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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Non-Hypervascular Hypointense Nodules ?1 cm on the Hepatobiliary Phase of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cirrhotic Livers.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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To determine the pathologic nature of non-hypervascular hypointense nodules (?1 cm) on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to describe the chronological changes of their imaging features on follow-up MR imaging.
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Origin in Acinetobacter guillouiae and Dissemination of the Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzyme Aph(3')-VI.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The amikacin resistance gene aphA6 was first detected in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii and subsequently in other genera. Analysis of 133 whole-genome sequences covering the taxonomic diversity of Acinetobacter spp. detected aphA6 in the chromosome of 2 isolates of A. guillouiae, which is an environmental species, 1 of 8 A. parvus isolates, and 5 of 34 A. baumannii isolates. The gene was also present in 29 out of 36 A. guillouiae isolates screened by PCR, indicating that it is ancestral to this species. The Pnative promoter for aphA6 in A. guillouiae and A. parvus was replaced in A. baumannii by PaphA6, which was generated by use of the insertion sequence ISAba125, which brought a -35 sequence. Study of promoter strength in Escherichia coli and A. baumannii indicated that PaphA6 was four times more potent than Pnative. There was a good correlation between aminoglycoside MICs and aphA6 transcription in A. guillouiae isolates that remained susceptible to amikacin. The marked topology differences of the phylogenetic trees of aphA6 and of the hosts strongly support its recent direct transfer within Acinetobacter spp. and also to evolutionarily remote bacterial genera. Concomitant expression of aphA6 must have occurred because, contrary to the donors, it can confer resistance to the new hosts. Mobilization and expression of aphA6 via composite transposons and the upstream IS-generating hybrid PaphA6, followed by conjugation, seems the most plausible mechanism. This is in agreement with the observation that, in the recipients, aphA6 is carried by conjugative plasmids and flanked by IS that are common in Acinetobacter spp. Our data indicate that resistance genes can also be found in susceptible environmental bacteria.
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Comparison of Iterative Model-Based Reconstruction Versus Conventional Filtered Back Projection and Hybrid Iterative Reconstruction Techniques: Lesion Conspicuity and Influence of Body Size in Anthropomorphic Liver Phantoms.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This study aimed to determine whether an iterative model-based reconstruction (IMR) can improve lesion conspicuity and depiction on computed tomography (CT) compared with filtered back projection (FBP) and hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose) using anthropomorphic phantoms.
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The Relationship Between Colonoscopy Procedure Order and Adenoma Detection Rates: A Prospective Study.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the effects of the order of colonoscopic procedures and other possible factors on the adenoma detection rate (ADR).
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The genomic diversification of the whole acinetobacter genus: origins, mechanisms, and consequences.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Bacterial genomics has greatly expanded our understanding of microdiversification patterns within a species, but analyses at higher taxonomical levels are necessary to understand and predict the independent rise of pathogens in a genus. We have sampled, sequenced, and assessed the diversity of genomes of validly named and tentative species of the Acinetobacter genus, a clade including major nosocomial pathogens and biotechnologically important species. We inferred a robust global phylogeny and delimited several new putative species. The genus is very ancient and extremely diverse: Genomes of highly divergent species share more orthologs than certain strains within a species. We systematically characterized elements and mechanisms driving genome diversification, such as conjugative elements, insertion sequences, and natural transformation. We found many error-prone polymerases that may play a role in resistance to toxins, antibiotics, and in the generation of genetic variation. Surprisingly, temperate phages, poorly studied in Acinetobacter, were found to account for a significant fraction of most genomes. Accordingly, many genomes encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems with some of the largest CRISPR-arrays found so far in bacteria. Integrons are strongly overrepresented in Acinetobacter baumannii, which correlates with its frequent resistance to antibiotics. Our data suggest that A. baumannii arose from an ancient population bottleneck followed by population expansion under strong purifying selection. The outstanding diversification of the species occurred largely by horizontal transfer, including some allelic recombination, at specific hotspots preferentially located close to the replication terminus. Our work sets a quantitative basis to understand the diversification of Acinetobacter into emerging resistant and versatile pathogens.
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Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis and Influenza A Co-infection in a Patient with AIDS and Neutropenia.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT), an unusual form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), is characterized by pseudomembrane formation, ulcer or obstruction that is predominantly confined to tracheobronchial tree. Hematologic malignancies, neutropenia, solid organ transplantation, chronic corticosteroid therapy and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are known to be major predisposing conditions. However, since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, there is only one reported case of AT in AIDS patient. After pandemic of influenza A/H1N1 2009, there are several reports of IPA in patient with influenza and most of them received corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy before the development of IPA. We present a 45 year-old AIDS patient with influenza A infection who developed pseudomembranous AT without corticosteroid use or immunosuppressive therapy.
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Effects of the interleukin-1?-511 C/T gene polymorphism on the risk of gastric cancer in the context of the relationship between race and H. pylori infection: a meta-analysis of 20,000 subjects.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The interleukin (IL)-1?-511 C/T polymorphism has been shown to be functional and to contribute to the risk of gastric cancer. However, the relationship between the IL-1?-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric carcinogenesis remains inconclusive. A systematical electronic search was conducted of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases. A random and a fixed effects model were exploited to estimate summary odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out with respect to ethnicity, quality assessment scores, control sources, genotyping methods, cancer histopathology and location, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A total of 45 studies containing 9,066 cases of gastric cancer and 11,192 control subjects satisfied the inclusion criteria. The IL-1?-511 C/T polymorphism was found to enhance the risk of stomach cancer for overall and HWE-satisfying studies. Asians showed a positive relationship in both the overall and HWE-satisfying groups, whereas Caucasians did not. Based on subgroup analysis, H. pylori infection and genotype analysis using PCR-RFLP methods increase the association between IL-1?-511 T allele carrier and risk of stomach cancer. A positive relationship was found between the IL-1?-511 C/T SNP and stomach carcinoma susceptibility, and the results suggest that Asian ethnicity, H. pylori infection and methodologically, PCR-RFLP genotyping strengthen this relationship. Reflecting on prevalence of H. pylori in Asian countries, additional studies on the IL-1?-511 C/T SNP in the context of ethnicity and H. pylori infection may provide key insights into the mechanism underlying gastric cancer carcinogenesis. It was found PCR-RFLP is the most reliable genotyping method, and thus, it is recommendable to adopt it to determine the presence of the IL-1?-511 C/T SNP.
