients who acquired toxoplasmic infection in Europe. Non-type II isolates included 13 different genotypes and were mainly collected from patients who acquired toxoplasmosis outside Europe. Type III was the second most common genotype recovered from patients, whereas type I was rare in our population. Three nonarchetypal genotypes were repeatedly recovered from different patients who acquired the infection in sub-Saharan Africa (genotypes Africa 1 and Africa 2) and in the French West Indies (genotype Caribbean 1). The distribution of genotypes (type II vs. non-type II) was not significantly different when patients were stratified by underlying cause of immunosuppression, site of infection, or outcome. We conclude that in immunocompromised patients, host factors are much more involved than parasite factors in patients resistance or susceptibility to toxoplasmosis.
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Polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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Pneumocystis jiroveci polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has higher sensitivity than conventional stains but cannot distinguish colonization from infection.
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Efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B for prophylaxis of acute or reactivation models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
Mycoses
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The efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis for prevention of invasive aspergillosis (IA) may depend on whether IA results from recent inhalation of spores or reactivation of latent colonisation. Compare the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for prophylaxis in acute and reactivation models of IA. In the acute model, mice immunosuppressed from day 0 were challenged at day 3 with an aerosol of Aspergillus fumigatus. LAmB (15?mg?kg(-1) ) was administered at day 0 or at challenge. In the reactivation model, naïve mice exposed to A. fumigatus remained untreated until clearance of spores from the lungs, then immunosuppressed to induce reactivation. A single LAmB dose was administered at start of immunosuppression. In the acute model, a single administration of LAmB at start of immunosuppression was not effective, but an additional administration resulted in a significant decrease in lung fungal burden (P?
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Epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients.
Int J Gen Med
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The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, with special emphasis on microsporidia and Cryptosporidium, as well as their association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) symptoms, risk factors, and other digestive parasites. We also wish to determine the molecular biology definitions of the species and genotypes of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in HIV patients.
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Enterocytozoon bieneusi Identification Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in HIV-Infected Humans from Kinshasa Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
J Parasitol Res
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Objective. To determine the prevalence and the genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in stool specimens from HIV patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kinshasa hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Detection of microsporidia including E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis was performed in 242 HIV-infected patients. Typing was based on DNA polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA ITS region of E. bieneusi. PCRRFLP generated with two restriction enzymes (Nla III and Fnu 4HI) in PCR-amplified ITS products for classifying strains into different lineages. The diagnosis performance of the indirect immune-fluorescence-monoclonal antibody (IFI-AcM) was defined in comparison with real-time PCR as the gold standard. Results. Out of 242 HIV-infected patients, using the real-time PCR, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 7.9% (n = 19) among the 19 E. bieneusi, one was coinfected with E. intestinalis. In 19 E. bieneusi persons using PCR-RFLP method, 5 type I strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) and 5 type IV strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) were identified. The sensitivity of IFI-AcM was poor as estimated 42.1%. Conclusion. Despite different PCR methods, there is possible association between HIVinfection, geographic location (France, Cameroun, Democratic Republic of Congo), and the concurrence of type I and type IV strains.
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Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cells counts in France in the combination antiretroviral therapy era.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
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The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically reduced the prevalence of opportunistic infections, however data on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts in the cART era are scarce.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.