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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tumor-associated macrophages: from mechanisms to therapy.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex ecology of cells that evolves with and provides support to tumor cells during the transition to malignancy. Among the innate and adaptive immune cells recruited to the tumor site, macrophages are particularly abundant and are present at all stages of tumor progression. Clinical studies and experimental mouse models indicate that these macrophages generally play a protumoral role. In the primary tumor, macrophages can stimulate angiogenesis and enhance tumor cell invasion, motility, and intravasation. During monocytes and/or metastasis, macrophages prime the premetastatic site and promote tumor cell extravasation, survival, and persistent growth. Macrophages are also immunosuppressive, preventing tumor cell attack by natural killer and T cells during tumor progression and after recovery from chemo- or immunotherapy. Therapeutic success in targeting these protumoral roles in preclinical models and in early clinical trials suggests that macrophages are attractive targets as part of combination therapy in cancer treatment.
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The Stigma of Having Psychological Problems: Relations With Engagement, Working Alliance, and Depression in Psychotherapy.
Psychotherapy (Chic)
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The stigma of having psychological problems is a barrier to seeking mental health treatment, but little research has examined whether this stigma influences the experiences of those in treatment. In a sample of 42 psychotherapy clients, we explored links over the first few sessions between 2 facets of stigma (self-stigma and perceived public stigma) and 3 variables germane to the therapeutic process (depression, working alliance, and engagement). Initial self-stigma (SS) level was positively associated with initial depression, negatively associated with initial working alliance, and unrelated to initial engagement. Initial perceived public stigma (PPS) level was unrelated to initial levels in the 3 outcome variables. Initial SS and PPS levels were both generally unrelated to linear changes in the outcomes over the initial phase of counseling. Relations between stigma and outcome variables often differed within- and between-persons. For example, the association between PPS and engagement was negative at the between-person level but positive at the within-person level. Finally, on average, PPS decreased over the first few sessions but SS remained constant. Such findings may help therapists better understand the role of stigma in their clinical work, and stimulate research examining how to address stigmatization in psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Myeloid WNT7b mediates the angiogenic switch and metastasis in breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Oncogenic targets acting in both tumor cells and tumor stromal cells may offer special therapeutic appeal. Interrogation of the Oncomine database revealed that 52 of 53 human breast carcinomas showed substantial upregulation of WNT family ligand WNT7B. Immunolabeling of human mammary carcinoma showed that WNT7B immunoreactivity was associated with both tumor cells and with tumor-associated macrophages. In the MMTV-PymT mouse model of mammary carcinoma, we found tumor progression relied upon WNT7B produced by myeloid cells in the microenvironment. Wnt7b deletion in myeloid cells reduced the mass and volume of tumors due to a failure in the angiogenic switch. In the tumor overall, there was no change in expression of Wnt/?-catenin pathway target genes, but in vascular endothelial cells (VEC), expression of these genes was reduced, suggesting that VECs respond to Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Mechanistic investigations revealed that failure of the angiogenic switch could be attributed to reduced Vegfa mRNA and protein expression in VECs, a source of VEGFA mRNA in the tumor that was limiting in the absence of myeloid WNT7B. We also noted a dramatic reduction in lung metastasis associated with decreased macrophage-mediated tumor cell invasion. Together, these results illustrated the critical role of myeloid WNT7B in tumor progression, acting at the levels of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We suggest that therapeutic suppression of WNT7B signaling might be advantageous due to targeting multiple aspects of tumor progression.
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STAT3 in epithelial cells regulates inflammation and tumor progression to malignant state in colon.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism of tumorigenesis especially tumor progression to malignancy in the inflamed colon is still unclear. Our study shows that epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), persistently activated in inflamed colon, is not required for inflammation-induced epithelial overproliferation and the development of early-stage tumors; however, it is essential for tumor progression to advanced malignancy. We found that one of the mechanisms that epithelial STAT3 regulates in tumor progression might be to modify leukocytic infiltration in the large intestine. Activation of epithelial STAT3 promotes the infiltration of the CD8+ lymphocyte population but inhibits the recruitment of regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes. The loss of Stat3 in epithelial cells promoted the expression of cytokines/chemokines including CCL19, CCL28, and RANTES, which are known to be able to recruit Treg lymphocytes. Linked to these changes was the pathway mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate kinases, which is activated in colonic epithelial cells in inflamed colon with functional STAT3 but not in epithelial cells deleted of STAT3. Our data suggest that epithelial STAT3 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced tumor progression through regulation of leukocytic recruitment especially the infiltration of Treg cells in the large intestine.
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Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Macrophages, the most plastic cells of the haematopoietic system, are found in all tissues and show great functional diversity. They have roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair and immunity. Although tissue macrophages are anatomically distinct from one another, and have different transcriptional profiles and functional capabilities, they are all required for the maintenance of homeostasis. However, these reparative and homeostatic functions can be subverted by chronic insults, resulting in a causal association of macrophages with disease states. In this Review, we discuss how macrophages regulate normal physiology and development, and provide several examples of their pathophysiological roles in disease. We define the hallmarks of macrophages according to the states that they adopt during the performance of their various roles, taking into account new insights into the diversity of their lineages, identities and regulation. It is essential to understand this diversity because macrophages have emerged as important therapeutic targets in many human diseases.
