We previously reported that the immunogenicity of Hc?tre, a botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) immunogen, was enhanced by fusion to an epithelial cell binding domain, Ad2F, when nasally delivered to mice with cholera toxin (CT). This study was performed to determine if Ad2F would enhance the nasal immunogenicity of Hc?tre in rabbits, an animal model with a nasal cavity anatomy similar to humans. Since CT is not safe for human use, we also tested the adjuvant activity of compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell activating compound previously determined to safely exhibit nasal adjuvant activity in mice.
NDRG4 is a largely unstudied member of the predominantly tumor suppressive N-Myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family. Unlike its family members NDRG1-3, which are ubiquitously expressed, NDRG4 is expressed almost exclusively in the heart and brain. Given this tissue-specific expression pattern and the established tumor suppressive roles of the NDRG family in regulating cellular proliferation, we investigated the cellular and biochemical functions of NDRG4 in the context of astrocytes and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. We show that, in contrast to NDRG2, NDRG4 expression is elevated in GBM and NDRG4 is required for the viability of primary astrocytes, established GBM cell lines, and both CD133(+) (cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched) and CD133(-) primary GBM xenograft cells. While NDRG4 overexpression has no effect on cell viability, NDRG4 knockdown causes G(1) cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. The initial G(1) arrest is associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 expression and an increase in p27(Kip1) expression, and the subsequent apoptosis is associated with a decrease in the expression of XIAP and survivin. As a result of these effects on cell cycle progression and survival, NDRG4 knockdown decreases the tumorigenic capacity of established GBM cell lines and GBM CSC-enriched cells that have been implanted intracranially into immunocompromised mice. Collectively, these data indicate that NDRG4 is required for cell cycle progression and survival, thereby diverging in function from its tumor suppressive family member NDRG2 in astrocytes and GBM cells.
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Journal of Visualized Experiments
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.