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Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic ?-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL) are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND), HFD (60 kcal% fat diet), EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt) EASL), and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt) pinitol) groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), paired box 4 (Pax4), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating ?-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.
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Feasibility of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning in living liver donors.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy, reproducibility, and improvement in the clinical workflow of a semiautomatic computed tomography (CT) virtual surgical planning program in estimating graft volume using actual graft weight as a standard of reference in living liver donors.
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Factors that determine prolonged cecal intubation time during colonoscopy: impact of visceral adipose tissue.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Various factors including age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and history of operation have been linked to the colonoscopic intubation time. The aims of this study were to identify the factors predicting cecal intubation time (CIT) and to evaluate the effect of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area on CIT.
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The Relationship between Smoking Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Male Health Check-up Examinees over 40 Years of Age.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and metabolic syndrome in men.
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Association between TNF-?-308 G/A gene polymorphism and gastric cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) has been found to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, but individually published results have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the TNF-?-308 G/A polymorphism and gastric cancer risk.
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Navigated three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence for gadoxetic acid liver magnetic resonance imaging in patients with limited breath-holding capacity.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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To determine whether a navigator-gated three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence (T1W-GRE, navigated LAVA) can improve diagnostic performance for the detection of focal liver lesions (FLLs) compared to standard breath-hold (BH) T1W-GRE breath-hold LAVA (BH-LAVA) during the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with limited breath-holding capacity.
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Cross-sectional evaluation of the prevalence and factors associated with soft tissue scarring after the removal of miniscrews.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of distinguishable soft tissue scarring after the removal of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) such as orthodontic miniscrews and to analyze the factors associated with scar formation. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of soft tissue scarring in 66 patients (202 miniscrew removal sites) was clinically investigated at least 1 year after miniscrew removal. To determine the clinical factors associated with soft tissue scar formation, miniscrew stability; host factors including age, gender, and gingival biotype; and miniscrew-related factors such as insertion site, vertical position, and insertion period were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of a distinguishable scar remaining at least 1 year after miniscrew removal was 44.6%. Patients with flat gingiva showed a significantly higher prevalence of soft tissue scar formation than did those with pronounced scalloped gingiva (P < .05). Maxillary buccal removal sites showed a significantly higher prevalence of soft tissue scar formation than did those in the mandible or palatal slope (P < .05). Miniscrew sites at the alveolar mucosa showed a significantly lower prevalence of soft tissue scar formation than did those in the mucogingival junction or the attached gingiva (P < .01). Conclusion: The prevalence of distinguishable scarring after miniscrew removal was fairly high. On the basis of our results, patients with flat gingiva and buccal interdental gingival insertion sites are more susceptible to scar formation.
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Periodontal consequences of mandibular incisor proclination during presurgical orthodontic treatment in Class III malocclusion patients.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodontal changes are similar between proclined and minimal-changed mandibular incisor position groups during presurgical orthodontic treatment for Class III orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: The following measurements were performed before and after presurgical orthodontic treatment of 75 patients (proclination group, 39 subjects; minimal-change group, 36 subjects): clinical crown length, sulcus and bone probing depths, and width of attached gingiva from clinical examination; infradentale-to-MP (perpendicular distance of infradentale to mandibular plane) from examination of lateral cephalograms; and the distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar crest from examination of periapical radiographs. Data were compared between the two groups, and a regression analysis was performed to investigate factors affecting the periodontal changes. Results: In both groups, clinical crown length and bone probing depth increased during presurgical orthodontics (P < .05). Infradentale-to-MP and the width of attached gingiva decreased more in the proclination group than in the minimal-change group (P < .05). Proclination and protrusion of the mandibular incisors, and treatment duration affected the periodontal changes. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected. Proclination of the mandibular incisors for decompensation in Class III surgery patients seems to result in labial alveolar bone recession and a decrease in width of attached gingiva. However, the amount of the periodontal recession appeared to be clinically insignificant.
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Histologic Findings and Inflammatory Reactions After Long-term Colonization of Helicobacter felis in C57BL/6 Mice.
J Cancer Prev
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The Helicobacter felis (H. felis) mouse model has been developed for the research regarding pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term H. felis colonization in the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice and subsequent histologic findings and inflammatory reactions including pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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Microdevices for examining immunological responses of single cells to HIV.
Biosci. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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More than 60 million people in the world have been diagnosed with HIV infections since the virus was recognized as the causative agent of AIDS in the 1980s. Even though more than half of the infected patients have died, effective disease treatment and prevention measures have not been established. ART (antiretroviral therapy) is the only proven HIV treatment that sustains the suppression of patient viraemia. Current routine approaches to treat HIV infections are targeted at developing vaccines that will induce humoral or cell memory immune responses. However, developing an effective vaccine has been challenging because the HIV mutates rapidly, which allows the virus to evade immune surveillances established against the previous strain. In addition, the virus is able to quickly establish a reservoir and treatment is difficult because of the general lack of knowledge about HIV immune response mechanisms. This review introduces common disease symptoms and the progression of HIV infection with a brief summary of the current treatment approaches. Different cellular immune responses against HIV are also discussed, with emphasis on a nanotechnology research that has focused on probing T-cell response to HIV infection. Furthermore, we discuss recent noteworthy nanotechnology updates on T-cell response screening that is focused on HIV infection. Finally, we review potential future treatment strategies based on the correlations between T-cell response and HIV infection.
