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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Putative association between the -1415 T/C polymorphism of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT1) gene and alcohol use disorders in women and men.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, which responds to the levels of polyamines, modifies the neurotoxicity caused by ethanol. We aimed to investigate if the functionality of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT1) gene could be associated with a differential risk for alcoholism.
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Genome sequence of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas: a comparative analysis within the Desulfovibrio genus.
Microbiologyopen
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Desulfovibrio gigas is a model organism of sulfate-reducing bacteria of which energy metabolism and stress response have been extensively studied. The complete genomic context of this organism was however, not yet available. The sequencing of the D. gigas genome provides insights into the integrated network of energy conserving complexes and structures present in this bacterium. Comparison with genomes of other Desulfovibrio spp. reveals the presence of two different CRISPR/Cas systems in D. gigas. Phylogenetic analysis using conserved protein sequences (encoded by rpoB and gyrB) indicates two main groups of Desulfovibrio spp, being D. gigas more closely related to D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans strains. Gene duplications were found such as those encoding fumarate reductase, formate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. Complexes not yet described within Desulfovibrio genus were identified: Mnh complex, a v-type ATP-synthase as well as genes encoding the MinCDE system that could be responsible for the larger size of D. gigas when compared to other members of the genus. A low number of hydrogenases and the absence of the codh/acs and pfl genes, both present in D. vulgaris strains, indicate that intermediate cycling mechanisms may contribute substantially less to the energy gain in D. gigas compared to other Desulfovibrio spp. This might be compensated by the presence of other unique genomic arrangements of complexes such as the Rnf and the Hdr/Flox, or by the presence of NAD(P)H related complexes, like the Nuo, NfnAB or Mnh.
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Comparative genomics of the major fungal agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on this comparative genomic study are: 1) to explore the presence of virulence factors in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis; 2) to compare S. brasiliensis, which is cat-transmitted and infects both humans and cats with S. schenckii, mainly a human pathogen; 3) to compare these two species to other human pathogens (Onygenales) with similar thermo-dimorphic behavior and to other plant-associated Sordariomycetes.
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Characterization of the small RNA content of Trypanosoma cruzi extracellular vesicles.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A growing body of evidence in mammalian cells indicates that secreted vesicles can be used to mediate intercellular communication processes by transferring various bioactive molecules, including mRNAs and microRNAs. Based on these findings, we decided to analyze whether Trypanosoma cruzi-derived extracellular vesicles contain RNA molecules and performed a deep sequencing and genome-wide analysis of a size-fractioned cDNA library (16-40nt) from extracellular vesicles secreted by noninfective epimastigote and infective metacyclic trypomastigote forms. Our data show that the small RNAs contained in these extracellular vesicles originate from multiple sources, including tRNAs. In addition, our results reveal that the variety and expression of small RNAs are different between parasite stages, suggesting diverse functions. Taken together, these observations call attention to the potential regulatory functions that these RNAs might play once transferred between parasites and/or to mammalian host cells.
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Spanish consensus on the physical health of patients with depressive disorders.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Comorbidity between depression and physical illnesses is very common and has a significant impact on the health and management of the patient. With the support of the Sociedades Españolas de Psiquiatría y Psiquiatría Biológica, and Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN) a consensus was prepared on physical health in patients with depression and is summarized in the present work. The literature review highlighted the high frequency of cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic disorders in patients with depression such as diabetes and obesity, thus making the primary and secondary prevention recommendations for patients with cardiovascular or metabolic risk applicable to patients with depression. Comorbidity between depression and chronic pain is also frequent, and requires an integrated therapeutic approach. The presence of physical illness in patients with depression may condition, but not preclude, the pharmacological treatment; drug selection should take into account potential side-effect and drug-drug interactions. On the other hand, psychotherapy may contribute to the patient's recovery. Overall, coordination between the primary care physician, the psychiatrist and other health professionals involved is essential for the management of patients with depression and concomitant physical illness.
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The Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomics of Leishmania amazonensis Parasite.
Evol. Bioinform. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mexicana share the largest number of distinct orthologs, while Leishmania braziliensis presented the largest number of inparalogs. Additionally, phylogenomic analysis confirmed the taxonomic position for L. amazonensis within the "Mexicana complex", reinforcing understanding of the split of New and Old World Leishmania. Potential non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) were identified between L. amazonensis and Homo sapiens that could provide new drug targets for development.
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Antipsychotic switching in bipolar disorders: a systematic review.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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With the increasingly widespread use of antipsychotics in bipolar disorder (BD), switching among these agents and between antipsychotics and mood stabilizers has become more common, in particular, since the introduction of the novel atypical antipsychotics with mood stabilizer properties. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive update of the current literature in BD about the switching of antipsychotics, among them and between them and mood stabilizers, in acute and maintenance treatment. We conducted a comprehensive, computerized literature search using terms related to antipsychotic switching in BD in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL database; the Cochrane Library and; the Clinicaltrials.gov web up to January 9th, 2013 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The search returned 4160 articles. After excluding duplications, reviews, case reports and studies that did not fulfil the selection criteria, 8 studies were included. Not only have few articles on antipsychotic switching been published but also recruitment in most studies included mixed samples of patients. In general, antipsychotic switching, regardless of the route of drug administration, was well tolerated and no interference was shown in antipsychotic effectiveness during the interchange of drugs. Metabolic improvement was perceived when the switch involved antipsychotics with a low metabolic risk profile. The evidence-base for antipsychotic switching in BD is scant, and little controlled data is available. Switch from quetiapine to lithium and from risperidone to olanzapine has proven successful. Switching to antipsychotics with low metabolic risk had some positive impact on several safety measures. In stabilized patients, the plateau cross-taper switch may be preferred.
