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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ganser-like Syndrome After Loss of Psychic Self-activation Syndrome: Psychogenic or Organic?
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Very few data are available on the long-term changes in the cognitive abilities of patients with loss of psychic self-activation syndrome (LPSAS). Here, we present a 25-year follow-up study on a case of LPSAS resulting from bilateral pallidal lesions caused by carbon monoxide intoxication. Typical signs of LPSAS were observed, showing no changes in severity, but Ganser syndrome (GS) gradually developed and worsened during the follow-up period. GS is generally assumed to be a psychogenic syndrome, but an organic etiology has been suspected by the authors of several case reports. Here, atypical features of GS plead against the independence of GS and LPSAS. DaTSCAN and brain 18FDG-PET were performed. Since left hippocampal hypometabolism has been previously described in patients with functional amnesia, it is possible that long periods of mental inactivity may have psychological consequences, but the atypical features of GS also suggest that an organic mechanism may be involved.
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Effect of physical aging on Johari-Goldstein relaxation in La-based bulk metallic glass.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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The influence of physical aging on the ? relaxation in La60Ni15Al25 bulk metallic glass has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy. The amplitude of the ? relaxation (?G?) decreases while its relaxation time (?(?)) increases during aging. We find that, as in organic glasses, the changes of ln?(?(?)) and ln?(?G(max)?) are linearly correlated with ln?(?(?)) = b - a?ln?(G(max)?). This behavior is discussed in term of the asymmetric double-well potential (ADWP) model, with U and ? the energies characterizing the ADWP. It is suggested that during aging the ratio U/? remains approximately constant, with a value close to the coefficient describing the linear correlation between ln?(?(?)) and ln?(G(max)?)(U/? ~ a). Moreover, the evolution versus aging time of ?G(max) can be described by a simple stretched exponential equation giving values of ?(aging) consistent with tan(?) measurements during aging. The very similar behavior of the ? relaxation during aging in metallic glasses and organic material strongly suggests a common nature for this relaxation.
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Akt confers cisplatin chemoresistance in human gynecological carcinoma cells by modulating PPM1D stability.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Ovarian cancer (OVCA) and cervical cancer (CECA) are lethal gynecological malignancies. Cisplatin (CDDP) and platinum derivatives are first line chemotherapeutics and their resistance impedes successful treatment. Understanding the molecular dysregulation underlying chemoresistance is important in developing rational therapeutic strategies. We have established that Protein Phosphatase Magnesium-dependent 1 D (PPM1D) confers CDDP resistance in gynecological cancer cells by deactivating p53. However, whether CDDP regulates intra-cellular PPM1D localization and whether this regulation is different between chemosensitive and chemoresistant cancer cells is unknown. Moreover, whether Akt regulates PPM1D in the context of CDDP resistance has not been studied. To illustrate the role of PPM1D in gynecological cancer cell chemoresistance and its regulation by Akt we have demonstrated that: (a) CDDP induced PPM1D down-regulation through proteasomal degradation in sensitive CECA cells; (b) CDDP induced PPM1D nuclear localization in resistant CECA cells, and nuclear exclusion in sensitive CECA cells and OVCA xenografts; (c) Over-expression of active Akt in sensitive CECA cells stabilized PPM1D content through inhibition of CDDP-induced PPM1D down-regulation; (d) Inhibition of Akt activity in resistant OVCA cells leads to decreased PPM1D stability and CDDP-induced down-regulation in resistant CECA cells; and (e) PPM1D is highly expressed in human ovarian tumor subtypes and in a tissue microarray panel of human ovarian tumors. In conclusion, we have established that PPM1D plays an important role in promoting CDDP resistance and as a novel downstream target of Akt, PPM1D mediates its action in conferring CDDP resistance in gynecological cancer cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Responsiveness of magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures over 2.7 years.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To compare the responsiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived measures of knee osteoarthritis over 2.7 years.
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[For us, being full citizens means…].
Sante Ment Que
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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One of the four main chapters of the consultation document proposed by the Québec Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux (Health and Social Services), in preparation for the National Forum on the Mental Health Action Plan 2014-2020, is dedicated to the full exercise of citizenship. This paper reports the dialogue that took place between the CEO of a university mental health institute and a group of service users, in order to participate in the consultation process regarding the full exercise of citizenship.
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[Public participation and civic participation of service users in relation to the Mental Health Action Plan 2005-2010: their spokesperson function].
Sante Ment Que
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Among the guiding principles of the Mental Health Action Plan 2005-2010 (MHAP) of the Quebec Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux (Health and Social Services) is the recognition that persons who use mental health services (consumers) can be active agents of their own individual and collective recovery journey. In accordance with this principle, the MHAP called for greater participation of consumers in local, regional and national decision-making bodies within the network of health and social services in Quebec.
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History of knee injury and MRI-assessed knee structures in middle- and older-aged adults: a cross-sectional study.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the associations between history of knee injury and knee structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included two population-based samples: the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC) study (n?=?430; mean age, 63.0 years; range, 51-79 years; 51 % female) and the Offspring study (n?=?372; mean age, 45.0 years; range, 26-61 years; 57.5 % female). In both studies, 1.5 T MRI scans of the right knee were performed to measure bone marrow lesions (BMLs), cartilage volume, tibial bone area, cartilage defects and meniscal pathology. History of knee injury was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The association between knee injury and knee structure was determined using multiple linear and log binomial regression models. Nineteen percent of the middle-aged and 12 % of the older adults reported a history of knee injury. In middle-aged adults, BML presence (prevalence ratio (PR)?=?1.6 (95 % CI, 1.2; 2.1)), tibial bone area (difference of means (DM)?=?+86 (+23, +149)) and meniscal extrusion presence (PR?=?2.7 (1.1, 6.8)) were significantly higher in those with knee injury. In older adults, cartilage defect presence (PR?=?1.3 (1.0, 1.7)), lateral (DM?=?-265 (-439, -92)) and total tibial (DM?=?-325 (-600, -51)) cartilage volume, BML presence (PR?=?1.4 (1.0, 1.9)) and tibial bone area (DM?=?+140 (+19, +260)) were significantly associated with knee injury. Meniscal tears showed no significant associations in either cohorts. The association between knee injury and MRI-assessed structural pathology in the knee joint is moderate and appears to be stronger in older adults compared to middle-aged adults.