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NRP1 acts cell autonomously in endothelium to promote tip cell function during sprouting angiogenesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Neuropilin (NRP) 1 is a receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and is essential for normal angiogenesis. Previous in vitro experiments identified NRP1 interactions with VEGF-As main signaling receptor VEGFR2 within endothelial cells, but also between nonendothelial NRP1 and endothelial VEGFR2. Consistent with an endothelial role for NRP1 in angiogenesis, we found that VEGFR2 and NRP1 were coexpressed in endothelial tip and stalk cells in the developing brain. In addition, NRP1 was expressed on two cell types that interact with growing brain vessels-the neural progenitors that secrete VEGF-A to stimulate tip cell activity and the pro-angiogenic macrophages that promote tip cell anastomosis. Selective targeting of Nrp1 in each of these cell types demonstrated that neural progenitor- and macrophage-derived NRP1 were dispensable, whereas endothelial NRP1 was essential for normal brain vessel growth. NRP1 therefore promotes brain angiogenesis cell autonomously in endothelium, independently of heterotypic interactions with nonendothelial cells. Genetic mosaic analyses demonstrated a key role for NRP1 in endothelial tip rather than stalk cells during vessel sprouting. Thus, NRP1-expressing endothelial cells attained the tip cell position when competing with NRP1-negative endothelial cells in chimeric vessel sprouts. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that NRP1 promotes endothelial tip cell function during angiogenesis.
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Macrophage Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 signaling regulates mouse wound angiogenesis and repair.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The treatment of festering wounds is one of the most important aspects of medical care. Macrophages are important components of wound repair, both in fending off infection and in coordinating tissue repair. Here we show that macrophages use a Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 signaling pathway to suppress wound vasculature and delay repair. Conditional mutants deficient in both Wntless/GPR177, the secretory transporter of Wnt ligands, and CNB1, the essential component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells dephosporylation complex, displayed enhanced angiogenesis and accelerated repair. Furthermore, in myeloid-like cells, we show that noncanonical Wnt activates Flt1, a naturally occurring inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor-A-mediated angiogenesis, but only when calcineurin function is intact. Then, as expected, conditional deletion of Flt1 in macrophages resulted in enhanced wound angiogenesis and repair. These results are consistent with the published link between enhanced angiogenesis and enhanced repair, and establish novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of wounds.
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Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling in injured neurons facilitates protection and survival.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) are functional ligands of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) and thus are key regulators of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We discovered that systemic administration of human recombinant CSF1 ameliorates memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease. CSF1 and IL-34 strongly reduced excitotoxin-induced neuronal cell loss and gliosis in wild-type mice when administered systemically before or up to 6 h after injury. These effects were accompanied by maintenance of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) signaling in neurons rather than in microglia. Using lineage-tracing experiments, we discovered that a small number of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex express CSF1R under physiological conditions and that kainic acid-induced excitotoxic injury results in a profound increase in neuronal receptor expression. Selective deletion of CSF1R in forebrain neurons in mice exacerbated excitotoxin-induced death and neurodegeneration. We conclude that CSF1 and IL-34 provide powerful neuroprotective and survival signals in brain injury and neurodegeneration involving CSF1R expression on neurons.
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Apoptosis inhibitor ARC promotes breast tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) inhibits both death receptor- and mitochondrial/ER-mediated pathways of apoptosis. Although expressed mainly in terminally differentiated cells, ARC is markedly upregulated in a variety of human cancers, where its potential contributions have not yet been defined. In this study, we provide evidence of multiple critical pathophysiologic functions for ARC in breast carcinogenesis. In the polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT) transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, in which endogenous ARC is strongly upregulated, deletion of the ARC-encoding gene nol3 decreased primary tumor burden without affecting tumor onset or multiplicity. More notably, ARC deficiency also limited tumor cell invasion and the number of circulating cancer cells, markedly reducing the number of lung metastases. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of ARC in a PyMT-derived metastatic breast cancer cell line increased invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. We confirmed these results in a humanized orthotopic model based on MDA-MB-231-derived LM2 metastatic breast cancer cells, in which RNAi-mediated knockdown of ARC levels was shown to reduce tumor volume, local invasion, and lung metastases. Lastly, we found that endogenous levels of ARC conferred chemoresistance in primary tumors and invading cell populations. Our results establish that ARC promotes breast carcinogenesis by driving primary tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis as well as by promoting chemoresistance in invasive cells.
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Absence of colony stimulation factor-1 receptor results in loss of microglia, disrupted brain development and olfactory deficits.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only in microglia and not neurons, astrocytes or glial cells. To study CSF-1R function we used mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Csflr gene. In these mice microglia are >99% depleted at embryonic day 16 and day 1 post-partum brain. At three weeks of age this microglial depletion continues in most regions of the brain although some contain clusters of rounded microglia. Despite the loss of microglia, embryonic brain development appears normal but during the post-natal period the brain architecture becomes perturbed with enlarged ventricles and regionally compressed parenchyma, phenotypes most prominent in the olfactory bulb and cortex. In the cortex there is increased neuronal density, elevated numbers of astrocytes but reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes. Csf1r nulls rarely survive to adulthood and therefore to study the role of CSF-1R in olfaction we used the viable null mutants in the Csf1 (Csf1(op)) gene that encodes one of the two known CSF-1R ligands. Food-finding experiments indicate that olfactory capacity is significantly impaired in the absence of CSF-1. CSF-1R is therefore required for the development of microglia, for a fully functional olfactory system and the maintenance of normal brain structure.