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Hepatic Fibrosis: Prospective Comparison of MR Elastography and US Shear Wave Elastography for Evaluation.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Purpose To compare magnetic resonance (MR) elastography and ultrasonographic shear wave elastography (SWE) for the staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF) in the same individuals. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. The technical success of and reliable liver stiffness (LS) measurement rates at MR elastography and SWE were compared in 129 patients who underwent both examinations. For mutual validation, LS values measured at both examinations were correlated by using Pearson correlation. The diagnostic performance of the two techniques for the assessment of substantial HF (stage ? F2) was compared by using nonparametric receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results The technical success rates of MR elastography and SWE were 95.35% (123 of 129) and 97.67% (126 of 129), respectively (P = .51). MR elastography provided significantly more reliable LS measurements than did SWE (95.35% [123 of 129] vs 75.2% [97 of 129], P < .001). The two examinations showed moderate correlation (r = 0.724). In patients with HF stages of F3 or lower, the two examinations showed moderate-to-strong correlation (r = 0.683 in normal livers, 0.754 in livers with stage F0 or F1 HF, and 0.90 in livers with stage F2 or F3 HF; P < .001); however, they did not show significant correlation for stage F4 HF (r = 0.30, P = .31). MR elastography and SWE showed similar diagnostic capability in depicting HF of stage F2 or greater (P = .98) when LS measurements were reliably performed. Conclusion MR elastography and SWE showed moderate correlation and similar diagnostic performance in the diagnosis of HF of stage F2 or greater; however, MR elastography yielded more reliable LS measurements than did SWE. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Rotundarpene prevents TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes by suppressing the caspase-8- and Bid-pathways and the mitochondrial pathway.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The extract and hemiterpene glycosides of Ilex rotunda Thunb have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the effect of rotundarpene on the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes that may be involved in skin diseases has not been studied. In this respect, we investigated the effect of rotundarpene on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes. TRAIL triggers apoptosis by inducing a decrease in the cytosolic levels of Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin proteins, increase in the cytosolic levels of Bax, and increase in the mitochondrial levels of VDAC1, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases (-8, -9, and -3), cleavage of PARP-1, and an increase in the tumor suppressor p53 levels. Treatment with rotundarpene prevented TRAIL-induced changes in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, formations of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, nuclear damage, and cell death. These results suggest that rotundarpene may reduce TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes by suppressing the activation of the caspase-8- and Bid-pathways and the mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway, which is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. These data suggest that rotundarpene appears to be effective in the prevention of TRAIL-induced apoptosis-mediated skin diseases.
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Technology Advancement for Integrative Stem Cell Analyses.
Tissue Eng Part B Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose-by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach-that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment.
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Protective Effects of Garlic Extract, PMK-S005, Against Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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PMK-S005 is synthetic s-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, which was initially isolated from garlic. The antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities of SAC have been demonstrated in diverse experimental animal models.
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Development of a security system for assisted reproductive technology (ART).
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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In the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART), medical accidents can result in serious legal and social consequences. This study was conducted to develop a security system (called IVF-guardian; IG) that could prevent mismatching or mix-ups in ART.
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Different MicroRNA Expression Levels in Gastric Cancer Depending on Helicobacter pylori Infection.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study was conducted to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with an intestinal type of gastric cancer using miRNA microarray and to confirm the candidate miRNA expression levels.
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Droplet-based immunoassay on a 'sticky' nanofibrous surface for multiplexed and dual detection of bacteria using smartphones.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and specific droplet-based immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella within a single-pipetted sample. Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun fibers on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass provide a sufficient surface to render a non-slip droplet condition, and while the PCL fibers lend a local hydrophilicity (contact angle ?=74°) for sufficient sub-micron particle adhesion, air pockets within the fibers lend an apparent hydrophobicity. Overall, the contact angle of water on this electrospun surface is 119°, and the air pockets cause the droplet to be completely immobile and resistant to movement, protecting it from external vibration. By using both anti-E. coli conjugated, 510nm diameter green fluorescent particles (480nm excitation and 520nm emission) and anti-Salmonella conjugated, 400nm diameter red fluorescent particles (640nm excitation and 690nm emission), we can detect multiple targets in a single droplet. Using appropriate light sources guided by fiber optics, we determined a detection limit of 10(2)CFUmL(-1). Immunoagglutination can be observed under a fluorescence microscope. Fluorescence detection (at the emission wavelength) of immunoagglutination was maximum at 90° from the incident light, while light scattering (at the excitation wavelength) was still present and behaved similarly, indicating the ability of double detection, greatly improving credibility and reproducibility of the assay. A power function (light intensity) simulation of elastic Mie scatter confirmed that both fluorescence and light scattering were present. Due to the size of the fluorescent particles relative to their incident excitation wavelengths, Mie scatter conditions were observed, and fluorescence signals show a similar trend to light scattering signals. Smartphone detection was included for true portable detection, in which the high contact angle pinning of the droplet makes this format re-usable and re-configurable.
