The spliceosome is a single-turnover enzyme that needs to be dismantled after catalysis to both release the mRNA and recycle small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) for subsequent rounds of pre-mRNA splicing. The RNP remodeling events occurring during spliceosome disassembly are poorly understood, and the composition of the released snRNPs are only roughly known. Using purified components in vitro, we generated post-catalytic spliceosomes that can be dissociated into mRNA and the intron-lariat spliceosome (ILS) by addition of the RNA helicase Prp22 plus ATP and without requiring the step 2 proteins Slu7 and Prp18. Incubation of the isolated ILS with the RNA helicase Prp43 plus Ntr1/Ntr2 and ATP generates defined spliceosomal dissociation products: the intron-lariat, U6 snRNA, a 20-25S U2 snRNP containing SF3a/b, an 18S U5 snRNP, and the "nineteen complex" associated with both the released U2 snRNP and intron-lariat RNA. Our system reproduces the entire ordered disassembly phase of the spliceosome with purified components, which defines the minimum set of agents required for this process. It enabled us to characterize the proteins of the ILS by mass spectrometry and identify the ATPase action of Prp43 as necessary and sufficient for dissociation of the ILS without the involvement of Brr2 ATPase.
Multiple RNA-guided pseudouridine synthases, H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) which contain a guide RNA and four proteins, catalyze site-specific post-transcriptional isomerization of uridines into pseudouridines in substrate RNAs. In archaeal particles, the guide small RNA (sRNA) is anchored by the pseudouridine synthase aCBF5 and the ribosomal protein L7Ae. Protein aNOP10 interacts with both aCBF5 and L7Ae. The fourth protein, aGAR1, interacts with aCBF5 and enhances catalytic efficiency. Here, we compared the features of two H/ACA sRNAs, Pab21 and Pab91, from Pyrococcus abyssi. We found that aCBF5 binds much more weakly to Pab91 than to Pab21. Surprisingly, the Pab91 sRNP exhibits a higher catalytic efficiency than the Pab21 sRNP. We thus investigated the molecular basis of the differential efficiencies observed for the assembly and catalytic activity of the two enzymes. For this, we compared profiles of the extent of lead-induced cleavages in these sRNAs during a stepwise reconstitution of the sRNPs, and analyzed the impact of the absence of the aNOP10-L7Ae interaction. Such probing experiments indicated that the sRNAs undergo a series of conformational changes upon RNP assembly. These changes were also evaluated directly by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, a tool highly adapted to analyzing RNA conformational dynamics. In addition, our results reveal that the conformation of helix P1 formed at the base of the H/ACA sRNAs is optimized in Pab21 for efficient aCBF5 binding and RNP assembly. Moreover, P1 swapping improved the assembly of the Pab91 sRNP. Nonetheless, efficient aCBF5 binding probably also relies on the pseudouridylation pocket which is not optimized for high activity in the case of Pab21.
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