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Relationship between olfactory function and social cognition in euthymic bipolar patients.
CNS Spectr
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Objective/Introduction There is a close functional and neuroanatomical relationship between olfactory ability and emotional processing. The present study seeks to explore the association between olfactory ability and social cognition, especially facial emotion perception, in euthymic bipolar patients. METHODS: Thirty-nine euthymic outpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar disorder and 40 healthy volunteers matched on socio-demographic criteria were recruited. Both groups were assessed at one time point with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), the Emotion Recognition Test, and The Faux Pas Recognition Test, as well as measures of general cognition and functioning. RESULTS: The bipolar patients showed a significant impairment in olfactory identification (UPSIT) and social cognition measures compared to healthy controls. Analyses revealed significant relationships between olfactory identification and facial emotion recognition, theory of mind, general cognition, and a trend-level relationship with functioning. Controlling for age and cigarettes smoked, relationships remained significant between olfactory function and facial emotion recognition. CONCLUSION: There is a deficit of olfactory identification in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder that is correlated with a deficit in both verbal and non-verbal measures of social cognition.
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Efficacy of functional remediation in bipolar disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled study.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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OBJECTIVE The authors sought to assess the efficacy of functional remediation, a novel intervention program, on functional improvement in a sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD In a multicenter, randomized, rater-blind clinical trial involving 239 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder, functional remediation (N=77) was compared with psychoeducation (N=82) and treatment as usual (N=80) over 21 weeks. Pharmacological treatment was kept stable in all three groups. The primary outcome measure was improvement in global psychosocial functioning, measured blindly as the mean change in score on the Functioning Assessment Short Test from baseline to endpoint. RESULTS At the end of the study, 183 patients completed the treatment phase. Repeated-measures analysis revealed significant functional improvement from baseline to endpoint over the 21 weeks of treatment (last observation carried forward), suggesting an interaction between treatment assignment and time. Tukeys post hoc tests revealed that functional remediation differed significantly from treatment as usual, but not from psychoeducation. CONCLUSIONS Functional remediation, a novel group intervention, showed efficacy in improving the functional outcome of a sample of euthymic bipolar patients as compared with treatment as usual.
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CYP2D6 Polymorphism and Mental and Personality Disorders in Suicide Attempters.
J. Pers. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Prior studies on the association between the CYP2D6 polymorphism and suicide did not explore whether mental and personality disorders mediate this association. The main objective of the present study was to test an association between CYP2D6 polymorphism and mental and personality disorders among suicide attempters. The MINI and the DSM-IV version of the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire were used to diagnose mental and personality disorders, respectively, in 342 suicide attempters. Suicide attempters were divided into four groups according to their number of CYP2D6 active genes (zero, one, and two or more). Differences in mental and personality disorders across the four groups were measured using linear-by-linear association, chi square-test, and 95% confidence intervals. Suicide attempters carrying two or more active CYP2D6 genes were more likely to be diagnosed with at least one personality disorder than those with one or zero CYP2D6 active genes.
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Role of NorR-like transcriptional regulators under nitrosative stress of the ?-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio gigas.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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NorR protein was shown to be responsible for the transcriptional regulation of flavorubredoxin and its associated oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli. Since Desulfovibrio gigas has a rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (ROO) that is involved in both oxidative and nitrosative stress response, a NorR-like protein was searched in D. gigas genome. We have found two putative norR coding units in its genome. To study the role of the protein designated as NorR1-like (NorR1L) in the presence of nitrosative stress, a norR1L null mutant of D. gigas was created and a phenotypic analysis was performed under the nitrosating agent GSNO. We show that under these conditions, the growth of both D. gigas mutants ?roo and ?norR1-like is impaired. In order to confirm that D. gigas NorR1-like may play identical function as the NorR of E. coli, we have complemented the E. coli ?norR mutant strain with the norR1-like gene and have evaluated growth when nitrosative stress was imposed. The growth phenotype of E. coli ?norR mutant strain was recovered under these conditions. We also found that induction of roo gene expression is completely abolished in the norR1L mutant strain of D. gigas subjected to nitrosative stress. It is identified in ?-proteobacteria, for the first time a transcription factor that is involved in nitrosative stress response and regulates the rd-roo gene expression.
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New treatment guidelines for acute bipolar mania: a critical review.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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A number of treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder have been published and updated in the last few years. They are aimed at providing a synthesis of the best available scientific knowledge, and their application to every-day work should be helpful to clinicians. The aim of this report is to critically review recent guidelines focusing on the treatment of manic/hypomanic and mixed episodes. Guidelines are quite heterogeneous in methodology and conclusions, but they all agree that the treatment of manic/hypomanic and mixed episodes should generally be initiated with a medication such as lithium (Li), valproate (VPA) or atypical antipsychotics (AAP), including aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone as monotherapy. All guidelines agree on stopping ongoing antidepressant medication during mania. Combination therapy including Li or VPA with an AAP is suggested usually as second-line choice, sometimes as first-choice treatment for severe mania. Carbamazepine is mostly suggested as second line and not recommended in combination. Other antiepileptic drugs are not recommended for the treatment of mania, although lamotrigine may be maintained if it was prescribed previously for the prevention of depressive episodes. Main sources of discrepancies among guidelines include benefit-risk ratio issues (how much priority is given to efficacy over safety and tolerability), starting with combination versus monotherapy, and how to deal with treatments which are more experience-based than evidence-based (i.e.: electroconvulsive therapy).