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A Surgical Method for Determining Proper Screw Length in ACDF.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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We describe a surgical tool that uses the distractor pin as a reference for determining proper screw length in ACDF. It is critical that screw purchase depth be as deep as possible without violating or penetrating the posterior cortical wall, which ensures strong pull out strength.
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No Correlation of Inflammation With Colonization of Helicobacter pylori in the Stomach of Mice Fed High-salt Diet.
J Cancer Prev
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Previous studies on Helicobacter pylori infection in mice have contributed to better understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate H. pylori colonization and subsequent inflammatory responses in the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice depending on inoculation number and the presence of high-salt diet.
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p-Coumaric acid and ursolic acid from Corni fructus attenuated ?-amyloid(25-35)-induced toxicity through regulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway in PC12 cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Neuroinflammatory responses induced by amyloid-beta peptide (A?) are important causes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Blockade of A? has emerged as a possible therapeutic approach to control the onset of AD. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) and ursolic acid (UA) from Corni fructus against A?(25-35)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. p-CA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in A?(25-35)-injured PC12 cells. Blockade of nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and phosphorylation of I?B-? was also observed after p-CA and UA treatment. For the upstream kinases, UA exclusively reduced ERK1/2, p-38, and JNK phosphorylation, but p-CA suppressed ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Both compounds comprehensively inhibited NF-?B activity, but possibly with different upstream pathways. The results provide new insight into the pharmacological modes of p-CA and UA and their potential therapeutic application to AD.
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Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase C?2- and ?-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds.
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The effectiveness of endoscopic radiofrequency denervation of medial branch for treatment of chronic low back pain.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of medial branch in patients with chronic low back pain originating from facet joints.
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Clinicopathological characteristics of colon cancer diagnosed at primary health care institutions.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of colon cancers detected at the SOK Sokpeynhan Internal Medical Network, a nationwide system of primary health care institutions.
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Amplification of aminoglycoside resistance gene aphA1 in Acinetobacter baumannii results in tobramycin therapy failure.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Gene amplification is believed to play an important role in antibiotic resistance but has been rarely documented in clinical settings because of its unstable nature. We report a rise in MICs from 0.5 to 16 ?g/ml in successive Acinetobacter baumannii isolated over 4 days from a patient being treated with tobramycin for an infection by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, resulting in therapeutic failure. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing, real-time and reverse transcriptase PCR, and growth assays to determine the mechanism of tobramycin resistance and its fitness cost. Tobramycin resistance was associated with two amplification events of different chromosomal fragments containing the aphA1 aminoglycoside resistance gene part of transposon Tn6020. The first amplification event involved low amplification (6 to 10 copies) of a large DNA fragment that was unstable and conferred tobramycin MICs of ? 8 ?g/ml. The second event involved moderate (10 to 30 copies) or high (40 to 110 copies) amplification of Tn6020. High copy numbers were associated with tobramycin MICs of 16 ?g/ml, impaired fitness, and genetic instability, whereas lower copy numbers resulted in tobramycin MICs of ?8 ?g/ml and no fitness cost and were stably maintained in vitro. Exposure in vitro to tobramycin of the initial susceptible isolate and of the A. baumannii AB0057 reference strain led to similar aphA1 amplifications and elevated tobramycin MICs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo development of antibiotic resistance secondary to gene amplifications resulting in therapy failure. IMPORTANCE A combination of whole-genome sequencing and mapping were used to detect an antibiotic resistance mechanism, gene amplification, which has been presumed for a long time to be of major importance but has rarely been reported in clinical settings because of its unstable nature. Two gene amplification events in a patient with an Acinetobacter baumannii infection treated with tobramycin were identified. One gene amplification event led to high levels of resistance and was rapidly reversible, while the second event led to low and more stable resistance since it incurred low fitness cost on the host. Gene amplification, with an associated rise in tobramycin MICs, could be readily reproduced in vitro from initially susceptible strains exposed to increasing concentrations of tobramycin, suggesting that gene amplification in A. baumannii may be a more common mechanism than currently believed. This report underscores the importance of rapid molecular techniques for surveillance of drug resistance.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of betaine on AOM/DSS?induced colon tumorigenesis in ICR male mice.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods and studies in animals and humans have provided results suggesting their pathogenesis of various chronic diseases and points to a role in risk assessment and disease prevention. However, the molecular mechanisms of its activity remain poorly understood and warrant further investigation. This study was performed to investigate the anti-inflammation and tumor preventing capacity of betaine on colitis-associated cancer in mice. In in vivo experiments, we induced colon tumors in mice by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and evaluated the effects of betaine on tumor growth. Administration with betaine significantly decreased the incidence of tumor formation with downregulation of inflammation. Treatment with betaine inhibited ROS generation and GSSG concentration in colonic mucosa. Based on the qPCR data, administration of betaine inhibited inflammatory cytokines such TNF-?, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. In in vitro experiments, LPS-induced NF-?B and inflammatory-related cytokines were inhibited by betaine treatment in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Our findings suggest that betaine is one of the candidates for the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis.
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Orthodontic retraction of autotransplanted premolar to replace ankylosed maxillary incisor with replacement resorption.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult with lip protrusion and a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor that had experienced replacement root resorption. An extracted premolar was transplanted into the incisor space and retracted orthodontically. Autotransplantation was successful with complete root formation and, combined with orthodontic treatment, provided a satisfying esthetic outcome.
