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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chemical and Physical Sensors in the Regulation of Renal Function.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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In order to assess the status of the volume and composition of the body fluid compartment, the kidney monitors a wide variety of chemical and physical parameters. It has recently become clear that the kidney's sensory capacity extends well beyond its ability to sense ion concentrations in the forming urine. The kidney also keeps track of organic metabolites derived from a surprising variety of sources and uses a complex interplay of physical and chemical sensing mechanisms to measure the rate of fluid flow in the nephron. Recent research has provided new insights into the nature of these sensory mechanisms and their relevance to renal function.
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From Microbe to Man: the role of microbial short chain fatty acid metabolites in host cell biology.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Recent studies have highlighted a myriad of ways in which the activity and composition of the gut microbiota can affect the host organism. A primary way in which the gut microbiota affect host physiology is by the production of metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream of the host. Although recent studies have begun to unravel the ways in which gut microbial SCFAs affect host physiology, less is understood regarding the underlying cell biological mechanisms. In this review, we will outline the known receptors and transporters for SCFAs, and review what is known about the cell biological effects of microbial SCFAs.
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Intestinal microbiota-kidney cross talk in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease.
Nephron Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) involves multiple and overlapping immunological, biochemical, and hemodynamic mechanisms that modulate the effects of both the initial insult and the subsequent repair. Limited but recent experimental data have revealed that the intestinal microbiota significantly affects outcomes in AKI. Additional evidence shows significant changes in the intestinal microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients and in experimental AKI. In this minireview, we discuss the current status of the effect of intestinal microbiota on kidney diseases, the immunomodulatory effects of intestinal microbiota, and the potential mechanisms by which microbiota can modify kidney diseases and vice versa. We also propose future studies to clarify the role of intestinal microbiota in kidney diseases and to explore how the modification of gut microbiota may be a potential therapeutic tool. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Extra sensory perception: the role of Gpr receptors in the kidney.
Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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This review will summarize recent literature highlighting the roles of sensory Gpr receptors and their roles in renal function.
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A novel SCFA receptor, the microbiota, and blood pressure regulation.
Gut Microbes
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis is a complex process which is carefully regulated by a variety of inputs. We recently identified two sensory receptors (Olfactory receptor 78 and G protein couple receptor 41) as novel regulators of blood pressure. Both Olfr78 and Gpr41 are receptors for short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and we showed that propionate (a SCFA) modifies blood pressure in a manner which is differentially modulated by the absence of either Olfr78 or Gpr41. In addition, propionate modifies renin release in an Olfr78-dependent manner. Our study also demonstrated that antibiotic treatment modulates blood pressure in Olfr78 null mice, indicating that SCFAs produced by the gut microbiota likely influence blood pressure regulation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of our recent study and provide a perspective on the implications of the interactions between the gut microbiota and blood pressure control.
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Identification and characterization of novel renal sensory receptors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies have highlighted the important roles that "sensory" receptors (olfactory receptors, taste receptors, and orphan "GPR" receptors) play in a variety of tissues, including the kidney. Although several studies have identified important roles that individual sensory receptors play in the kidney, there has not been a systematic analysis of the renal repertoire of sensory receptors. In this study, we identify novel renal sensory receptors belonging to the GPR (n?=?76), olfactory receptor (n?=?6), and taste receptor (n?=?11) gene families. A variety of reverse transcriptase (RT)- PCR screening strategies were used to identify novel renal sensory receptors, which were subsequently confirmed using gene-specific primers. The tissue-specific distribution of these receptors was determined, and the novel renal ORs were cloned from whole mouse kidney. Renal ORs that trafficked properly in vitro were screened for potential ligands using a dual-luciferase ligand screen, and novel ligands were identified for Olfr691. These studies demonstrate that multiple sensory receptors are expressed in the kidney beyond those previously identified. These results greatly expand the known repertoire of renal sensory receptors. Importantly, the mRNA of many of the receptors identified in this study are expressed highly in the kidney (comparable to well-known and extensively studied renal GPCRs), and in future studies it will be important to elucidate the roles that these novel renal receptors play in renal physiology.
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Renal and cardiovascular sensory receptors and blood pressure regulation.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Studies over the past decade have highlighted important roles played by sensory receptors outside of traditionally sensory tissues; for example, taste receptors participate in pH sensing in the cerebrospinal fluid, bitter taste receptors mediate bronchodilation and ciliary beating in the lung (Deshpande DA, Wang WC, McIlmoyle EL, Robinett KS, Schillinger RM, An SS, Sham JS, Liggett SB. Nat Med 16: 1299-1304, 2010; Shah AS, Ben-Shahar Y, Moninger TO, Kline JN, Welsh MJ. Science 325: 1131-1134, 2009), and olfactory receptors play roles in both sperm chemotaxis and muscle cell migration (Griffin CA, Kafadar KA, Pavlath GK. Cell 17: 649-661, 2009). More recently, several studies have shown that sensory receptors also play important roles in the regulation of blood pressure. This review will focus on several recent studies examining the roles that sensory receptors play in blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on three pathways: the adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) pathway, the Gpr91-succinate signaling pathway, and the Olfr78/Gpr41 short-chain fatty acid signaling pathway. Together, these pathways demonstrate that sensory receptors play important roles in mediating blood pressure control and that blood pressure regulation is coupled to the metabolism of the host as well as the metabolism of the gut microbiota.