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[Brief Suicide Questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability].
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Inter-rater agreement is a crucial aspect in the planning and performance of a clinical trial in which the main assessment tool is the clinical interview. The main objectives of this study are to study the inter-rater agreement of a tool for the assessment of suicidal behavior (Brief Suicide Questionnaire) and to examine whether the inter-examiner agreement when multiple ratings are made on a single subject is an efficient method to assess the reliability of an instrument.
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The role of suicide risk in the decision for psychiatric hospitalization after a suicide attempt.
Crisis
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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Suicide prevention can be improved by knowing which variables physicians take into account when considering hospitalization or discharge of patients who have attempted suicide.
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The repetitive cytoskeletal protein H49 of Trypanosoma cruzi is a calpain-like protein located at the flagellum attachment zone.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Trypanosoma cruzi has a single flagellum attached to the cell body by a network of specialized cytoskeletal and membranous connections called the flagellum attachment zone. Previously, we isolated a DNA fragment (clone H49) which encodes tandemly arranged repeats of 68 amino acids associated with a high molecular weight cytoskeletal protein. In the current study, the genomic complexity of H49 and its relationships to the T. cruzi calpain-like cysteine peptidase family, comprising active calpains and calpain-like proteins, is addressed. Immunofluorescence analysis and biochemical fractionation were used to demonstrate the cellular location of H49 proteins.
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Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Schistosomiasis remains an important parasitic disease and a major economic problem in many countries. The Schistosoma mansoni genome and predicted proteome sequences were recently published providing the opportunity to identify new drug candidates. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) play a central role in mediating signal transduction through complex networks and are considered druggable targets from the medical and chemical viewpoints. Our work aimed at analyzing the S. mansoni predicted proteome in order to identify and classify all ePKs of this parasite through combined computational approaches. Functional annotation was performed mainly to yield insights into the parasite signaling processes relevant to its complex lifestyle and to select some ePKs as potential drug targets.
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Recommendations for switching antipsychotics. A position statement of the Spanish Society of Psychiatry and the Spanish Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Switching antipsychotics is common in the clinical practice setting and is associated with potential clinically relevant complications. An expert group selected by Spanish Society of Psychiatry and the Spanish Society of Biological Psychiatry has reviewed the evidence provided by randomized clinical trials and other relevant information to reach consensus recommendations for switching antipsychotics. In this article, we will review all the information that has led to those recommendations and which includes: indications and contraindications for switching antipsychotics, pharmacological issues, switching strategies, switching antipsychotics due to efficacy problems, switching antispychotics due to tolerability issues (including extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia, weight gain, metabolic disorders, hyperprolactinemia, sexual dysfunction, persistent sedation, and QT prolongation), switching antypsychotics due to lack of treatment compliance, and switching antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorders.
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Genome size, karyotype polymorphism and chromosomal evolution in Trypanosoma cruzi.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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The Trypanosoma cruzi genome was sequenced from a hybrid strain (CL Brener). However, high allelic variation and the repetitive nature of the genome have prevented the complete linear sequence of chromosomes being determined. Determining the full complement of chromosomes and establishing syntenic groups will be important in defining the structure of T. cruzi chromosomes. A large amount of information is now available for T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, providing the opportunity to compare and describe the overall patterns of chromosomal evolution in these parasites.
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Evidence for reductive genome evolution and lateral acquisition of virulence functions in two Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen, is the etiologic agent of the disease known as caseous lymphadenitis (CL). CL mainly affects small ruminants, such as goats and sheep; it also causes infections in humans, though rarely. This species is distributed worldwide, but it has the most serious economic impact in Oceania, Africa and South America. Although C. pseudotuberculosis causes major health and productivity problems for livestock, little is known about the molecular basis of its pathogenicity.
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Factors associated with the effectiveness of a telephone-based nursing strategy for enhancing medication adherence in schizophrenia.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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A post hoc analysis was made to identify factors associated with success following a 4-month telephone-based strategy for enhancing adherence to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. A total of 928 stable outpatients were randomized to receive a monthly telephone call provided by a nurse or routine clinical care. Logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure was used. A higher percentage of patients in the intervention group (25.7%, n=109) improved adherence at the end of the study compared with the control group (16.8%, n=74) (p=0.0013). The intervention was significantly associated with adherence improvement in those patients with a previous negative attitude towards medication (OR=4.7, 95% CI =2.4-9.0, p<0.0001). A slight concordance was obtained between adherence improvement and improvement in patient perception of treatment (kappa=0.21; 95% CI=0.15-0.27). The identification of factors related to the effectiveness of a specific intervention would offer clinicians the opportunity to more adequately select patients who are eligible for such intervention.