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Doxycycline Attenuates Renal Injury in a Swine Model of Neonatal Hypoxia-Reoxygenation.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Acute kidney injury in asphyxiated neonates is common. The renal protective effects of doxycycline, a known matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, have been demonstrated in rat ischemic-reperfusion models of injury. These effects have not been tested in large animal models designed to reflect true clinical scenarios of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R).
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Clinical characteristics and service use of incarcerated males with severe mental disorders: a comparative case-control study with patients found not criminally responsible.
Issues Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Since the drop in the bed capacity of civil psychiatric hospitals, an increase in the bed capacity of forensic psychiatric care and prison units has been reported in the United States and Europe. However, in Canada, a decrease in the number of people with severe mental illness (SMI) during the last two decades in penitentiaries has been reported. At the same time, an increase in individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) was observed in forensic hospitals. The aim of this study is to compare incarcerated severely mentally ill (I-SMI) individuals with forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals in terms of their clinical profiles and service use in the province of Quebec (Canada). A case-control study design was selected using a sample of 44 I-SMI individuals and 59 forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. Important findings include the following: I-SMI persons had less schooling; they more often reported suicide attempts and violent and non-violent crimes; and they had a higher level of comorbidity involving Cluster B personality disorders and substance-use disorders. Forensic-hospitalized SMI persons were more likely to have been receiving psychiatric follow-up before hospitalization. The final logistic regression model showed that lifetime suicide attempts, non-violent crimes, and psychopathic traits were higher among I-SMI individuals than among forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. In contrast, receiving regular psychiatric follow-up was associated with forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. Differences in psychopathological characteristics and the use of mental health services were found for I-SMI persons. More research is needed to determine which new initiatives might be efficacious in addressing the mental health needs of I-SMI individuals.
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Automatic labeling of vertebral levels using a robust template-based approach.
Int J Biomed Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Context. MRI of the spinal cord provides a variety of biomarkers sensitive to white matter integrity and neuronal function. Current processing methods are based on manual labeling of vertebral levels, which is time consuming and prone to user bias. Although several methods for automatic labeling have been published; they are not robust towards image contrast or towards susceptibility-related artifacts. Methods. Intervertebral disks are detected from the 3D analysis of the intensity profile along the spine. The robustness of the disk detection is improved by using a template of vertebral distance, which was generated from a training dataset. The developed method has been validated using T1- and T2-weighted contrasts in ten healthy subjects and one patient with spinal cord injury. Results. Accuracy of vertebral labeling was 100%. Mean absolute error was 2.1 ± 1.7?mm for T2-weighted images and 2.3 ± 1.6?mm for T1-weighted images. The vertebrae of the spinal cord injured patient were correctly labeled, despite the presence of artifacts caused by metallic implants. Discussion. We proposed a template-based method for robust labeling of vertebral levels along the whole spinal cord for T1- and T2-weighted contrasts. The method is freely available as part of the spinal cord toolbox.
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Coxofemoral joint kinematics using video fluoroscopic images of treadmill-walking cats: development of a technique to assess osteoarthritis-associated disability.
J. Feline Med. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a video fluoroscopy kinematics method for the assessment of the coxofemoral joint in cats with and without osteoarthritis (OA)-associated disability. Two non-OA cats and four cats affected by coxofemoral OA were evaluated by video fluoroscopy. Video fluoroscopic images of the coxofemoral joints were captured at 120 frames/s using a customized C-arm X-ray system while cats walked freely on a treadmill at 0.4 m/s. The angle patterns over time of the coxofemoral joints were extracted using a graphic user interface following four steps: (i) correction for image distortion; (ii) image denoising and contrast enhancement; (iii) frame-to-frame anatomical marker identification; and (iv) statistical gait analysis. Reliability analysis was performed. The cats with OA presented greater intra-subject stride and gait cycle variability. Three cats with OA presented a left-right asymmetry in the range of movement of the coxofemoral joint angle in the sagittal plane (two with no overlap of the 95% confidence interval, and one with only a slight overlap) consistent with their painful OA joint, and a longer gait cycle duration. Reliability analysis revealed an absolute variation in the coxofemoral joint angle of 2º-6º, indicating that the two-dimensional video fluoroscopy technique provided reliable data. Improvement of this method is recommended: variability would likely be reduced if a larger field of view could be recorded, allowing the identification and tracking of each femoral axis, rather than the trochanter landmarks. The range of movement of the coxofemoral joint has the potential to be an objective marker of OA-associated disability.