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Computational biophysical, biochemical, and evolutionary signature of human R-spondin family proteins, the member of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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In human, Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in cell growth, cell development, and disease pathogenesis. Four human (Rspo)s are known to activate canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Presently, (Rspo)s serve as therapeutic target for several human diseases. Henceforth, basic understanding about the molecular properties of (Rspo)s is essential. We approached this issue by interpreting the biochemical and biophysical properties along with molecular evolution of (Rspo)s thorough computational algorithm methods. Our analysis shows that signal peptide length is roughly similar in (Rspo)s family along with similarity in aa distribution pattern. In Rspo3, four N-glycosylation sites were noted. All members are hydrophilic in nature and showed alike GRAVY values, approximately. Conversely, Rspo3 contains the maximum positively charged residues while Rspo4 includes the lowest. Four highly aligned blocks were recorded through Gblocks. Phylogenetic analysis shows Rspo4 is being rooted with Rspo2 and similarly Rspo3 and Rspo1 have the common point of origin. Through phylogenomics study, we developed a phylogenetic tree of sixty proteins (n = 60) with the orthologs and paralogs seed sequences. Protein-protein network was also illustrated. Results demonstrated in our study may help the future researchers to unfold significant physiological and therapeutic properties of (Rspo)s in various disease models.
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Liver computed tomography with low tube voltage and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for hepatic vessel evaluation in living liver donor candidates.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the image quality and diagnostic performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for hepatic vessel evaluation on low-tube-voltage (100 kilovolt [peak]) liver computed tomography (CT) for living donors.
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Risk factors and therapeutic outcomes of acute acalculous cholecystitis.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is traditionally known to occur in critically ill patients and to have a poor prognosis. Although cholecystectomy is usually recommended for treating AAC, nonsurgical management may be a good alternative. The objective of this study was to review the incidence, risk factors, treatment modality, and therapeutic outcomes of AAC compared to acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC).
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A case of primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma arising from the retropancreatic area.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma is an extremely uncommon tumor, even though mucinous cystadenoma often develops in the ovary and less frequently in the pancreas. A 21-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain. A well-demarcated, oval shaped cystic tumor at the retropancreatic area with displacement of the pancreas and surrounding major vessels was observed on CT and MRI. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and complete excision of the entire cyst was performed without complication. The pathologic finding was consistent with primary retropancreatic mucinous cystadenoma. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a case of retropancreatic mucinous cystadenoma arising from the retropancreatic area in Korea.
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Rapid and reagentless detection of microbial contamination within meat utilizing a smartphone-based biosensor.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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A smartphone-utilized biosensor was developed for detecting microbial spoilage on ground beef, without using antibodies, microbeads or any other reagents, towards a preliminary screening tool for microbial contamination on meat products, and potentially towards wound infection. Escherichia coli K12 solutions (10(1)-10(8) CFU/mL) were added to ground beef products to simulate microbial spoilage. An 880 nm near infrared LED was irradiated perpendicular to the surface of ground beef, and the scatter signals at various angles were evaluated utilizing the gyro sensor and the digital camera of a smartphone. The angle that maximized the Mie scatter varied by the E. coli concentration: 15° for 10(8) CFU/mL, 30° for 10(4) CFU/mL, and 45° for 10 CFU/mL, etc. SEM and fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that the antigens and cell fragments from E. coli bonded preferably to the fat particles within meat, and the size and morphologies of such aggregates varied by the E. coli concentration.
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3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid attenuates proteasome inhibition-mediated programmed cell death in differentiated PC12 cells.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The dysfunction of the proteasome system is suggested to be implicated in neuronal degeneration. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives have demonstrated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid on the neuronal cell death induced by proteasome inhibition has not been studied. Therefore, in the respect of cell death process, we assessed the effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid on the proteasome inhibition-induced programmed cell death using differentiated PC12 cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132 and MG115 induced a decrease in Bid, Bcl-2, and survivin protein levels, an increase in Bax, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (-8, -9 and -3), and an increase in the tumor suppressor p53 levels. Treatment with 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid attenuated the proteasome inhibitor-induced changes in the programmed cell death-related protein levels, formation of reactive oxygen species, GSH depletion and cell death. The results show that 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid may attenuate the proteasome inhibitor-induced programmed cell death in PC12 cells by suppressing the activation of the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The preventive effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid appears to be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH.
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Prediction of esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis: usefulness of three-dimensional MR elastography with echo-planar imaging technique.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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To determine the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography in comparison to spleen length and dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in association with esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis by using endoscopy as the reference standard.
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Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection using magnetic resonance elastography.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
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Biomechanical characteristics and reinsertion guidelines for retrieved orthodontic miniscrews.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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To analyze morphological variations of retrieved orthodontic miniscrews and to evaluate the mechanical properties that may adversely affect relocation of miniscrews.
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Shear wave elastography for liver stiffness measurement in clinical sonographic examinations: evaluation of intraobserver reproducibility, technical failure, and unreliable stiffness measurements.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal minimum number of liver stiffness measurements on shear wave elastography (SWE) and to evaluate the frequency of technical failures and unreliable stiffness measurements and the intraobserver reproducibility of SWE.
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BRAF mutation may predict higher necessity of postoperative radioactive iodine ablation in papillary thyroid cancer.
Ann Surg Treat Res
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The primary aim of the present study was to analyze the association between high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics and the BRAFV600E mutation.
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Apigenin-induced apoptosis is enhanced by inhibition of autophagy formation in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid, shown to have chemopreventive and/or anticancer properties in a variety of human cancer cells. The involvement of autophagy in apigenin-induced apoptotic cell death of HCT116 human colon cancer cells was investigated. Apigenin induced suppression of cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner in HCT116 cells. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that apigenin resulted in G2/M phase arrest. This flavone also suppressed the expression of both cyclin B1 and its activating partners, Cdc2 and Cdc25c, whereas the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, such as p53 and p53-dependent p21(CIP1/WAF1), was increased after apigenin treatment. Apigenin induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and decreased the levels of procaspase-8, -9 and -3. In addition, the apigenin-treated cells exhibited autophagy, as characterized by the appearance of autophagosomes under fluorescence microscopy and the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the results of the western blot analysis revealed that the levels of LC3-II, the processed form of LC3-I, was increased by apigenin. Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly enhanced the apoptosis induced by apigenin, which was accompanied by an increase in the levels of PARP cleavage. These results indicate that apigenin has apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing effects in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Autophagy plays a cytoprotective role in apigenin-induced apoptosis, and the combination of apigenin and an autophagy inhibitor may be a promising strategy for colon cancer control.