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Identification of a fibrinogen-related protein (FBN9) gene in neotropical anopheline mosquitoes.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Malaria has a devastating impact on worldwide public health in many tropical areas. Studies on vector immunity are important for the overall understanding of the parasite-vector interaction and for the design of novel strategies to control malaria. A member of the fibrinogen-related protein family, fbn9, has been well studied in Anopheles gambiae and has been shown to be an important component of the mosquito immune system. However, little is known about this gene in neotropical anopheline species.
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Short self-reported sleep duration and suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Prior studies on the association between sleep disturbances and suicidal behavior did not explore whether or not short sleep is a marker of suicide intent, lethality or risk.
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An exploratory study of the relationship between diverse life events and specific personality disorders in a sample of suicide attempters.
J. Pers. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Personality disorder (PD) increases risk for suicidal behavior. Certain life events (LE) can precipitate suicidal behaviors in patients with PD. A fundamental question is whether specific combinations of LE and PD increase suicidal risk. Four hundred forty-six suicide attempters (SA) were recruited from emergency rooms. We used a healthy control group (n = 515) to identify the best cut-off point for the instrument used to diagnose PD. We used the DSM-IV version of the International Personality Disorder Questionnaire-Screening Questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the Social Adjustment Scale to assess PD, Axis I disorders, and LE, respectively. After controlling for Axis I disorders, we found that "Death of spouse" preceded suicidal acts in those with antisocial PD (FET p = 0.024) and patients with narcissistic PD attempted suicide after being Fired at work (FET p = 0.002), among others. Our data suggest the presence of particular LE-PD associations in suicide attempters. Some LE-PD relationships appear independent of Axis I disorders in suicide attempters. This may offer a basis for specific targeted therapies or prevention programs aimed at decreasing suicidal risk.
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Superior antidepressant efficacy results of agomelatine versus fluoxetine in severe MDD patients: a randomized, double-blind study.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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The objective of this international, 8-week, randomized, double-blind study was to show the superiority of the antidepressant efficacy of agomelatine, the first MT1/MT2 receptor agonist and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist antidepressant, versus fluoxetine in outpatients fulfilling Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-volume IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder of severe intensity, defined by a baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) total score of at least 25 and CGI severity of illness score of at least 4. Patients received agomelatine 25-50?mg/day (n=252) or fluoxetine 20-40?mg/day (n=263) for 8 weeks. The main efficacy outcome measure was HAM-D17 total score (change from baseline to last post-baseline assessment). Secondary outcome measures were Clinical Global Impressions-improvement (CGI), severity (CGI-S), anxiety (HAM-A), and sleep (HAM-D sleep items) scores. The mean decrease in HAM-D17 total score over 8 weeks was significantly greater with agomelatine than fluoxetine with a between-group difference of 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-2.77; P=0.024). The percentage of responders at last post-baseline assessment was higher with agomelatine on both HAM-D17 (decrease in total score from baseline ?50%; 71.7% agomelatine vs. 63.8% fluoxetine; P=0.060) and CGI-improvement (score 1 or 2; 77.7 vs. 68.8%; P=0.023). There was a significant between-group difference of 0.37 (95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.68) in HAM-D sleep subscore in favor of agomelatine (P=0.018). Similar improvements were observed on HAM-A with agomelatine and fluoxetine. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, in this study, agomelatine showed superior antidepressant efficacy over fluoxetine in treating patients with a severe episode of major depressive disorder after 8 weeks of treatment with a good tolerability profile.
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The complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis FRC41 isolated from a 12-year-old girl with necrotizing lymphadenitis reveals insights into gene-regulatory networks contributing to virulence.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is generally regarded as an important animal pathogen that rarely infects humans. Clinical strains are occasionally recovered from human cases of lymphadenitis, such as C. pseudotuberculosis FRC41 that was isolated from the inguinal lymph node of a 12-year-old girl with necrotizing lymphadenitis. To detect potential virulence factors and corresponding gene-regulatory networks in this human isolate, the genome sequence of C. pseudotuberculosis FCR41 was determined by pyrosequencing and functionally annotated.
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Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca: Gastropoda).
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA) and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA). In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576). Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.
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[Impact of the spanish consensus on physical health of patients with schizophrenia].
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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This study evaluates the physical health of patients with schizophrenia and analyzes the change in the percentage of patients with evaluations in the known diabetes and cardiovascular risk predictors before and 6 months after the dissemination of the "Consensus on Physical Health in Schizophrenia Patients".
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Lack of association between testosterone and suicide attempts.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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To determine whether testosterone levels differ in male suicide attempters versus healthy controls and to explore the associations between testosterone levels and time of blood collection, and between testosterone levels and characteristics of suicide attempts.
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Importance of the monthly biochemical evaluation to identify patients on hemodialysis with malnutrition.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Malnutrition is a frequent complication in patients on hemodialysis and early diagnosis is important to reduce the morbidity and mortality of treatment.
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Pattern of healthcare resource utilization and direct costs associated with manic episodes in Spain.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Although some studies indicate that bipolar disorder causes high health care resources consumption, no study is available addressing a cost estimation of bipolar disorder in Spain. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate healthcare resource utilization and the associated direct cost in patients with manic episodes in the Spanish setting.