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Association between sensitisation and pain-related behaviours in an experimental canine model of osteoarthritis.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Evaluation of nociceptive sensitisation in canine osteoarthritis studies has been poorly reported, or even related to other clinical symptoms. In 16 dogs, peak vertical force (PVF), subjective pain assessment using 3 scales, sympathetic stress response with electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement, and behavioural changes with video analysis and telemetered motor activity were quantified at baseline (D-7), and 28 and 56days post transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. As markers of central sensitisation, selected spinal cord biomarkers (substance P and transthyretin) were quantified at D56. Electrical withdrawal thresholds on the stifle and the tail were measured as indicative of peripheral and central quantitative sensory testing (QST) sensitisation, respectively. The effects of vehicle administration (n=8) were compared with tiludronate (2mg/kg subcutaneously, q2week, starting at D0) administration. Generalized estimated equations tested the association between the behavioural and physiological methods and QST sensitisation, and therefore the sensitivity of the methods for detecting treatment efficacy. Compared to tiludronate, at D56, vehicle-treated dogs had increased spinal substance P (P=0.01), concomitant decreased transthyretin (P=0.02), and (compared to baseline) demonstrated peripheral and central QST sensitisation, which was not present for tiludronate. Only PVF, the spontaneous behaviour "walking with full weight-bearing," and EDA were associated with occurrence of QST sensitisation and indicated significant tiludronate analgesic efficacy after inclusion of central QST sensitisation as a predictor variable in the statistical model. This study establishes the strong interest to implement QST as a predictor of canine osteoarthritis pain symptoms explained by pain sensitisation.
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Lysine-specific demethylase 1-mediated demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 contributes to interleukin 1?-induced microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes the terminal step in the biosynthesis of PGE2, a critical mediator in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Histone methylation plays an important role in epigenetic gene regulation. In this study, we investigated the roles of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation in interleukin 1? (IL-1?)-induced mPGES-1 expression in human chondrocytes.
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Pegylated interferon ?-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ADVANCE): a randomised, phase 3, double-blind study.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (peginterferon) beta-1a is being developed for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, with less frequent dosing than currently available first-line injectable treatments. We assessed the safety and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a after 48 weeks of treatment in the placebo-controlled phase of the ADVANCE trial, a study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
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Quantification of relevance of quality of life assessment for patients with cognitive impairment: the suitability indices.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The extent to which MS patients with cognitive dysfunction can accurately self-report outcomes has been a crucial issue. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the relevance of the quality of life (QoL) assessment between two populations with a high occurrence of cognitive dysfunction, specifically in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in individuals suffering from schizophrenia (SCZ).
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Cartilage-specific deletion of mTOR upregulates autophagy and protects mice from osteoarthritis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (a serine/threonine protein kinase) is a major repressor of autophagy, a cell survival mechanism. The specific in vivo mechanism of mTOR signalling in OA pathophysiology is not fully characterised. We determined the expression of mTOR and known autophagy genes in human OA cartilage as well as mouse and dog models of experimental OA. We created cartilage-specific mTOR knockout (KO) mice to determine the specific role of mTOR in OA pathophysiology and autophagy signalling in vivo.
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Characteristics of the structural and Johari-Goldstein relaxations in Pd-based metallic glass-forming liquids.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The dynamics of Pd-based metallic glass-forming liquids (Pd(40)Ni(10)Cu(30)P(20), Pd(42.5)Ni(7.5)Cu(30)P(20), Pd(40)Ni(40)P(20), and Pd(30)Ni(50)P(20)) was studied by mechanical spectroscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). We found that the change in composition has a significant effect on the ? relaxation dynamics; the largest difference corresponds to an increase of the glass transition temperature Tg of ? 15 K, for materials in which 30% Ni was substituted by 30% Cu (i.e., from Pd(40)Ni(40)P(20) to Pd(40)Ni(10)Cu(30)P(20)). We also found that all Pd-based metallic glasses have very similar fragilities, 59 < m < 67, and Kohlrausch stretched exponents, 0.59 < ?KWW < 0.60. It is interesting that the values of m and ?KWW correlate well with the general relation proposed by Böhmer et al. for nonmetallic glass formers (Böhmer, R.; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1993, 99, 4201-4209), which for the observed ?KWW values predicts 58 < m < 61. From a linear deconvolution of the ? and ? relaxations, we find that the substitution of the Ni with Cu induced a large change in the time constant of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation, ??. The activation energy, U?, of the ? relaxation was largely independent of chemical composition. In all cases, 25 < U?/RT < 28, a range in agreement with results for other glass formers (Kudlik, A.; et al. Europhys. Lett. 1997, 40, 649-654 and Ngai, K. L.; et al. Phys. Rev. E 2004, 69, 031501). From the heat capacity and mechanical loss, estimates were obtained for the number of dynamically correlated units, Nc; we find significantly larger values for these metallic glass-forming liquids than Nc for other glass-forming materials.
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Defining Quality of Life Levels to Enhance Clinical Interpretation in Multiple Sclerosis: Application of a Novel Clustering Method.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To enhance the use of quality of life (QoL) measures in clinical practice, it is pertinent to help clinicians interpret QoL scores.
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Cardiac effects of vasopressin.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits.
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A medicinal herb-based natural health product improves the condition of a canine natural osteoarthritis model: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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An oral herb-based natural health product (NHP) was evaluated in the canine natural osteoarthritis model. At baseline, the peak vertical force (PVF, primary endpoint) and case-specific outcome measure of disability (CSOM) were recorded in privately-owned dogs. Dogs (16/group) were randomized to receive NHP formulations or a negative control. The PVF was measured at week (W) 4 and W8. Daily locomotor activity was recorded using accelerometer. The CSOMs were assessed bi-weekly by the owner. The NHP-treated dogs (n?=?13) had higher PVF at W4 (p?=?0.020) and W8 (p?<0.001) when compared to baseline. The changes at W8 were higher than control dogs (n?=?14, p?<0.027) and consistent with Cohen's d effect size of 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.0-1.5). The NHP-treated dogs had higher locomotor activity at W8 (p?=?0.025) when compared to baseline. No significant change was observed for the CSOM. The NHP improved the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in this model.