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Setup and use of a two-laser multiphoton microscope for multichannel intravital fluorescence imaging.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Characterizing biological mechanisms dependent upon the interaction of many cell types in vivo requires both multiphoton microscope systems capable of expanding the number and types of fluorophores that can be imaged simultaneously while removing the wavelength and tunability restrictions of existing systems, and enhanced software for extracting critical cellular parameters from voluminous 4D data sets. We present a procedure for constructing a two-laser multiphoton microscope that extends the wavelength range of excitation light, expands the number of simultaneously usable fluorophores and markedly increases signal to noise via over-clocking of detection. We also utilize a custom-written software plug-in that simplifies the quantitative tracking and analysis of 4D intravital image data. We begin by describing the optics, hardware, electronics and software required, and finally the use of the plug-in for analysis. We demonstrate the use of the setup and plug-in by presenting data collected via intravital imaging of a mouse model of breast cancer. The procedure may be completed in ?24 h.
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VEGFR-3 controls tip to stalk conversion at vessel fusion sites by reinforcing Notch signalling.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, involves specification of endothelial cells to tip cells and stalk cells, which is controlled by Notch signalling, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 and VEGFR-3 have been implicated in angiogenic sprouting. Surprisingly, we found that endothelial deletion of Vegfr3, but not VEGFR-3-blocking antibodies, postnatally led to excessive angiogenic sprouting and branching, and decreased the level of Notch signalling, indicating that VEGFR-3 possesses passive and active signalling modalities. Furthermore, macrophages expressing the VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2 ligand VEGF-C localized to vessel branch points, and Vegfc heterozygous mice exhibited inefficient angiogenesis characterized by decreased vascular branching. FoxC2 is a known regulator of Notch ligand and target gene expression, and Foxc2(+/-);Vegfr3(+/-) compound heterozygosity recapitulated homozygous loss of Vegfr3. These results indicate that macrophage-derived VEGF-C activates VEGFR-3 in tip cells to reinforce Notch signalling, which contributes to the phenotypic conversion of endothelial cells at fusion points of vessel sprouts.
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Leukocytes in mammary development and cancer.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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Leukocytes, of both the innate and adaptive lineages, are normal cellular components of all tissues. These important cells not only are critical for regulating normal tissue homeostasis, but also are significant paracrine regulators of all physiologic and pathologic tissue repair processes. This article summarizes recent insights regarding the trophic roles of leukocytes at each stage of mammary gland development and during cancer development, with a focus on Murids and humans.
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CCL2 recruits inflammatory monocytes to facilitate breast-tumour metastasis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Macrophages, which are abundant in the tumour microenvironment, enhance malignancy. At metastatic sites, a distinct population of metastasis-associated macrophages promotes the extravasation, seeding and persistent growth of tumour cells. Here we define the origin of these macrophages by showing that Gr1-positive inflammatory monocytes are preferentially recruited to pulmonary metastases but not to primary mammary tumours in mice. This process also occurs for human inflammatory monocytes in pulmonary metastases of human breast cancer cells. The recruitment of these inflammatory monocytes, which express CCR2 (the receptor for chemokine CCL2), as well as the subsequent recruitment of metastasis-associated macrophages and their interaction with metastasizing tumour cells, is dependent on CCL2 synthesized by both the tumour and the stroma. Inhibition of CCL2-CCR2 signalling blocks the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, inhibits metastasis in vivo and prolongs the survival of tumour-bearing mice. Depletion of tumour-cell-derived CCL2 also inhibits metastatic seeding. Inflammatory monocytes promote the extravasation of tumour cells in a process that requires monocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor. CCL2 expression and macrophage infiltration are correlated with poor prognosis and metastatic disease in human breast cancer. Our data provide the mechanistic link between these two clinical associations and indicate new therapeutic targets for treating metastatic breast cancer.
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Regulation of angiogenesis by a non-canonical Wnt-Flt1 pathway in myeloid cells.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Myeloid cells are a feature of most tissues. Here we show that during development, retinal myeloid cells (RMCs) produce Wnt ligands to regulate blood vessel branching. In the mouse retina, where angiogenesis occurs postnatally, somatic deletion in RMCs of the Wnt ligand transporter Wntless results in increased angiogenesis in the deeper layers. We also show that mutation of Wnt5a and Wnt11 results in increased angiogenesis and that these ligands elicit RMC responses via a non-canonical Wnt pathway. Using cultured myeloid-like cells and RMC somatic deletion of Flt1, we show that an effector of Wnt-dependent suppression of angiogenesis by RMCs is Flt1, a naturally occurring inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These findings indicate that resident myeloid cells can use a non-canonical, Wnt-Flt1 pathway to suppress angiogenic branching.
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Macrophages define dermal lymphatic vessel calibre during development by regulating lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation.
Development
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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Macrophages have been suggested to stimulate neo-lymphangiogenesis in settings of inflammation via two potential mechanisms: (1) acting as a source of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells via the ability to transdifferentiate into lymphatic endothelial cells and be incorporated into growing lymphatic vessels; and (2) providing a crucial source of pro-lymphangiogenic growth factors and proteases. We set out to establish whether cells of the myeloid lineage are important for development of the lymphatic vasculature through either of these mechanisms. Here, we provide lineage tracing evidence to demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells arise independently of the myeloid lineage during both embryogenesis and tumour-stimulated lymphangiogenesis in the mouse, thus excluding macrophages as a source of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells in these settings. In addition, we demonstrate that the dermal lymphatic vasculature of PU.1(-/-) and Csf1r(-/-) macrophage-deficient mouse embryos is hyperplastic owing to elevated lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation, suggesting that cells of the myeloid lineage provide signals that act to restrain lymphatic vessel calibre in the skin during development. In contrast to what has been demonstrated in settings of inflammation, macrophages do not comprise the principal source of pro-lymphangiogenic growth factors, including VEGFC and VEGFD, in the embryonic dermal microenvironment, illustrating that the sources of patterning and proliferative signals driving embryonic and disease-stimulated lymphangiogenesis are likely to be distinct.