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Genome survey sequence analysis and identification of homologs of major surface protease (gp63) genes in Trypanosoma rangeli.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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In this study, 222 genome survey sequences were generated for Trypanosoma rangeli strain P07 isolated from an opossum (Didelphis albiventris) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. T. rangeli sequences were compared by BLASTX (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool X) analysis with the assembled contigs of Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Results revealed that 82% (182/222) of the sequences were associated with predicted proteins described, whereas 18% (40/222) of the sequences did not show significant identity with sequences deposited in databases, suggesting that they may represent T. rangeli-specific sequences. Among the 182 predicted sequences, 179 (80.6%) had the highest similarity with T. cruzi, 2 (0.9%) with T. brucei, and 1 (0.5%) with L. braziliensis. Computer analysis permitted the identification of members of various gene families described for trypanosomatids in the genome of T. rangeli, such as trans-sialidases, mucin-associated surface proteins, and major surface proteases (MSP or gp63). This is the first report identifying sequences of the MSP family in T. rangeli. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the predicted MSP of T. rangeli presented the typical characteristics of metalloproteases, such as the presence of the HEXXH motif, which corresponds to a region previously associated with the catalytic site of the enzyme, and various cysteine and proline residues, which are conserved among MSPs of different trypanosomatid species. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of MSP transcripts in epimastigote forms of T. rangeli.
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Distinguishing the relevant features of frequent suicide attempters.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts.
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Arteriovenous fistula cannulation by buttonhole technique using dull needle.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Cannulation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) may be performed by the following techniques: area puncture, rope ladder, or buttonhole. The ideal technique has not yet been established.
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Differences between younger and older adults in the structure of suicidal intent and its correlates.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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To analyze differences in the variables associated with severity of suicidal intent and in the main factors associated with intent when comparing younger and older adults.
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Identification and characterization of Tc1/mariner-like DNA transposons in genomes of the pathogenic fungi of the Paracoccidioides species complex.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Eukaryota, Fungi, Ascomycota) is a thermodimorphic fungus, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Three isolates corresponding to distinct phylogenetic lineages of the Paracoccidioides species complex had their genomes sequenced. In this study the identification and characterization of class II transposable elements in the genomes of these fungi was carried out.
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CA88, a nuclear repetitive DNA sequence identified in Schistosoma mansoni, aids in the genotyping of nine Schistosoma species of medical and veterinary importance.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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CA88 is the first long nuclear repetitive DNA sequence identified in the blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. The assembled S. mansoni sequence, which contains the CA88 repeat, has 8,887 nucleotides and at least three repeat units of approximately 360 bp. In addition, CA88 also possesses an internal CA microsatellite, identified as SmBr18. Both PCR and BLAST analysis have been used to analyse and confirm the CA88 sequence in other S. mansoni sequences in the public database. PCR-acquired nuclear repetitive DNA sequence profiles from nine Schistosoma species were used to classify this organism into four genotypes. Included among the nine species analysed were five sequences of both African and Asian lineages that are known to infect humans. Within these genotypes, three of them refer to recognised species groups. A panel of four microsatellite loci, including SmBr18 and three previously published loci, has been used to characterise the nine Schistosoma species. Each species has been identified and classified based on its CA88 DNA fingerprint profile. Furthermore, microsatellite sequences and intra-specific variation have also been observed within the nine Schistosoma species sequences. Taken together, these results support the use of these markers in studying the population dynamics of Schistosoma isolates from endemic areas and also provide new methods for investigating the relationships between different populations of parasites. In addition, these data also indicate that Schistosoma magrebowiei is not a sister taxon to Schistosoma mattheei, prompting a new designation to a basal clade.
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Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.
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The TryPIKinome of five human pathogenic trypanosomatids: Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania major, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum--new tools for designing specific inhibitors.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinases are at the heart of one of the major pathways of intracellular signal transduction. Herein, we present the first report on a survey made by similarity searches against the five human pathogenic trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania major, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum genomes available to date for phosphatidylinositol- and related-kinases (TryPIKs). In addition to generating a panel called "The TryPIKinome", we propose a model of signaling pathways for these TryPIKs. The involvement of TryPIKs in fundamental pathways, such as intracellular signal transduction and host invasion processes, makes the study of TryPIKs an important area for further inquiry. New subtype-specific inhibitors are expected to work on individual members of the PIK family and, therefore, can presumably neutralize trypanosomatid invasion processes.
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Positive association between SAT-1 -1415T/C polymorphism and anxiety.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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Limbic glutamatergic neurotransmission plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Polyamines modulate the activity of several ionotropic glutamate receptors and have been involved in the regulation of fear-conditioning response. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT-1) is the main enzyme regulating polyamine catabolism. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between anxiety disorders and the -1415T/C (rs1960264) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the gene (SAT1) coding for SSAT-1. A case-control design was used in order to compare the genotypes for the -1415T/C (rs1960264) SNP between anxiety patients (n = 218), other non-anxiety psychiatric patients (n = 362), and healthy controls (n = 251). DSM-IV diagnoses were provided using MINI 4.4. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples collected from participants. In males, there was a significant difference in the distribution of the two genotypes (T and C) for the SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP between anxiety patients, non-anxiety psychiatric controls, and healthy controls. The T genotype was significantly more frequent in males suffering from anxiety disorders than in male psychiatric controls and healthy controls. This is the first study linking polymorphic variants of genes involved in polyamine metabolism with anxiety disorders.