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An algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis in Europe and internationally: A report from a task force of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Existing practice guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) analyze the evidence behind each proposed treatment but do not prioritize the interventions in a given sequence. The objective was to develop a treatment algorithm recommendation that is easier to interpret for the prescribing physician based on the available evidence and that is applicable in Europe and internationally. The knee was used as the model OA joint.
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A reference case for economic evaluations in osteoarthritis: An expert consensus article from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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General recommendations for a reference case for economic studies in rheumatic diseases were published in 2002 in an initiative to improve the comparability of cost-effectiveness studies in the field. Since then, economic evaluations in osteoarthritis (OA) continue to show considerable heterogeneity in methodological approach.
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Evoked temporal summation in cats to highlight central sensitization related to osteoarthritis-associated chronic pain: a preliminary study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In cats, osteoarthritis causes significant chronic pain. Chronicity of pain is associated with changes in the central nervous system related to central sensitization, which have to be quantified. Our objectives were 1) to develop a quantitative sensory testing device in cats for applying repetitive mechanical stimuli that would evoke temporal summation; 2) to determine the sensitivity of this test to osteoarthritis-associated pain, and 3) to examine the possible correlation between the quantitative sensory testing and assessment using other pain evaluation methods. We hypothesized that mechanical sub-threshold repetitive stimuli would evoke temporal summation, and that cats with osteoarthritis would show a faster response. A blinded longitudinal study was performed in 4 non-osteoarthritis cats and 10 cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Quantification of chronic osteoarthritis pain-related disability was performed over a two week period using peak vertical force kinetic measurement, motor activity intensity assessment and von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold testing. The cats afflicted with osteoarthritis demonstrated characteristic findings consistent with osteoarthritis-associated chronic pain. After a 14-day acclimation period, repetitive mechanical sub-threshold stimuli were applied using a purpose-developed device. Four stimulation profiles of predetermined intensity, duration and time interval were applied randomly four times during a four-day period. The stimulation profiles were different (P<0.001): the higher the intensity of the stimulus, the sooner it produced a consistent painful response. The cats afflicted with osteoarthritis responded more rapidly than cats osteoarthritis free (P?=?0.019). There was a positive correlation between the von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold and the response to stimulation profiles #2 (2N/0.4 Hz) and #4 (2N/0.4 Hz): Rhos?=?0.64 (P?=?0.01) and 0.63 (P?=?0.02) respectively. This study is the first report of mechanical temporal summation in awake cats. Our results suggest that central sensitization develops in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis, providing an opportunity to improve translational research in osteoarthritis-associated chronic pain.
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[Role of families of homeless persons with mental disorders : retrospective and prospective view of relationships].
Sante Ment Que
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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This paper explores the experience of families supporting a homeless relative with mental illness. The authors investigate the types of support offered by families; they also examine the relational and personal dimensions which can support a redefining of the role and consequently a modulation of the level of support. Using a qualitative research, semi-structured interviews were realized with 14 family members. The results indicate that housing and the financial support are the types of support most frequently stopped while the emotional and the social support tend to be pursued. The control in the relation, the emotionalism and the perception of future appear as important element for the initiation of a role redefining process.
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First-line analysis of the effects of treatment on progression of structural changes in knee osteoarthritis over 24 months: data from the osteoarthritis initiative progression cohort.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To determine, using data from participants enrolled in the progression cohort of the OAI, the effects of conventional osteoarthritis (OA) pharmacological treatment and those of the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (Glu/CS) on knee structural changes.
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Disease-modifying effect of strontium ranelate in a subset of patients from the Phase III knee osteoarthritis study SEKOIA using quantitative MRI: reduction in bone marrow lesions protects against cartilage loss.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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To explore, using MRI, the disease-modifying effect of strontium ranelate (SrRan) treatment on cartilage volume loss (CVL) and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in a subset of patients from a Phase III clinical trial in knee osteoarthritis (OA) (SrRan Efficacy in Knee OsteoarthrItis triAl (SEKOIA)).
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Relaxation of bulk metallic glasses studied by mechanical spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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The relaxational dynamics in metallic glasses (MGs) is investigated by using mechanical spectroscopy. The spectra show that in MGs there are two relaxations: (i) the ? relaxation, linked to the glass transition, as observed in other classes of amorphous materials; and (ii) the ? relaxation, well observed below the glass transition, with an intensity strongly dependent on the MG composition, the nature of which has been linked to the local microstructure of MGs. For the investigated MGs we find that the intensity and relaxation time of the ? relaxation depends, in a reproducible fashion, on the thermal history of the samples. During aging experiments, the intensity decreases (as well as the ??) with a time dependence described well by a stretched exponential, with an exponent ?(aging) independent of the driving frequency. Moreover, we find that the activation energy U? and the peak temperature T?p of the ? relaxation follow the approximate relationship: U? ? 31.5RT?p (for driving frequency 1 Hz), indicating that the high temperature limit of the peak frequency is approximately the same for all the MGs investigated. Finally, the frequency separation of the ? and ? processes in the mechanical loss spectra for La-and Pd-based metallic glasses is tested against the prediction of the Coupling Model.
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New and emerging treatments for osteoarthritis management: will the dream come true with personalized medicine?
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a dynamic process involving the main tissues of the joint for which a global approach should be considered. No disease-modifying OA drug (DMOAD) has yet been approved. New therapeutic strategies are needed that would be cost effective by reducing the need for pharmacological interventions and surgical management while targeting specific pathways leading to OA. The treatment landscape of OA is about to change based on new agents having shown some structural effects and emerging therapies with DMOAD effects.