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Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor is an IFNgamma-inducible microglial protein that facilitates intracellular HIV replication: implications for HIV-induced neurocognitive disorders.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), also known as cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, is a transmembrane glycoprotein localized in the trans-Golgi region and is involved in targeting both M6P-bearing enzymes and IGF2 to the lysosomal compartment. During development, IGF2R plays a crucial role in removing excess growth factors from both tissue and blood. Due to the perinatal lethality of the global Igf2r knockout, the function of IGF2R in adults, particularly in the CNS, is not known. We made a novel observation that IGF2R is highly expressed in microglial nodules in human brains with HIV encephalitis. In vitro, microglial IGF2R expression was uniquely enhanced by IFN? among the several cytokines and TLR ligands examined. Furthermore, in several in vitro models of HIV infection, including human and murine microglia, macrophages, and nonmacrophage cells, IGF2R is repeatedly shown to be a positive regulator of HIV infection. IGF2R RNAi also down-regulated the production of the IP-10 chemokine in HIV-infected human microglia. Injection of VSVg env HIV into mouse brain induced HIV p24 expression in neurons, the only cell type normally expressing IGF2R in the adult brain. Our results demonstrate a novel role for IGF2R as an inducible microglial protein involved in regulation of HIV and chemokine expression. Mice with the Csf1r- driven Igf2r knockout should be useful for the investigation of macrophage-specific IGF2R function.
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Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development.
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Selective depletion of eosinophils or neutrophils in mice impacts the efficiency of apoptotic cell clearance in the thymus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Developing thymocytes undergo a rigorous selection process to ensure that the mature T cell population expresses a T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire that can functionally interact with major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Over 90% of thymocytes fail this selection process and die. A small number of macrophages within the thymus are responsible for clearing the large number of dying thymocytes that must be continuously cleared. We studied the capacity of thymic macrophages to clear apoptotic cells under acute circumstances. This was done by synchronously inducing cell death in the thymus and then monitoring the clearance of apoptotic thymocytes. Interestingly, acute cell death was shown to recruit large numbers of CD11b(+) cells into the thymus. In the absence of a minor CSF-1 dependent population of macrophages, the recruitment of these CD11b(+) cells into the thymus was greatly reduced and the clearance of apoptotic cells was disrupted. To assess a possible role for the CD11b(+) cells in the clearance of apoptotic cells, we analyzed mice deficient for eosinophils and mice with defective trafficking of neutrophils. Failure to attract either eosinophils or neutrophils to the thymus resulted in the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. These results suggested that there is crosstalk between cells of the innate immune system that is necessary for maximizing the efficiency of apoptotic cell removal.
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Morphogenesis of the developing mammary gland: stage-dependent impact of adipocytes.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Mammary gland development is critically dependent on the interactions between the stromal and the epithelial compartments within the gland. These events are under the control of a complex interplay of circulating and locally acting hormones and growth factors. To analyze the temporal and quantitative contributions of stromal adipocytes, we took advantage of the FAT-ATTAC mice (apoptosis through triggered activation of caspase-8), a model of inducible and reversible loss of adipocytes. This loss can be achieved through the induced dimerization of a caspase-8 fusion protein. In the context of female mice, we can achieve ablation of mammary adipocytes relatively selectively without affecting other fat pads. Under these conditions, we find that adipocytes are essential for the formation of the extended network of ducts in the mammary gland during puberty. Beyond their role in development, adipocytes are also essential to maintain the normal alveolar structures that develop during adulthood. Loss of adipose tissue initiated 2 weeks after birth triggers fewer duct branching points and fewer terminal end buds (TEBs) and also triggers changes in proliferation and apoptosis in the epithelium associated with the TEBs. The reduced developmental pace that adipocyte-ablated glands undergo is reversible, as the emergence of new local adipocytes, upon cessation of treatment, enables the ductal epithelium to resume growth. Conversely, loss of local adipocytes initiated at 7 weeks of age resulted in excessive lobulation, indicating that adipocytes are critically involved in maintaining proper architecture and functionality of the mammary epithelium. Collectively, using a unique model of inducible and reversible loss of adipocytes, our observations suggest that adipocytes are required for proper development during puberty and for the maintenance of the ductal architecture in the adult mammary gland.
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Macrophage diversity enhances tumor progression and metastasis.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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There is persuasive clinical and experimental evidence that macrophages promote cancer initiation and malignant progression. During tumor initiation, they create an inflammatory environment that is mutagenic and promotes growth. As tumors progress to malignancy, macrophages stimulate angiogenesis, enhance tumor cell migration and invasion, and suppress antitumor immunity. At metastatic sites, macrophages prepare the target tissue for arrival of tumor cells, and then a different subpopulation of macrophages promotes tumor cell extravasation, survival, and subsequent growth. Specialized subpopulations of macrophages may represent important new therapeutic targets.