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High-resolution T1-weighted gradient echo imaging for liver MRI using parallel imaging at high-acceleration factors.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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To determine whether application of a high-acceleration parallel acquisition can provide three-dimensional (3D)-fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (T1W-GRE) imaging at 3T for liver MR imaging.
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Hepatic steatosis in living liver donor candidates: preoperative assessment by using breath-hold triple-echo MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of both breath-hold T2*-corrected triple-echo spoiled gradient-echo water-fat separation magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (triple-echo imaging) and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho hydrogen 1 ((1)H) MR spectroscopy in the assessment of macrovesicular hepatic steatosis in living liver donor candidates by using histologic assessment as a reference standard.
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Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: prediction of the histologic grade using pure diffusion coefficient and tumor size.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the value of intravoxel incoherent motion and diffusion-weighted imaging for predicting the histologic grade of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs).
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High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin exerts neuroprotective effect in the rat model of neonatal asphyxia.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Neonatal asphyxia is one of the leading causes of death in newborn and permanent neurological disabilities in surviving children. The underlying hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury triggers an inflammatory response leading to neuronal damage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) could exert immunomodulatory effect in rat pups subjected to HI injury.
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Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with enhancement degree and histologic grade.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To compare the association of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the histologic grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the relationship between IVIM-derived parameters and arterial enhancement degree.
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Corosolic acid induces apoptotic cell death in HCT116 human colon cancer cells through a caspase-dependent pathway.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Corosolic acid (CA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (also known as Banaba), has been shown to exhibit anticancer properties in various cancer cell lines. However, the anticancer activity of CA on human colorectal cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of CA on cell viability and apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. CA dose-dependently inhibited the viability of HCT116 cells. The typical hallmarks of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation, a sub-G1 peak and phosphatidylserine externalization were detected by Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry and Annexin V staining following treatment with CA. Western blot analysis revealed that CA induced a decrease in the levels of procaspase-8, -9 and -3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The apoptotic cell death induced by CA was accompanied by the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, which was completely abrogated by the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD?FMK. Furthermore, CA upregulated the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax, Fas and FasL and downregulated the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2 and survivin. Taken together, our data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of CA-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC), rendering this compound a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of CRC.
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Long-term pharyngeal airway changes after bionator treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions.
Korean J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term changes in the pharyngeal airway dimensions after functional appliance treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions.
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Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes.
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Monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a dual-switching system and a separable clustered electrode: evaluation of the in vivo efficiency.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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To determine the in vivo efficiency of monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a dual-switching (DS) system and a separable clustered (SC) electrode to create coagulation in swine liver.
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MHY-449, a novel dihydrobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,8] naphthyridin-6-one derivative, induces apoptotic cell death through modulation of Akt/FoxO1 and ERK signaling in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Previously, we reported on the anticancer effect of the diastereoisomeric compound MHY-449, a novel dihydro-benzofuro[4,5-b][1,8] naphthyridin-6-one derivative, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. In the current study, we investigated whether MHY-449 has anticancer effect in prostate cancer cells, and if so, what the molecular mechanisms are. We examined the growth inhibitory effect of MHY-449 on p53 wild?type (p53-wt) LNCaP (androgen?dependent) and p53-null PC3 (androgen-independent) prostate cancer cells. MHY-449 treatment in androgen-independent and p53-null PC3 cells resulted in inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. However, MHY-449 did not show any significant effects on the growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death in androgen-dependent and p53-wt LNCaP cells. Therefore, we used PC3 cells for further studies. The induction of apoptosis in PC3 cells was observed by decreased viability, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, activations of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. In addition, MHY-449 induced increase of late apoptosis and sub-G1 DNA which were observed by flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, MHY-449 reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO1 and induced the translocation of FoxO1 from cytoplasm to nucleus as shown by western blot analysis. MHY-449 treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in a concentration-dependent manner. MHY-449-induced apoptosis was partially prevented by pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 suggesting involvement of ERK in the MHY-449-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that MHY-449 induces apoptosis via downregulation of the Akt/FoxO1 and activation of ERK in androgen-independent, p53-null and PTEN-negative PC3 human prostate cancer cells.
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Association of Leisure Time Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome over 40 Years.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activities (LTPA) and metabolic syndrome (MS).
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Colon-targeted celecoxib ameliorates TNBS-induced rat colitis: a potential pharmacologic mechanism and therapeutic advantages.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The clinical usefulness of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is controversial in terms of efficacy and toxicity. To overcome these problems, colon-specific drug delivery was adopted, which generally confers therapeutic and toxicological advantages of drugs for treatment of colonic diseases. N-succinylaspart-1-yl celecoxib (SA1C), a colon-specific prodrug of celecoxib, was administered orally to rats with experimental colitis, and the anti-colitic effects and a molecular mechanism were investigated and compared to those of conventional celecoxib. SA1C, which delivered a much greater amount of celecoxib to the inflamed colon, alleviated the colonic injury, lowered myeloperoxidase activity in the inflamed colonic tissues and was much more effective than conventional celecoxib. SA1C but not conventional celecoxib significantly attenuated expression of NF?B target gene products in the inflamed tissues. Consistent with this, SA1C effectively prevented nuclear accumulation of p65 in the inflamed tissues. Moreover, while conventional celecoxib lowered the serum level of 6-keto-PGF1?, an inverse indicator of cardiovascular toxicity, SA1C did not change its serum level. Our data suggest that colonic delivery of celecoxib is a feasible strategy for treatment of IBD with improved therapeutic and toxicological properties.