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Association between hip and knee cartilage measured using radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging: the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort Study.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Cartilage loss is a key pathological feature of OA and can be assessed indirectly using radiography or directly through MRI. A number of cross-sectional studies have suggested that primary generalized osteoarthritis (PGOA) may be a distinct disease, but despite the high frequency of involvement of the hip and the knee joints in OA, very few studies have looked at the radiographic association between these two joints, and none has done so using MRI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of hip and knee cartilage measured by both radiography and MRI.
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Retrospective review of rectal cancer surgery in northern Alberta.
Can J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Previous studies, including research published more than 10 years ago in Northern Alberta, have demonstrated improved outcomes with increased surgical volume and subspecialisation in the treatment of rectal cancer. We sought to examine contemporary rectal cancer care in the same region to determine whether practice patterns have changed and whether outcomes have improved.
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Low-dose vasopressin improves cardiac function in newborn piglets with acute hypoxia-reoxygenation.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Cardiovascular dysfunction in asphyxiated neonates contributes significantly to their morbidity and mortality. We have recently shown that a low-dose vasopressin infusion (0.005 - 0.01 units/kg per hour) may improve myocardial oxygen transport balance in a swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation. We aimed to compare the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of low-dose vasopressin to dobutamine, a synthetic beta-adrenoreceptor agonist. Piglets (1 - 5 days old, 1.6 - 2.2 kg) were anesthetized and instrumented to continuously monitor systemic hemodynamic parameters, including cardiac output and mesenteric flow indices. After 2 h of hypoxia (10% - 15% O2), piglets had normoxic reoxygenation for 4 h. In a blinded randomized fashion, piglets received infusion of either vasopressin (0.01 units/kg per hour started at 30 min of reoxygenation) or dobutamine (20 ?g/kg per minute started at 2 h of reoxygenation) (n = 8 per group). Hypoxia-reoxygenation controls (placebo, n = 8) and sham-operated (n = 5) piglets were also studied. Tissue lactate, glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and lipid hydroperoxides levels and histology of the left ventricle and the small bowel were analyzed. Plasma was also analyzed for troponin-I and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein levels. Piglets subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation had cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, which improved on reoxygenation. During recovery, cardiac output and mesenteric flows gradually deteriorated and were increased similarly in vasopressin- and dobutamine-treated piglets (P < 0.05 vs. controls). Plasma troponin-I and left ventricular lactate levels were lower in the vasopressin and dobutamine groups (P < 0.05 vs. controls), with no difference in the histological analysis among groups. The intestinal GSSG/GSH ratio and lipid hydroperoxides level were lower in the vasopressin and dobutamine groups (P < 0.05 vs. controls). This study is the first to demonstrate that a low-dose vasopressin infusion used in the setting of neonatal swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation is associated with an improvement in cardiac output and mesenteric perfusion.
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A posteriori comparison of natural and surgical destabilization models of canine osteoarthritis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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For many years Canis familiaris, the domestic dog, has drawn particular interest as a model of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we optimized the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament sectioning. The usefulness of noninvasive complementary outcome measures, such as gait analysis for the limb function and magnetic resonance imaging for structural changes, was demonstrated in this model. Relationships were established between the functional impairment and the severity of structural changes including the measurement of cartilage thinning. In the dog model of naturally occurring OA, excellent test-retest reliability was denoted for the measurement of the limb function. A criterion to identify clinically meaningful responders to therapy was determined for privately owned dogs undergoing clinical trials. In addition, the recording of accelerometer-based duration of locomotor activity showed strong and complementary agreement with the biomechanical limb function. The translation potential of these models to the human OA condition is underlined. A preclinical testing protocol which combines the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament transection and the Dog model of naturally occurring OA offers the opportunity to further investigate the structural and functional benefits of disease-modifying strategies. Ultimately, a better prediction of outcomes for human clinical trials would be brought.
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Assessment of cartilage changes over time in knee osteoarthritis disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug trials using semiquantitative and quantitative methods: pros and cons.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To evaluate the impact of 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on cartilage defect assessment in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and the sensitivity to change over time comparing cartilage defect (semiquantitative) with cartilage volume loss (quantitative) methods.
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Low sirtuin 1 levels in human osteoarthritis subchondral osteoblasts lead to abnormal sclerostin expression which decreases Wnt/?-catenin activity.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Wnt/?-catenin (cWnt) signaling plays a key role in osteogenesis by promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, activities altered in human osteoarthritic subchondral osteoblast (OA Ob). Sclerostin (SOST) has been shown to alter cWnt signaling. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) acts as a novel bone regulator and represses SOST levels in Ob. However the role of SIRT1 and SOST in OA Ob remains unknown. Herein, we explored the role played by SIRT1 and SOST on the abnormal mineralization and cWnt signaling in OA Ob.