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Differences in maternal and paternal age between schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Advanced parental age has been shown to increase offspring risk for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and Downs syndrome. Other psychiatric disorders have been less studied with respect to the effect of parental age on offspring risk. In this study we examine if advanced parental age increased risk for ICD-10 diagnoses. We hypothesized that advanced parental age would increase risk for offspring psychotic disorders and mental retardation but not other ICD-10 diagnoses. We examined follow-up data for 30,965 subjects treated in outpatient psychiatric facilities between 1980 and 2007. Subjects were younger than 18 years of age at their first outpatient visit. A comparison group was obtained from data on registered births in Spain from 1975. We compared parental age (maternal, paternal, combined) across diagnostic categories using ANOVA and logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of psychopathology in the offspring with advanced parental age (maternal, paternal, combined). Maternal and paternal ages were higher for subjects diagnosed with mental retardation. Risk for psychotic disorders showed a significant linear increase only with advancing maternal age, and not paternal age as is more often reported.
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Molecular characterization of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase in Trypanosoma cruzi populations susceptible and resistant to benznidazole.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Antioxidant defense in Trypanosomatids has been indicated as a potential target for chemotherapy. Tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) participates in this defense by metabolizing hydrogen peroxide to water molecules. In this work, genes encoding both cytosolic (cTcTXNPx) and mitochondrial (mTcTXNPx) TXNPx were characterized in 15 benznidazole-susceptible and resistant Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Northern blot and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that the levels of cTcTXNPx and mTcTXNPx mRNA were two-fold higher in the in-vitro-induced resistant 17 LER T. cruzi population than its drug-susceptible counterpart 17 WTS. The mRNA levels for both genes were similar among the other T. cruzi samples studied. No amplification of these genes was observed in the parasite genome. In silico analyses indicated that cTcTXNPx and mTcTXNPx genes present eight and two copies, respectively, dispersed in the parasite genome. By western blot analysis, anti-cTcTXNPx and anti-mTcTXNPx polyclonal antibodies recognized a 23- and 25-kDa peptide, respectively, in all T. cruzi samples analyzed. The expression levels of these native proteins were similar for all samples except 17 LER, which displayed two-fold greater expression. In addition, the oxidized mTcTXNPx protein (50 kDa) demonstrated 5.5-fold greater expression in the 17 LER population than 17 WTS. Our findings demonstrate increased expression of the cytosolic and mitochondrial TcTXNPx in the T. cruzi population with in-vitro-induced resistance to benznidazole.
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Suicide attempts among women during low estradiol/low progesterone states.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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The relationship between the menstrual cycle and risk for suicidal behaviors is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine whether perimenstrual phases in fertile women are associated with acute risk for suicide attempt and explore whether risk is elevated during low estradiol/low progesterone states. Women (N=431) recruited within 24h of a suicide attempt were assessed for psychopathology, suicidal behavior and LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone blood levels. Among fertile women (N=281/431), suicide attempts were more likely to occur during menses (26%, 72/281 observed vs. 15%, 43/281 expected attempts; p<0.001). Compared to women whose attempts occurred during other phases, women who attempted suicide during low estradiol/low progesterone states (menstrual phase, amenorrhea and menopause) reported severe suicide intent, a measure that may be predictive of eventual suicide death. Suicide attempts among women are more likely when estrogen and progesterone levels are low and attempts made under these conditions are associated with greater severity. Low gonadal hormone levels may constitute a key factor in the neurobiological basis of suicidal behavior among women, suggesting a novel, testable hypothesis regarding the underpinnings of suicidal acts.
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A pilot study of impulsivity and compulsivity in pathological gambling.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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We examined the relationship between gambling severity, impulsivity and obsessionality/compulsivity in 38 pathological gamblers, representing the complete Minnesota sample of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of paroxetine for the treatment of pathological gambling (PG), using Pearson correlations and linear regression models at baseline and treatment endpoint. At baseline, Pathological Gambling Modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) scores correlated significantly with those of the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire (EIQ) Impulsiveness subscale and Padua Inventory (PI) factors I and IV (corresponding to impaired control over mental and motor activities, respectively). None of the associations between PI factors and the PG-YBOCS were significant after adjusting for Impulsiveness scores. There were no differences in changes in the PG-YBOCS between the paroxetine and placebo group. Changes in PG-YBOCS scores after treatment correlated with changes in Impulsiveness scores. These changes appeared independent of paroxetine treatment. The results suggest that, although PG exhibits features of both obsessionality/compulsivity and impulsivity and elements of both decrease with treatment, impulsivity predominates and changes in gambling severity are most associated with changes in impulsivity.
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Gender differences in major depressive disorder: somatic symptoms and quality of life.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Few findings in the literature have been as widely studied and consistently verified as the higher prevalence of depression among women. However, doubts remain on the distinguishing features of female depression. The available studies concur in the higher prevalence of somatizations among women and in the possibility that the impact of these symptoms on quality of life could be underestimated. In this study, all these aspects were analyzed in a sample of depressive patients.
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SchistoDB: a Schistosoma mansoni genome resource.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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SchistoDB (http://schistoDB.net/) is a genomic database for the parasitic organism Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major causative agents of schistosomiasis worldwide. It currently incorporates sequences and annotation for S. mansoni in a single user-friendly database. Several genomic scale analyses are available as well as ESTs, oligonucleotides, metabolic pathways and drugs. In this article, we describe the data sets and its analyses, how to query the database and tools available in the website.