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Real time shear wave elastography in chronic liver diseases: Accuracy for predicting liver fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of LSM for predicting significant and advanced fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers.
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Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In Gram-negative bacteria, acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases ArmA and NpmA confer high-level resistance to all clinically useful aminoglycosides by modifying, respectively, G1405 and A1408 in the A-site. These enzymes must coexist with several endogenous methyltransferases that are essential for fine-tuning of the decoding center, such as RsmH and RsmI in Escherichia coli, which methylate C1402 and RsmF C1407. The resistance methyltransferases have a contrasting distribution--ArmA has spread worldwide, whereas a single clinical isolate producing NpmA has been reported. The rate of dissemination of resistance depends on the fitness cost associated with its expression. We have compared ArmA and NpmA in isogenic Escherichia coli harboring the corresponding structural genes and their inactive point mutants cloned under the control of their native constitutive promoter in the stable plasmid pGB2. Growth rate determination and competition experiments showed that ArmA had a fitness cost due to methylation of G1405, whereas NpmA conferred only a slight disadvantage to the host due to production of the enzyme. MALDI MS indicated that ArmA impeded one of the methylations at C1402 by RsmI, and not at C1407 as previously proposed, whereas NpmA blocked the activity of RsmF at C1407. A dual luciferase assay showed that methylation at G1405 and A1408 and lack of methylation at C1407 affect translation accuracy. These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness.
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Korean Red Ginseng saponin fraction modulates radiation effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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In previous work, we reported that Korean Red Ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF) showed anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo.
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Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recently, various nanoscale materials, including silver (Ag) nanoparticles, have been actively studied for their capacity to effectively prevent bacterial growth. A critical challenge is to enhance the antibacterial properties of nanomaterials while maintaining their biocompatibility. The conjugation of multiple nanomaterials with different dimensions, such as spherical nanoparticles and high-aspect-ratio nanotubes, may increase the target-specific antibacterial capacity of the consequent nanostructure while retaining an optimal biocompatibility. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were treated with a mixture of acids and decorated with Ag nanoparticles via a chemical reduction of Ag cations by ethanol solution. The synthesized Ag-MWCNT complexes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The antibacterial function of Ag-MWCNTs was evaluated against Methylobacterium spp. and Sphingomonas spp. In addition, the biocompatibility of Ag-MWCNTs was evaluated using both mouse liver hepatocytes (AML 12) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, we determined the minimum amount of Ag-MWCNTs required for a biocompatible yet effective antibacterial treatment modality. We report that 30 ?g/mL of Ag-MWCNTs confers antibacterial functionality while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity toward both human and animal cells. The results reported herein would be beneficial for researchers interested in the efficient preparation of hybrid nanostructures and in determining the minimum amount of Ag-MWCNTs necessary to effectively hinder the growth of bacteria.
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Detection of Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates by the ADAM(®) Image Cytometer.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inappropriate platelet activation is known to be associated with various thrombotic disorders. Platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), whose formation is mediated by platelet surface P-selectin (CD62P), can be used as a reliable marker to detect platelet activation. Previous studies have generally detected PMAs through flow cytometry-based approaches. Recently, the ADAM(®) image cytometer (Nanoentek Inc., Seoul, Korea) was developed for image-based cellular analysis. In this study, we detected PMAs with the ADAM(®) cytometer, evaluated the reproducibility of the measurements made by the ADAM(®) cytometer, and compared the abilities of the ADAM(®) cytometer and a flow cytometric assay to detect PMAs.
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Regulation of the follistatin gene by RSPO-LGR4 signaling via activation of the WNT/?-catenin pathway in skeletal myogenesis.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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WNT signaling plays multiple roles in skeletal myogenesis during gestation and postnatal stages. The R-spondin (RSPO) family of secreted proteins and their cognate receptors, members of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (LGR) family, have emerged as new regulatory components of the WNT signaling pathway. We previously showed that RSPO2 promoted myogenic differentiation via activation of WNT/?-catenin signaling in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells in vitro. However, the molecular mechanism by which RSPO2 regulates myogenic differentiation is unknown. Herein, we show that depletion of the LGR4 receptor severely disrupted myogenic differentiation and significantly diminished the response to RSPO2 in C2C12 cells, showing a requirement of LGR4 in RSPO signaling during myogenic differentiation. We identify the TGF? antagonist follistatin (Fst) as a key mediator of RSPO-LGR4 signaling in myogenic differentiation. We further demonstrate that Fst is a direct target of the WNT/?-catenin pathway. Activation and inactivation of ?-catenin induced and inhibited Fst expression, respectively, in both C2C12 cells and mouse embryos. Specific TCF1/LEF1 binding sites within the promoter and intron 1 region of the Fst gene were required for RSPO2 and WNT/?-catenin-induced Fst expression. This study uncovers a molecular crosstalk between WNT/?-catenin and TGF? signaling pivotal in myogenic differentiation.
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Absence of a major role for the snai1 and snai3 genes in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration in mice.