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The longitudinal relationship between changes in body weight and changes in medial tibial cartilage, and pain among community-based adults with and without meniscal tears.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Meniscal tears are commonly found on MRI and increase the risk for radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). While meniscectomy is recommended when knee pain is severe or functionally disabling, it is unclear how to best treat meniscal tears without these symptoms. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of weight change on knee cartilage and pain in a cohort of community-based adults with and without meniscal tears detected by MRI. METHODS: 250 adults with no history of knee OA or knee injury were recruited from the general community and weight-loss clinics. MRI of the knee, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), weight and height were measured at baseline and again at follow-up approximately 2 years later. RESULTS: Medial meniscal tears were present in 36 (18%) of the cohort. In those with medial meniscal tears, after adjustment for confounders, percentage weight change was significantly associated with percentage change in medial tibial cartilage volume (? 0.2% 95% CI 0.08% to 0.3% p=0.002) and knee pain (? 11.6% 95% CI 2.1% to 21.1% p=0.02). That is, for every 1% gain in weight, there was an associated 0.2% increased loss of medial tibial cartilage volume and 11.6% increase in pain. In those with no medial meniscal tear, neither change in medial tibial cartilage volume (? 0.02% 95% CI -0.01% to 0.10% p=0.53) or pain (? 1.9% 95% CI -2.2% to 6.1% p=0.36) were significantly associated with change in weight. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that among adults with medial meniscal tears, weight gain is associated with increased cartilage loss and pain, while weight loss is associated with the converse. This suggests attention to weight is particularly important in the management of people with medial meniscal tears.
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Responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire to disability change: a longitudinal study.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Responsiveness, defined as the ability to detect a meaningful change, is a core psychometric property of an instrument measuring quality of life (QoL) rarely reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies.
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How to define responders in osteoarthritis.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures.
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Topography of brain sodium accumulation in progressive multiple sclerosis.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Sodium accumulation is involved in neuronal injury occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to assess sodium accumulation in progressive MS, known to suffer from severe neuronal injury.
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No personalization without participation: on the active contribution of psychiatric patients to the development of a mobile application for mental health.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Despite the increasing pervasiveness of mobile computational technologies, knowledge about psychiatric patients preferences regarding the design and utility of mobile applications is very poor. This paper reports on a pilot-study that involved 120 psychiatric patients in the development of a mobile application (app) that is being used for data entry into the Signature Project data bank at the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM), Canada. Participants were invited to comment on the look and feel of the Signature App. Their input also extended the procedures for data collection. These suggestions may contribute to increased mental health literacy and empowerment of persons with mental illness receiving services at the IUSMM.
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Fingolimod versus intramuscular interferon in patient subgroups from TRANSFORMS.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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In the 12-month phase 3 TRANSFORMS study, fingolimod showed greater efficacy than intramuscular interferon beta (IFN?)-1a in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This study analyzed fingolimod efficacy compared with IFN?-1a in patient subgroups from TRANSFORMS. Patients were randomized to receive fingolimod or weekly IM IFN?-1a for 12 months. Analyses of efficacy included annualized relapse rate (ARR), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures [gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing T1 lesions, new/newly enlarged (active) T2 lesions, brain volume change]. Subgroups were defined based on demographics, disease characteristics (baseline EDSS score, relapse rate, and MRI parameters), and response to previous therapy. Fingolimod 0.5 mg reduced ARR over 12 months by 32-59 % relative to IFN?-1a in all subgroups defined by demographic factors or baseline disease characteristics. Fingolimod also reduced the number of new Gd-enhancing lesions, active T2 lesions, and the rate of brain volume loss, versus IFN?-1a in most (95 %) subgroups. In patients with high disease activity despite IFN? treatment in the year before study, fingolimod 0.5 mg reduced ARR by 61 % relative to IFN?-1a. Reductions in lesion counts and brain volume loss also favored fingolimod in these patients. In conclusion, consistently better efficacy was observed for fingolimod compared with IFN?-1a across different subgroups of patients with RRMS.
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Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?, ?, ?, and H- and L-prostaglandin D synthase during osteoarthritis in the spontaneous hartley guinea pig and experimental dog models.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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To investigate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) ?, ?, and ?, and hematopoietic and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (H- and L-PGDS) over the course of osteoarthritis (OA) in the spontaneous Hartley guinea pig and the anterior cruciate ligament transection dog models.
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Does a placebo effect really occur in dogs afflicted by hip osteoarthritis as measured by force platform gait analysis?
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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A recent study investigated the therapeutic response of dogs afflicted by hip osteoarthritis when evaluating therapeutic modalities compared to a negative (placebo) control group. Authors suggested a placebo effect based on peak vertical force measurement. In addition, small effect size for each of the tested therapeutics as well as the extremely large sample size needed (>450) to discern therapeutic efficacy using force platform gait analysis were reported. We wish to express our concerns regarding the eligibility criteria used to select the studied cohort, the small effect size, and the placebo effect reported in force platform gait analysis.
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What is the relevance of quality of life assessment for patients with attention impairment?
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Attention disturbances are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence regarding the suitability of using self-reported QoL information in this impaired population by exploring the construct validity, reliability, and external validity of a MS-specific quality of life (QoL) instrument.
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Using the random forest method to detect a response shift in the quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients: a cohort study.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurodegenerative disease, has well-described associations with quality of life (QoL) impairment. QoL changes found in longitudinal studies are difficult to interpret due to the potential response shift (RS) corresponding to respondents changing standards, values, and conceptualization of QoL. This study proposes to test the capacity of Random Forest (RF) for detecting RS reprioritization as the relative importance of QoL domains changes over time.
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Robotic-assisted hepatic resection: a systematic review.
Int J Med Robot
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Currently, hepatic resections are being performed with robotic-assisted systems. There is little evidence regarding the outcomes of this surgical approach. This study aims to systematically review the outcomes related to robotic-assisted hepatic resections.
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NFAT3 and TGF-?/SMAD3 regulate the expression of miR-140 in osteoarthritis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) down-regulate their target genes. The intronic miR-140, present in the WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (WWP2) gene, decreases the expression of genes that play detrimental roles in osteoarthritis (OA). As the expression level of miR-140 is significantly decreased in human OA chondrocytes, we investigated its regulation in those cells.