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Using BCG, MPT-51 and Ag85 as antigens in an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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This study evaluated the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigen MPT-51, the trimeric antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in an indirect ELISA to diagnose bovine tuberculosis (TB) from serum samples. Serum was collected from 208 intra-dermal tuberculin test (ITT)-positive and 54 ITT-negative animals from a region where bovine TB is endemic. Using the Ag85 and BCG antigens, the indirect ELISA was able to discriminate ITT-positive from ITT-negative animals. This level of discrimination was not achieved when using the MPT-51 antigen. The highest sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the test was found when BCG was used (Se, 82%; Sp, 91%). Further work in different epidemiological settings and with larger numbers of animals will be required to validate these findings.
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Gender effect on association between DRD2 polymorphism and substance dependence in a Spanish sample.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Our aim was to examine a possible association between substance dependence and the TaqIA polymorphism of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at the 3 UTR region of the DRD2 gene. A case-control design stratified by gender was used to analyze the genotypes of this SNP in a sample of 125 substance-dependent patients according to DSM-IV and 203 blood donors recruited as controls in two general city hospitals in Madrid, Spain. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples was amplified through PCR to identify the variants of the SNP in the DRD2 gene. Analyses performed with Chi(2) tests revealed that the A1 allele (A1/A1 and A1/A2 genotypes) of the Taq 1A SNP of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with substance dependence in males, but not in the whole sample. Male patients had significantly higher rates of the A1-containing genotypes than male controls. The finding of an association between substance dependence and the DRD2 gene TaqIA SNP only in males suggests the existence of gender-specific differences in the genetic underpinnings of substance dependence.
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Specific features of suicidal behavior in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Suicidal behavior is a clinically significant but underestimated cause of mortality in narcissistic personality disorder. Currently, there are no reliable estimates of suicidal behavior for this population. The main objective of this study was to test whether or not suicide attempters diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder are different in terms of impulsivity and expected lethality from suicide attempters with other cluster B personality disorders.
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Phosphatidylinositol-and related-kinases: a genome-wide survey of classes and subtypes in the Schistosoma mansoni genome for designing subtype-specific inhibitors.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Phosphatidylinositol kinases (PIK) are at the heart of one of the major pathways of intracellular signal transduction. The signals made by PIK influence a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation and survival, glucose metabolism and cytoskeletal organization. Wortmannin strongly binds in vitro to all PIK subtypes and it is therefore an effective antiproliferative agent. This study is the first report on a survey made by similarity searches against Schistosoma mansoni genome available to date for phosphatidylinositol- and related-kinases (SmPIKs). We classified the SmPIKs according to five models (1-5). SmPIK sequences were retrieved from GeneDB (http://www.genedb.org) by means of a combinatorial approach which uses terms defined in genome annotation associated with PFAM (Protein Families) domains, BLAST analysis and COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins). This approach detects the kinase (catalytic) domain structure and also the recently described FAT and FATC motifs.
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SAT-1 -1415T/C polymorphism and susceptibility to schizophrenia.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Patients suffering from psychosis show increased blood and fibroblast total polyamine levels. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT-1) and its coding gene (SAT-1) are the main factors regulating polyamine catabolism. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the SAT-1 -1415T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and schizophrenia. A case-control design was used in order to compare the genotypes for the SNP between schizophrenia patients (n=180, 83 females and 97 males), other non-psychotic psychiatric patients (n=413, 256 females and 157 males), and healthy controls (n=251, 101 females and 150 males). No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes of the SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP were found groups among groups. We failed to demonstrate a significant association between the SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP and schizophrenia, but a mild association between allele C and psychopathology was found in the female group.
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Computational prediction of protein-protein interactions in Leishmania predicted proteomes.
PLoS ONE
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The Trypanosomatids parasites Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum are important human pathogens. Despite of years of study and genome availability, effective vaccine has not been developed yet, and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Therefore, it is clear just interdisciplinary integrated studies will have success in trying to search new targets for developing of vaccines and drugs. An essential part of this rationale is related to protein-protein interaction network (PPI) study which can provide a better understanding of complex protein interactions in biological system. Thus, we modeled PPIs for Trypanosomatids through computational methods using sequence comparison against public database of protein or domain interaction for interaction prediction (Interolog Mapping) and developed a dedicated combined system score to address the predictions robustness. The confidence evaluation of network prediction approach was addressed using gold standard positive and negative datasets and the AUC value obtained was 0.94. As result, 39,420, 43,531 and 45,235 interactions were predicted for L. braziliensis, L. major and L. infantum respectively. For each predicted network the top 20 proteins were ranked by MCC topological index. In addition, information related with immunological potential, degree of protein sequence conservation among orthologs and degree of identity compared to proteins of potential parasite hosts was integrated. This information integration provides a better understanding and usefulness of the predicted networks that can be valuable to select new potential biological targets for drug and vaccine development. Network modularity which is a key when one is interested in destabilizing the PPIs for drug or vaccine purposes along with multiple alignments of the predicted PPIs were performed revealing patterns associated with protein turnover. In addition, around 50% of hypothetical protein present in the networks received some degree of functional annotation which represents an important contribution since approximately 60% of Leishmania predicted proteomes has no predicted function.
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Assessing clinical and functional outcomes in a gene-environment interaction study in first episode of psychosis (PEPs).