PLoS Curr
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The Snail gene family encodes DNA-binding zinc finger proteins that function as transcriptional repressors. While the Snai1 and Snai2 genes are required for normal development in mice, Snai3 mutant mice exhibit no obvious abnormalities. The Snai3 gene is expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle. However, we demonstrate by histological analysis that Snai3 null mutant mice exhibit normal skeletal muscle. During hindlimb muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin-mediated injury, the Snai3 null mice exhibited efficient regeneration. To determine whether the Snai3 gene functions redundantly with the Snai1 gene during skeletal muscle regeneration, we performed hindlimb muscle regeneration in mice with skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Snai1 gene on a Snai3 null genetic background. These mice also exhibited efficient regeneration, demonstrating that there is no major role for the Snai1 and Snai3 genes in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration in mice.
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Anatomical parameters of fifth lumbar vertebra in L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis from a surgical point of view.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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We measured the length, width, height, and angles related to both Meyerding grading system and Marchetti-Bartolozzi classification in L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis patients to investigate the anatomical characteristics of fifth lumbar pedicles.
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Disappearance of an adnexal mass with Saam acupuncture: a case report.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with a right adnexal mass resembling an ovarian cyst who declined diagnostic laparoscopy and requested treatment with acupuncture. The patient was treated with Saam acupuncture for 14 weeks. After treatment, transvaginal sonography revealed disappearance of the right adnexal mass. No adverse effects of the Saam acupuncture treatment were reported.
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Smartphone quantifies Salmonella from paper microfluidics.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Smartphone-based optical detection is a potentially easy-to-use, handheld, true point-of-care diagnostic tool for the early and rapid detection of pathogens. Paper microfluidics is a low-cost, field-deployable, and easy-to-use alternative to conventional microfluidic devices. Most paper-based microfluidic assays typically utilize dyes or enzyme-substrate binding, while bacterial detection on paper microfluidics is rare. We demonstrate a novel application of smartphone-based detection of Salmonella on paper microfluidics. Each paper microfluidic channel was pre-loaded with anti-Salmonella Typhimurium and anti-Escherichia coli conjugated submicroparticles. Dipping the paper microfluidic device into the Salmonella solutions led to the antibody-conjugated particles that were still confined within the paper fibers to immunoagglutinate. The extent of immunoagglutination was quantified by evaluating Mie scattering from the digital images taken at an optimized angle and distance with a smartphone. A smartphone application was designed and programmed to allow the user to position the smartphone at an optimized angle and distance from the paper microfluidic device, and a simple image processing algorithm was implemented to calculate and display the bacterial concentration on the smartphone. The detection limit was single-cell-level and the total assay time was less than one minute.
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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging-An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging with multiple b values for the noninvasive diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty-seven 8-week-old rabbits were fed a variety of diets (from a standard diet to a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet) before IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with seven b values by using a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. At histologic analysis of the animals, livers were categorized by NAFLD severity as normal, NAFLD, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or NASH. The apparent diffusion coefficient and IVIM-derived parameters including true diffusion coefficient, pseudodiffusion coefficient, and perfusion fraction of the liver parenchyma were measured. Each parameter was correlated with NAFLD severity, and optimal cutoff values were determined by means of receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results Perfusion fraction was significantly lower in rabbits with NAFLD than in those with a normal liver, and it decreased further as severity of NAFLD increased, with medians of 22.2%, 14.8%, 11.3%, and 9.5% in the rabbits in the normal, NAFLD, borderline, and NASH groups, respectively (? = -0.83, P < .001). Apparent diffusion coefficient, true diffusion coefficient, and pseudodiffusion coefficient were not significantly different between the NAFLD severity groups. In terms of the diagnostic performance of perfusion fraction, area under the curve values were 0.984 (normal vs NAFLD or more severe disease), 0.959 (NAFLD or less severe vs borderline or more severe disease), and 0.903 (borderline or less severe vs NASH) with optimal cutoff values of 15.2%, 13.2%, and 11.0%, respectively. Conclusion Perfusion fractions extracted from IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging may help in the differentiation of early stage NASH from simple steatosis. © RSNA, 2013.
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Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging for Characterization of Focal Pancreatic Lesions.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose:To evaluate the diagnostic potential of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters for differentiation of common pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and normal pancreas and for characterization of the malignancy potential of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).Materials and Methods:The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. Ninety-three consecutive patients with surgically resected and pathologically confirmed pancreatic tumors (39 pancreatic adenocarcinomas [PACs], 17 neuroendocrine tumors [NETs], and 37 IPMNs), seven patients with chronic pancreatitis, and 26 patients with a normal pancreas were included in this study. All patients underwent pancreatic 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging, including IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging with 10 b values used (from 0 to 1000 sec/mm(2)). The ADC, slow component of diffusion (Dslow), incoherent microcirculation (Dfast), and perfusion fraction (f) were calculated. Steel-Dwass and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparison. The diagnostic performance of the parameters was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with Bonferroni correction.Results:Among ADC- and IVIM-derived parameters, Dfast and f values of PACs were significantly lower than those of normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and NETs (all P < .05 in post hoc analyses). For differentiation of PACs from NETs, f and Dfast showed a significant difference (P < .0001 for both) and were more useful parameters than ADC and Dslow in ROC analysis (all P < .05). Malignant IPMNs had significantly lower ADC and Dslow values and higher Dfast and f values when compared with benign IPMNs (all P < .05). In ROC analysis, f showed the highest area under the ROC curve value for distinguishing malignant from benign IPMNs.Conclusion:IVIM-derived perfusion-related parameters could be helpful for the differentiation of common malignant tumors in the pancreas and for distinguishing malignant from benign IPMNs. Dfast and f were more valuable parameters in the differentiation of PACs from NETs than were ADC and Dslow.© RSNA, 2013Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122712/-/DC1.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.