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Macrophage Wnt7b is critical for kidney repair and regeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Macrophages are required for tissue homeostasis through their role in regulation of the immune response and the resolution of injury. Here we show, using the kidney as a model, that the Wnt pathway ligand Wnt7b is produced by macrophages to stimulate repair and regeneration. When macrophages are inducibly ablated from the injured kidney, the canonical Wnt pathway response in kidney epithelial cells is reduced. Furthermore, when Wnt7b is somatically deleted in macrophages, repair of injury is greatly diminished. Finally, injection of the Wnt pathway regulator Dkk2 enhances the repair process and suggests a therapeutic option. Because Wnt7b is known to stimulate epithelial responses during kidney development, these findings suggest that macrophages are able to rapidly invade an injured tissue and reestablish a developmental program that is beneficial for repair and regeneration.
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A novel mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease links mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent hyperproliferation of colonic epithelium to inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a high-risk condition for human colorectal cancer. However, our mechanistic understanding of the link between inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon is limited. Here we established a novel mouse model of colitis-associated cancer by genetically inactivating signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in macrophages, with partial deletion in other myeloid and lymphoid cells. Inflammation developed in the colon of mutant mice spontaneously, and tumor lesions, including invasive carcinoma, arose in the inflamed region of the intestine with a frequency similar to that observed in human IBD patients. The development of both inflammation and tumors in the mutant mice required the presence of microflora. Indeed, inflammation was associated with disruption of colonic homeostasis, fulminant epithelial/tumor cell proliferation, and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-Stat3 pathway in epithelial and tumor cells. The activation of this pathway was essential for both the excess proliferation of epithelial/tumor cells and the disruption of colonic homeostasis in the mutant mice. Notably, a similar abnormal up-regulation of mTOR-Stat3 signaling was consistently observed in the colonic epithelial cells of human IBD patients with active disease. These studies demonstrate a novel mouse model of IBD-colorectal cancer progression in which disrupted immune regulation, mTOR-Stat3 signaling, and epithelial hyperproliferation are integrated and simultaneously linked to the development of malignancy.
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Gene expression analysis of macrophages that facilitate tumor invasion supports a role for Wnt-signaling in mediating their activity in primary mammary tumors.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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The tumor microenvironment modifies the malignancy of tumors. In solid tumors, this environment is populated by many macrophages that, in genetic studies that depleted these cells from mouse models of breast cancer, were shown to promote tumor progression to malignancy and increase metastatic potential. Mechanistic studies showed that these tumor-promoting effects of macrophages are through the stimulation of tumor cell migration, invasion, intravasation, and enhancement of angiogenesis. Using an in vivo invasion assay, it was demonstrated that invasive carcinoma cells are a unique subpopulation of tumor cells whose invasion and chemotaxis is dependent on the comigration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) with obligate reciprocal signaling through an epidermal growth factor-CSF-1 paracrine loop. In this study, these invasion-promoting macrophages were isolated and subjected to analysis of their transcriptome in comparison with TAMs isolated indiscriminately to function using established macrophage markers. Unsupervised analysis of transcript patterns showed that the invasion-associated TAMs represent a unique subpopulation of TAMs that, by gene ontology criteria, have gene expression patterns related to tissue and organ development. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that these macrophages are also specifically enriched for molecules involved in Wnt-signaling. Previously, it was shown that macrophage-derived Wnt molecules promote vascular remodeling and that tumor cells are highly motile and intravasate around perivascular TAM clusters. Taken together, we conjecture that invasive TAMs link angiogenesis and tumor invasion and that Wnt-signaling plays a role in mediating their activity.
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Fcgamma receptor cross-linking stimulates cell proliferation of macrophages via the ERK pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Macrophage proliferation can be stimulated by phagocytosis and by cross-linking of Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR). In this study, we investigated the role of FcgammaR and the signaling cascades that link FcgammaR activation to cell cycle progression. This effect was mediated by the activating FcgammaR, including FcgammaRI and III, via their Fcgamma subunit. Further investigation revealed that the cell cycle machinery was activated by FcgammaR cross-linking through downstream signaling events. Specifically, we identified the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway as a mediator of signals from FcgammaR activation to cyclin D1 expression, because cyclin D1 expression associated with FcgammaR cross-linking was attenuated by specific inhibitors of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, PD98059 and U0126 and the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor, Piceatannol. Our findings establish a link between the ERK activation and cell cycle signaling pathways, thus providing a causal mechanism by which FcgammaR activation produces a mitogenic effect that stimulates macrophage proliferation. Macrophage mitosis following FcgammaR activation could potentially affect the outcome of macrophage interactions with intracellular pathogens. In addition, our results suggest the possibility of new treatment options for certain infectious diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, and leukemias based on interference with FcgammaR-stimulated macrophage cell proliferation.
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Genomic profiling of microRNAs and messenger RNAs reveals hormonal regulation in microRNA expression in human endometrium.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, have fundamental roles in biological processes, including cell differentiation and proliferation. These small molecules mainly direct either target messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation or translational repression, thereby functioning as gene silencers. Epithelial cells of the uterine lumen and glands undergo cyclic changes under the influence of the sex steroid hormones estradiol-17beta and progesterone. Because the expression of miRNAs in human endometrium has been established, it is important to understand whether miRNAs have a physiological role in modulating the expression of hormonally induced genes. The studies herein establish concomitant differential miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of uterine epithelial cells purified from endometrial biopsy specimens in the late proliferative and midsecretory phases. Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs revealed cell cycle regulation as the most significantly enriched pathway in the late proliferative-phase endometrial epithelium (P = 5.7 x 10(-15)). In addition, the WNT signaling pathway was enriched in the proliferative phase. The 12 miRNAs (MIR29B, MIR29C, MIR30B, MIR30D, MIR31, MIR193A-3P, MIR203, MIR204, MIR200C, MIR210, MIR582-5P, and MIR345) whose expression was significantly up-regulated in the midsecretory-phase samples were predicted to target many cell cycle genes. Consistent with the role of miRNAs in suppressing their target mRNA expression, the transcript abundance of predicted targets, including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, as well as E2F3 (a known target of MIR210), was decreased. Thus, our findings suggest a role for miRNAs in down-regulating the expression of some cell cycle genes in the secretory-phase endometrial epithelium, thereby suppressing cell proliferation.