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Adult cartilage-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma knockout mice exhibit the spontaneous osteoarthritis phenotype.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related progressive degenerative joint disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), a transcription factor, is suggested as an attractive therapeutic target to counteract degradative mechanisms associated with OA. Studies suggest that activation of PPAR? by its agonists can reduce the synthesis of OA catabolic and inflammatory factors and the development of cartilage lesions in OA animal models. Because these agonists impart several PPAR?-independent effects, the specific in vivo function of PPAR? in cartilage homeostasis and OA remains largely unknown. Herein, we describe the in vivo role of PPAR? in OA using cartilage-specific PPAR? knockout (KO) mice generated using the Cre-lox system. Adult PPAR? KO mice exhibited a spontaneous OA phenotype associated with enhanced cartilage degradation, hypocellularity, synovial and cartilage fibrosis, synovial inflammation, mononuclear cell influx in the synovium, and increased expression of catabolic factors, including matrix metalloproteinase-13, accompanied by an increase in staining for matrix metalloproteinase-generated aggrecan and type II collagen neoepitopes (VDIPEN and C1-2C). We demonstrate that PPAR?-deficient articular cartilage exhibits elevated expression of the additional catabolic factors hypoxia-inducible factor-2?, syndecan-4, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 and of the inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, PPAR? is a critical regulator of cartilage health, the lack of which leads to an accelerated spontaneous OA phenotype.
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Characterization of opticin digestion by proteases involved in osteoarthritis development.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Opticin is a class III member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family, produced in articular joint tissues. In normal and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, opticin is degraded. This study aimed to assess whether human cartilage opticin is degraded by the main proteases involved in OA pathophysiology, and to determine the protease cleavage sites of this SLRP.
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Kinetic peak vertical force measurement in cats afflicted by coxarthritis: data management and acquisition protocols.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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The management of the peak vertical force (PVF) measurement needs to be determined in coxarthritis cats. Six privately-owned coxarthritis cats were conditioned to trot across a floor mat-based plantar force measurement system. Hind limbs PVF was measured on level ground at day one (D1), D8, D42, and D84. Measurements were repeated after 10 min treadmill exercise (D1), trotting on an inclined (13°) plane (D42) and after stair climbing exercise (D84). Test-retest reliability between D1 and D8 was good (intraclass coefficient of correlation of 0.8). Coefficients of dispersion (within-subject and between-subject) were <15% using the lowest hind limb PVF value. Only stair climbing exercise positively affected sample and effect size estimates. To limit the dispersion of data, the measurement of PVF should be managed using the lowest hind limb PVF value. In addition, PVF should be measured following stair climbing to optimise sample and effect sizes and to preserve statistical power.
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Measuring the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis in clinical practice: a necessary challenge.
Mult Scler Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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While the physical disability aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) is of great importance, quality of life (QoL) measurements are being considered increasingly important with regard to evaluating disease progression, treatment, and the management of care provided to MS patients. Despite the acknowledged need to consider QoL issues, QoL assessment remains underutilized in clinical practice. These issues should be explored and understood to promote the use of measuring QoL in MS clinical practice. We explore the difficulties for clinicians: choosing and determining the most appropriate QoL measure and how to best integrate QoL measurements into clinical practice. This paper discusses several avenues to provide to clinicians arguments of the clinical relevance and accuracy of QoL instruments and ultimately to enhance the use of QoL measures in clinical practice for MS patients.
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Cardiovascular adverse effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Anti-inflammatory drugs consist of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including non-selective nsNSAIDs, aspirin, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-selective inhibitors also referred to as coxibs, and glucocorticoids (GCs). They are worldwide prescribed drugs for many musculoskeletal conditions, such as osteoarthritis and inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Anti-inflammatory drugs can exert deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system, excluding aspirin. NSAIDs, especially coxibs, have been demonstrated to increase cardiovascular risk and have generated many concerns leading to the reassessment of their benefit/risk ratio. GCs may also induce cardiovascular events, but evidence seems to be less clear. Before prescribing these drugs, an assessment of cardiovascular risk may be judicious. In this review, anti-inflammatory drugs, coxibs, nsNSAIDs and GCs, and the risk of cardiovascular events will be discussed.
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Biologics and the cardiovascular system: a double-edged sword.
Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality compared to the general population. This risk is first due to classical cardiovascular risk factors but also due to systemic inflammation which is independently involved, causing accelerated atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease and heart failure (HF). Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 could be major actors on this pathophysiology. Biologics are effective specific treatments in the management of inflammatory rheumatic and systemic diseases. In this review, beneficial and deleterious effects on the heart and vessels of the biologics used in the management of inflammatory arthritis and vasculitides will be discussed, focusing on TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 blockades, and anti-CD20. Noninflammatory cardiac conditions, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, as well as inflammatory diseases including vasculitides will be discussed.
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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Assess Patient-Reported Outcomes after Lung Cancer Surgery.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The main objective of this review was to systematically review, assess, and report on the studies that have assessed health related quality of life (HRQOL) after VATS and thoracotomy for resection of lung cancer. We performed a systematic review of six databases. The Downs and Black tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Five studies were included. In general, patients undergoing VATS have a better HRQOL when compared to thoracotomy; however, there was a high risk of bias in the included studies. The consistent use of a lung cancer specific questionnaire for measuring HRQOL after surgery is encouraged.
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Association of multiple sclerosis susceptibility variants and early attack location in the CNS.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The anatomic location of subsequent relapses in early multiple sclerosis (MS) appears to be predicted by the first attack location. We sought to determine if genetic polymorphisms associated with MS susceptibility are associated with attack location.