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Olfactory receptor responding to gut microbiota-derived signals plays a role in renin secretion and blood pressure regulation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Olfactory receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate olfactory chemosensation and serve as chemosensors in other tissues. We find that Olfr78, an olfactory receptor expressed in the kidney, responds to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Olfr78 is expressed in the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus, where it mediates renin secretion in response to SCFAs. In addition, both Olfr78 and G protein-coupled receptor 41 (Gpr41), another SCFA receptor, are expressed in smooth muscle cells of small resistance vessels. Propionate, a SCFA shown to induce vasodilation ex vivo, produces an acute hypotensive response in wild-type mice. This effect is differentially modulated by disruption of Olfr78 and Gpr41 expression. SCFAs are end products of fermentation by the gut microbiota and are absorbed into the circulation. Antibiotic treatment reduces the biomass of the gut microbiota and elevates blood pressure in Olfr78 knockout mice. We conclude that SCFAs produced by the gut microbiota modulate blood pressure via Olfr78 and Gpr41.
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A cleavable N-terminal signal peptide promotes widespread olfactory receptor surface expression in HEK293T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors that detect odorants in the olfactory epithelium, and comprise the largest gene family in the genome. Identification of OR ligands typically requires OR surface expression in heterologous cells; however, ORs rarely traffic to the cell surface when exogenously expressed. Therefore, most ORs are orphan receptors with no known ligands. To date, studies have utilized non-cleavable rhodopsin (Rho) tags and/or chaperones (i.e. Receptor Transporting Protein, RTP1S, Ric8b and G(?olf)) to improve surface expression. However, even with these tools, many ORs still fail to reach the cell surface. We used a test set of fifteen ORs to examine the effect of a cleavable leucine-rich signal peptide sequence (Lucy tag) on OR surface expression in HEK293T cells. We report here that the addition of the Lucy tag to the N-terminus increases the number of ORs reaching the cell surface to 7 of the 15 ORs (as compared to 3/15 without Rho or Lucy tags). Moreover, when ORs tagged with both Lucy and Rho were co-expressed with previously reported chaperones (RTP1S, Ric8b and G(?olf)), we observed surface expression for all 15 receptors examined. In fact, two-thirds of Lucy-tagged ORs are able to reach the cell surface synergistically with chaperones even when the Rho tag is removed (10/15 ORs), allowing for the potential assessment of OR function with only an 8-amino acid Flag tag on the mature protein. As expected for a signal peptide, the Lucy tag was cleaved from the mature protein and did not alter OR-ligand binding and signaling. Our studies demonstrate that widespread surface expression of ORs can be achieved in HEK293T cells, providing promise for future large-scale deorphanization studies.
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Renal cystic disease proteins play critical roles in the organization of the olfactory epithelium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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It was reported that some proteins known to cause renal cystic disease (NPHP6; BBS1, and BBS4) also localize to the olfactory epithelium (OE), and that mutations in these proteins can cause anosmia in addition to renal cystic disease. We demonstrate here that a number of other proteins associated with renal cystic diseases - polycystin 1 and 2 (PC1, PC2), and Meckel-Gruber syndrome 1 and 3 (MKS1, MKS3) - localize to the murine OE. PC1, PC2, MKS1 and MKS3 are all detected in the OE by RT-PCR. We find that MKS3 localizes specifically to dendritic knobs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), while PC1 localizes to both dendritic knobs and cilia of mature OSNs. In mice carrying mutations in MKS1, the expression of the olfactory adenylate cyclase (AC3) is substantially reduced. Moreover, in rats with renal cystic disease caused by a mutation in MKS3, the laminar organization of the OE is perturbed and there is a reduced expression of components of the odor transduction cascade (G(olf), AC3) and ?-acetylated tubulin. Furthermore, we show with electron microscopy that cilia in MKS3 mutant animals do not manifest the proper microtubule architecture. Both MKS1 and MKS3 mutant animals show no obvious alterations in odor receptor expression. These data show that multiple renal cystic proteins localize to the OE, where we speculate that they work together to regulate aspects of the development, maintenance or physiological activities of cilia.
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Functional expression of the olfactory signaling system in the kidney.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Olfactory-like chemosensory signaling occurs outside of the olfactory epithelium. We find that major components of olfaction, including olfactory receptors (ORs), olfactory-related adenylate cyclase (AC3) and the olfactory G protein (G(olf)), are expressed in the kidney. AC3 and G(olf) colocalize in renal tubules and in macula densa (MD) cells which modulate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is significantly reduced in AC3(-/-) mice, suggesting that AC3 participates in GFR regulation. Although tubuloglomerular feedback is normal in these animals, they exhibit significantly reduced plasma renin levels despite up-regulation of COX-2 expression and nNOS activity in the MD. Furthermore, at least one member of the renal repertoire of ORs is expressed in a MD cell line. Thus, key components of olfaction are expressed in the renal distal nephron and may play a sensory role in the MD to modulate both renin secretion and GFR.
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Novel sensory signaling systems in the kidney.
Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
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This review summarizes recent literature highlighting the roles of chemical and mechanical sensory receptors in renal function.
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Carl W. Gottschalk Distinguished Lecturer of the American Physiological Society Renal Section.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
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Carl W. Gottschalk Distinguished Lecturer of the American Physiological Society Renal Section.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.