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Proangiogenic contribution of adiponectin toward mammary tumor growth in vivo.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Adipocytes represent one of the most abundant constituents of the mammary gland. They are essential for mammary tumor growth and survival. Metabolically, one of the more important fat-derived factors ("adipokines") is adiponectin (APN). Serum concentrations of APN negatively correlate with body mass index and insulin resistance. To explore the association of APN with breast cancer and tumor angiogenesis, we took an in vivo approach aiming to study its role in the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) mammary tumor model.
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Lithium chloride treatment induces epithelial cell proliferation in xenografted human endometrium.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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In mouse endometrium, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is a key enzyme controlling nuclear localization of cyclin D1. We developed a functional model of xenografted human endometrium to test whether similar mechanisms are operative in the human by using Lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of GSK3beta.
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A distinct macrophage population mediates metastatic breast cancer cell extravasation, establishment and growth.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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The stromal microenvironment and particularly the macrophage component of primary tumors influence their malignant potential. However, at the metastatic site the role of these cells and their mechanism of actions for establishment and growth of metastases remain largely unknown.
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The EGF/CSF-1 paracrine invasion loop can be triggered by heregulin beta1 and CXCL12.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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An important step in the process of metastasis from the primary tumor is invasive spread into the surrounding stroma. Using an in vivo invasion assay, we have previously shown that imposed gradients of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) can induce invasion through an EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop between cancer cells and macrophages. We now report that invasion induced by other ligands also relies on this EGF/CSF-1 paracrine invasive loop. Using an in vivo invasion assay, we show that MTLn3 breast cancer cells overexpressing ErbB3 exhibit enhanced invasion compared with control MTLn3 cells in response to the ErbB3 ligand HRG-beta1. The invasive response of both MTLn3-ErbB3 and transgenic MMTV-Neu tumors to HRG-beta1 is inhibited by blocking EGF receptor, CSF-1 receptor, or macrophage function, indicating that invasiveness to HRG-beta1 is dependent on the EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop. Furthermore, we show that CXCL12 also triggers in vivo invasion of transgenic MMTV-PyMT tumors in an EGF/CSF-1-dependent manner. Although the invasion induced by HRG-beta1 or CXCL12 is dependent on the EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop, invasion induced by EGF is not dependent on HRG-beta1 or CXCL12 signaling, showing an asymmetrical relationship between different ligand/receptor systems in driving invasion. Our results identify a stromal/tumor interaction that acts as an engine underlying invasion induced by multiple ligands.
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Trophic macrophages in development and disease.
Nat. Rev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Specialized phagocytes are found in the most primitive multicellular organisms. Their roles in homeostasis and in distinguishing self from non-self have evolved with the complexity of organisms and their immune systems. Equally important, but often overlooked, are the roles of macrophages in tissue development. As discussed in this Review, these include functions in branching morphogenesis, neuronal patterning, angiogenesis, bone morphogenesis and the generation of adipose tissue. In each case, macrophage depletion impairs the formation of the tissue and compromises its function. I argue that in several diseases, the unrestrained acquisition of these developmental macrophage functions exacerbates pathology. For example, macrophages enhance tumour progression and metastasis by affecting tumour-cell migration and invasion, as well as angiogenesis.
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Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis.
Nat. Rev. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Metastasis is a multistage process that requires cancer cells to escape from the primary tumour, survive in the circulation, seed at distant sites and grow. Each of these processes involves rate-limiting steps that are influenced by non-malignant cells of the tumour microenvironment. Many of these cells are derived from the bone marrow, particularly the myeloid lineage, and are recruited by cancer cells to enhance their survival, growth, invasion and dissemination. This Review describes experimental data demonstrating the role of the microenvironment in metastasis, identifies areas for future research and suggests possible new therapeutic avenues.
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High-density gene expression analysis of tumor-associated macrophages from mouse mammary tumors.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote malignant progression. In breast cancer, TAMs enhance tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion, matrix remodeling, and immune suppression against the tumor. In this study, we examined late-stage mammary tumors from a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. We used flow cytometry under conditions that minimized gene expression changes to isolate a rigorously defined TAM population previously shown to be associated with invasive carcinoma cells. The gene expression signature of this population was compared with a similar population derived from spleens of non-tumor-bearing mice using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Using stringent selection criteria, transcript abundance of 460 genes was shown to be differentially regulated between the two populations. Bioinformatic analyses of known functions of these genes indicated that formerly ascribed TAM functions, including suppression of immune activation and matrix remodeling, as well as multiple mediators of tumor angiogenesis, were elevated in TAMs. Further bioinformatic analyses confirmed that a pure and valid TAM gene expression signature in mouse tumors could be used to assess expression of TAMs in human breast cancer. The data derived from these more physiologically relevant autochthonous tumors compared with previous studies in tumor xenografts suggest tactics by which TAMs may regulate tumor angiogenesis and thus provide a basis for exploring other transcriptional mediators of TAM trophic functions within the tumor microenvironment.