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Multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes: associations with relapse severity and recovery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS) have stereotyped attack severity and recovery. We sought to determine if polymorphisms in MS susceptibility genes are associated with these attack features or with the risk of a second attack.
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R-spondins are newly recognized players in osteoarthritis that regulate Wnt signaling in osteoblasts.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Clinical and in vitro studies suggest that altered osteogenesis or bone remodeling is involved in the progression and/or onset of osteoarthritis (OA). Wnt signaling plays a key role in osteogenesis via the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Two of the R-spondins, Rspo-1 and Rspo-2, a family of 4 proteins unrelated to other Wnt ligands that act as Wnt agonists, are present in bone tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of Rspo-1 and Rspo-2 in OA osteoblasts.
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Glucosamine sulfate reduces prostaglandin E(2) production in osteoarthritic chondrocytes through inhibition of microsomal PGE synthase-1.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Glucosamine sulfate (GS) has been inferred to have a potential antiinflammatory effect on osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated its effect on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in human OA chondrocytes, and the level in the PGE(2) pathway at which its effect takes place.
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A fully automated human knee 3D MRI bone segmentation using the ray casting technique.
Med Biol Eng Comput
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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This study aimed at developing a fully automated bone segmentation method for the human knee (femur and tibia) from magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR imaging was acquired on a whole body 1.5T scanner with a gradient echo fat suppressed sequence using an extremity coil. The method was based on the Ray Casting technique which relies on the decomposition of the MR images into multiple surface layers to localize the boundaries of the bones and several partial segmentation objects being automatically merged to obtain the final complete segmentation of the bones. Validation analyses were performed on 161 MR images from knee osteoarthritis patients, comparing the developed fully automated to a validated semi-automated segmentation method, using the average surface distance (ASD), volume correlation coefficient, and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). For both femur and tibia, respectively, data showed excellent bone surface ASD (0.50 ± 0.12 mm; 0.37 ± 0.09 mm), average oriented distance between bone surfaces within the cartilage domain (0.02 ± 0.07 mm; -0.05 ± 0.10 mm), and bone volume DSC (0.94 ± 0.05; 0.92 ± 0.07). This newly developed fully automated bone segmentation method will enable large scale studies to be conducted within shorter time durations, as well as increase stability in the reading of pathological bone.
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Intrathecal synthesis of IgM measured after a first demyelinating event suggestive of multiple sclerosis is associated with subsequent MRI brain lesion accrual.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Previous studies have demonstrated that intrathecal synthesis of IgM is observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and correlates with a worse disease course. These results suggest that IgM participates in the formation of MS lesions.
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Future therapeutics for osteoarthritis.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joints that affects several million individuals worldwide. This disease, which involves mainly the diarthrodial joints, is chronic and develops slowly over decades, making it very difficult to precisely identify the different etiological and risk factors that influence its onset. At present, most therapies for OA are symptomatic. This review will focus on new OA therapeutics in development that are directed toward pain relief as well as others with the potential to reduce or stop the progression of the disease (DMOADs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis".
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Neurologic disorders and hepatitis E, France, 2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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We report meningitis with diffuse neuralgic pain or polyradiculoneuropathy associated with PCR-documented acute hepatitis E in 2 adults. These observations suggest that diagnostic testing for hepatitis E virus should be conducted for patients who have neurologic symptoms and liver cytolysis.
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Tiludronate treatment improves structural changes and symptoms of osteoarthritis in the canine anterior cruciate ligament model.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of tiludronate (TLN), a bisphosphonate, on structural, biochemical and molecular changes and function in an experimental dog model of osteoarthritis (OA).
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Comparison of fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised extension of the TRANSFORMS study.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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In a 12-month phase 3 study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), TRANSFORMS, fingolimod showed greater efficacy on relapse rates and MRI outcomes compared with interferon beta-1a. We had two aims in our extension: to compare year 2 with year 1 in the switched patients to assess the effect of a change from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, and to compare over 24 months the treatment groups as originally randomised to assess the effect of delaying the start of treatment with fingolimod.
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Risk factors predictive of joint replacement in a 2-year multicentre clinical trial in knee osteoarthritis using MRI: results from over 6 years of observation.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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To identify predictive factors for total knee replacement (TKR) using data from MRI of knee osteoarthritis patients in a phase III multicentre disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) study.
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Prevalence of grey matter pathology in early multiple sclerosis assessed by magnetization transfer ratio imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, the distribution and the impact on disability of grey matter (GM) pathology in early multiple sclerosis. Eighty-eight patients with a clinically isolated syndrome with a high risk developing multiple sclerosis were included in the study. Forty-four healthy controls constituted the normative population. An optimized statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each subjects GM Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) imaging maps with those of the whole group of controls. The statistical threshold of significant GM MTR decrease was determined as the maximum p value (p<0.05 FDR) for which no significant cluster survived when comparing each control to the whole control population. Using this threshold, 51% of patients showed GM abnormalities compared to controls. Locally, 37% of patients presented abnormalities inside the limbic cortex, 34% in the temporal cortex, 32% in the deep grey matter, 30% in the cerebellum, 30% in the frontal cortex, 26% in the occipital cortex and 19% in the parietal cortex. Stepwise regression analysis evidenced significant association (p?=?0.002) between EDSS and both GM pathology (p?=?0.028) and T2 white matter lesions load (p?=?0.019). In the present study, we evidenced that individual analysis of GM MTR map allowed demonstrating that GM pathology is highly heterogeneous across patients at the early stage of MS and partly underlies irreversible disability.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.