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Colony-stimulating factor-1-dependent macrophage functions regulate the maternal decidua immune responses against Listeria monocytogenes infections during early gestation in mice.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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The association between extreme-prematurity births and intrauterine infection emphasizes the importance of understanding the host immune responses against uterine-invading microbes during early pregnancy to the prevention of preterm births. Listeria monocytogenes, a clinically relevant intracellular bacterium, has a predilection for replication at the maternofetal interface during pregnancy. Here, using mice carrying the recessive null osteopetrotic mutation in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene, we show that CSF-1-dependent macrophage functions are required for the maternal decidua immune responses against L. monocytogenes infections during early gestation in mice. In the absence of CSF-1, pregnant mice were more susceptible to uterine infection by L. monocytogenes; their inability to control the expansion of colonized bacteria in the pregnant uterus led to decidual cell death, tissue disintegration, and resorption of the developing embryo. However, CSF-1-deficient mice were able to produce significant levels of both Th1 cytokines and neutrophil chemoattractants and to recruit neutrophils to the decidual tissue in response to Listeria infection. Depletion of macrophages in hormonally induced pseudopregnant mice resulted in higher uterine bacterial levels after L. monocytogenes infection. These data suggest that the anti-Listeria responses in the maternal decidual tissue are dependent on CSF-1-regulated macrophages.
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The CSF-1 receptor fashions the intestinal stem cell niche.
Stem Cell Res
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Gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis requires the action of multiple pathways. There is some controversy regarding whether small intestine (SI) Paneth cells (PCs) play a central role in orchestrating crypt architecture and their relationship with Lgr5+ve stem cells. Nevertheless, we previously showed that germline CSF-1 receptor (Csf1r) knock out (KO) or Csf1 mutation is associated with an absence of mature PC, reduced crypt proliferation and lowered stem cell gene, Lgr5 expression. Here we show the additional loss of CD24, Bmi1 and Olfm4 expression in the KO crypts and a high resolution 3D localization of CSF-1R mainly to PC. The induction of GI-specific Csf1r deletion in young adult mice also led to PC loss over a period of weeks, in accord with the anticipated long life span of PC, changed distribution of proliferating cells and this was with a commensurate loss of Lgr5 and other stem cell marker gene expression. By culturing SI organoids, we further show that the Csf1r(-/-) defect in PC production is intrinsic to epithelial cells as well as definitively affecting stem cell activity. These results show that CSF-1R directly supports PC maturation and that in turn PCs fashion the intestinal stem cell niche.
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The clinical significance of inflammatory cytokines in primary cell culture in endometrial carcinoma.
Mol Oncol
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Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract, and the incidence and mortality rates from this disease are increasing. Although endometrial carcinoma has been regarded as a tissue-specific disease mediated by female sex steroid pathways, considerable evidence implicates a role for an inflammatory response in the development and propagation of endometrial cancer. We hypothesized that if specific patterns of cytokine expression were found to be predictive of adverse outcome, then selective receptor targeting may be a therapeutic option. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the relationship between cytokine production in primary cell culture and clinical outcome in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Fresh endometrial tissues were fractionated into epithelial and stromal fractions and cultured. After 6-7 days, supernatants were collected and cells enumerated. Batched aliquots were assayed using ELISA kits specific for CSF-1, GMCSF, G-CSF, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF. Data were compared using ANOVA, Fishers exact, and log rank tests. Increased epithelial VEGF production was observed more often in tumors with Type 2 variants (p = 0.039) and when GPR30 receptor expression was high (p = 0.038). Although increased stromal VEGF production was detected more often in grade 3 endometrioid tumors (p = 0.050), when EGFR expression was high (p = 0.003), and/or when ER/PR expression was low (p = 0.048), VEGF production did not correlated with overall survival (OS). Increased epithelial CSF-1 and TNF-? production, respectively, were observed more often in tumors with deep myometrial invasion (p = 0.014) and advanced stage (p = 0.018). Increased CSF-1 (89.5% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.032), TNF-? (88.9% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.032, and IL-6 (92.3% vs. 61.5%, p = 0.052) also correlated with low OS. In Cox multivariate models, CSF-1 was an independent predictor of low survival when stratified by grade (p = 0.046) and histology (p = 0.050), and TNF-?, when stratified by histology (p = 0.037). In this study, high CSF-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 production rates identified patients at greatest risk for death, and may signify patients likely to benefit from receptor-specific therapy.
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New tricks for metastasis-associated macrophages.
Breast Cancer Res.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies on breast cancer lung metastasis have identified a new mechanism of tumor cell survival via signaling provided by metastasis-associated macrophages. Targeting these specialized host immune cells and their specific signals provides an attractive and potential therapeutic approach for treating the disease.
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GM-CSF controls nonlymphoid tissue dendritic cell homeostasis but is dispensable for the differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells.
Immunity
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GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103(+) DCs in some tissues. Here we showed that in contrast to the current understanding, Csf-2 receptor acts in the steady state to promote the survival and homeostasis of nonlymphoid tissue-resident CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs. Absence of Csf-2 receptor on lung DCs abrogated the induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity after immunization with particulate antigens. In contrast, Csf-2 receptor was dispensable for the differentiation and innate function of inflammatory DCs during acute injuries. Instead, inflammatory DCs required Csf-1 receptor for their development. Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo.
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KLF15 negatively regulates estrogen-induced epithelial cell proliferation by inhibition of DNA replication licensing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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In the epithelial compartment of the uterus, estradiol-17? (E(2)) induces cell proliferation while progesterone (P(4)) inhibits this response and causes differentiation of the cells. In this study, we identified the mechanism whereby E(2) and P(4) reciprocally regulate the expression of minichromosome maintenance (MCM)-2, a protein that is an essential component of the hexameric MCM-2 to 7 complex required for DNA synthesis initiation. We show in the uterine epithelium that Kruppel-like transcription (KLF) factors, KLF 4 and 15, are inversely expressed; most importantly, they bind to the Mcm2 promoter under the regulation of E(2) and P(4)E(2), respectively. After P(4)E(2) exposure and in contrast to E(2) treated mice, the Mcm2 promoter displays increased histone 3 (H3) methylation and the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 and 3 with the concomitant deacetylation of H3. This increased methylation and decreased acetylation is associated with an inhibition of RNA polymerase II binding, indicating an inactive Mcm2 promoter following P(4)E(2) treatment. Using transient transfection assays in the Ishikawa endometrial cell line, we demonstrate that Mcm2 promoter activity is hormonally stimulated by E(2) and that KLF15 inhibits this E(2) enhanced transcription. KLF15 expression also blocks Ishikawa cell proliferation through inhibition of MCM2 protein level. Importantly, in vivo expression of KLF15 in an estrogenized uterus mimics P(4)s action by inhibiting E(2)-induced uterine epithelial MCM-2 expression and DNA synthesis. KLF15 is therefore a downstream physiological mediator of progesterones cell cycle inhibitory action in the uterine epithelium.
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Dichotomous effects of VEGF-A on adipose tissue dysfunction.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Obese fat pads are frequently undervascularized and hypoxic, leading to increased fibrosis, inflammation, and ultimately insulin resistance. We hypothesized that VEGF-A-induced stimulation of angiogenesis enables sustained and sufficient oxygen and nutrient exchange during fat mass expansion, thereby improving adipose tissue function. Using a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible adipocyte-specific VEGF-A overexpression model, we demonstrate that the local up-regulation of VEGF-A in adipocytes improves vascularization and causes a "browning" of white adipose tissue (AT), with massive up-regulation of UCP1 and PGC1?. This is associated with an increase in energy expenditure and resistance to high fat diet-mediated metabolic insults. Similarly, inhibition of VEGF-A-induced activation of VEGFR2 during the early phase of high fat diet-induced weight gain, causes aggravated systemic insulin resistance. However, the same VEGF-A-VEGFR2 blockade in ob/ob mice leads to a reduced body-weight gain, an improvement in insulin sensitivity, a decrease in inflammatory factors, and increased incidence of adipocyte death. The consequences of modulation of angiogenic activity are therefore context dependent. Proangiogenic activity during adipose tissue expansion is beneficial, associated with potent protective effects on metabolism, whereas antiangiogenic action in the context of preexisting adipose tissue dysfunction leads to improvements in metabolism, an effect likely mediated by the ablation of dysfunctional proinflammatory adipocytes.
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A lineage of myeloid cells independent of Myb and hematopoietic stem cells.
Science
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Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are key components of cellular immunity and are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, some macrophages develop in the embryo before the appearance of definitive HSCs. We thus reinvestigated macrophage development. We found that the transcription factor Myb was required for development of HSCs and all CD11b(high) monocytes and macrophages, but was dispensable for yolk sac (YS) macrophages and for the development of YS-derived F4/80(bright) macrophages in several tissues, such as liver Kupffer cells, epidermal Langerhans cells, and microglia--cell populations that all can persist in adult mice independently of HSCs. These results define a lineage of tissue macrophages that derive from the YS and are genetically distinct from HSC progeny.
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Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages by tissue factor-mediated coagulation is essential for metastatic cell survival and premetastatic niche establishment in mice.
Blood
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Tissue factor (TF) expression by tumor cells correlates with metastasis clinically and supports metastasis in experimental settings. However, the precise pathways coupling TF to malignancy remain incompletely defined. Here, we show that clot formation by TF indirectly enhances tumor cell survival after arrest in the lung, during experimental lung metastasis, by recruiting macrophages characterized by CD11b, CD68, F4/80, and CX(3)CR1 (but not CD11c) expression. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of coagulation, by either induction of TF pathway inhibitor ex-pression or by treatment with hirudin, respectively, abrogated macrophage recruitment and tumor cell survival. Furthermore, impairment of macrophage function, in either Mac1-deficient mice or in CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor mice in which CD11b-positive cells were ablated, decreased tumor cell survival without altering clot formation, demonstrating that the recruitment of functional macrophages was essential for tumor cell survival. This effect was independent of NK cells. Moreover, a similar population of macrophages was also recruited to the lung during the formation of a premetastatic niche. Anticoagulation inhibited their accumulation and prevented the enhanced metastasis associated with the formation of the niche. Our study, for the first time, links TF induced coagulation to macrophage recruitment in the metastatic process.
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Contribution of CXCL12 secretion to invasion of breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res.
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Neu (HER2/ErbB2) is overexpressed in 25% to 30% of human breast cancer, correlating with a poor prognosis. Researchers in previous studies who used the mouse mammary tumor virus Neu-transgenic mouse model (MMTV-Neu) demonstrated that the Neu-YB line had increased production of CXCL12 and increased metastasis, whereas the Neu-YD line had decreased metastasis. In this study, we examined the role of increased production of CXCL12 in tumor cell invasion and malignancy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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