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
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The PEPs study is a multicenter, naturalistic, prospective, longitudinal study designed to evaluate clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, biochemical, environmental and pharmacogenetic variables in a sample of nearly 350 first episode of psychosis patients and 250 healthy controls. The PEPs project was conducted in Spain from January 2009 to December 2011. This article describes the rationale for the measurement approach adopted, providing an overview of the selected clinical and functional measures. The main objectives are: a) the thorough clinical and neurocognitive characterization of a sample of first episodes of psychosis, and b) the study of the interactions between the genetic and environmental variables selected to predict clinical and brain structural outcomes, and to determine the relationship of genetic polymorphisms involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the responses and adverse effects of treatment.
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An assessment on epitope prediction methods for protozoa genomes.
BMC Bioinformatics
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Epitope prediction using computational methods represents one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development. Reduction of time, cost, and the availability of completely sequenced genomes are key points and highly motivating regarding the use of reverse vaccinology. Parasites of genus Leishmania are widely spread and they are the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis. Currently, there is no efficient vaccine against this pathogen and the drug treatment is highly toxic. The lack of sufficiently large datasets of experimentally validated parasites epitopes represents a serious limitation, especially for trypanomatids genomes. In this work we highlight the predictive performances of several algorithms that were evaluated through the development of a MySQL database built with the purpose of: a) evaluating individual algorithms prediction performances and their combination for CD8+ T cell epitopes, B-cell epitopes and subcellular localization by means of AUC (Area Under Curve) performance and a threshold dependent method that employs a confusion matrix; b) integrating data from experimentally validated and in silico predicted epitopes; and c) integrating the subcellular localization predictions and experimental data. NetCTL, NetMHC, BepiPred, BCPred12, and AAP12 algorithms were used for in silico epitope prediction and WoLF PSORT, Sigcleave and TargetP for in silico subcellular localization prediction against trypanosomatid genomes.
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Salience and dysregulation of the dopaminergic system.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
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Psychosis is a subjective and experiential phenomenon of the mind, influenced by cognitive and socio-cultural patterns of the individual. The neurobiological correlate of this phenomenon is the dysfunction of brain dopaminergic pathways. This article reviews the scientific evidence on the theoretical approaches of the dopaminergic hypothesis of psychosis and its relationship with the reward and salience systems. The aberrant salience occurs when the dysregulation of dopamine transmission produces a mistaken interpretation of neutral or irrelevant stimuli as a source of reward or punishment. Advances in neuroscience achieved in the last decade have led to the conceptualization of the constructs of visual, social and emotional salience, to test the hypothesis of aberrant salience in psychosis. Psychosis appears, therefore, as a trans-nosological pathological process, relatively nonspecific, which alters the attribution system of reality.
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Molecular characterization of the hexose transporter gene in benznidazole resistant and susceptible populations of Trypanosoma cruzi.
Parasit Vectors
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Hexose transporters (HT) are membrane proteins involved in the uptake of energy-supplying glucose and other hexoses into the cell. Previous studies employing the Differential Display technique have shown that the transcription level of the HT gene from T. cruzi (TcrHT) is higher in an in vitro-induced benznidazole (BZ)-resistant population of the parasite (17 LER) than in its susceptible counterpart (17 WTS).
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[Recommendations for the prevention and management of suicidal behaviour].
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
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Suicidal behaviour is a major public health issue. Suicidal behaviour is one of the main causes of years of life lost and it is the third leading cause of death among young adults. This project was initiated by the Spanish Society of Psychiatry and the Spanish Society of Biological Psychiatry with the aim of providing a document containing the main recommendations on the prevention and management of suicidal behaviour; these recommendations should be based on the best available evidence and the experts opinion.
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Delphi consensus on the physical health of patients with schizophrenia: evaluation of the recommendations of the Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry by a panel of experts.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
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Available data from scientific literature show that patients with schizophrenia have higher rates of physical comorbidity and excess mortality due to other physical pathologies. The growing interest to investigate and improve the health of these patients has led a group of Spanish experts to publish in 2008 a "Consensus on physical health of patients with schizophrenia from the Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry" (2008 Consensus). These recommendations imply a significant change to the present model of medical attention.
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Anatomy and evolution of telomeric and subtelomeric regions in the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.
BMC Genomics
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The subtelomeres of many protozoa are highly enriched in genes with roles in niche adaptation. T. cruzi trypomastigotes express surface proteins from Trans-Sialidase (TS) and Dispersed Gene Family-1 (DGF-1) superfamilies which are implicated in host cell invasion. Single populations of T. cruzi may express different antigenic forms of TSs. Analysis of TS genes located at the telomeres suggests that chromosome ends could have been the sites where new TS variants were generated. The aim of this study is to characterize telomeric and subtelomeric regions of T. cruzi available in TriTrypDB and connect the sequences of telomeres to T. cruzi working draft sequence.
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The level of ascorbate peroxidase is enhanced in benznidazole-resistant populations of Trypanosoma cruzi and its expression is modulated by stress generated by hydrogen peroxide.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
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Ascorbate peroxidases (APX) are class I heme-containing enzymes that convert hydrogen peroxide into water molecules. The gene encoding APX has been characterized in 11 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi that are sensitive or resistant to benznidazole (BZ). Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of two complete copies of the T. cruzi APX (TcAPX) gene in the genome of the parasite, while karyotype analysis showed that the gene was present in the 2.000-kb chromosome of all of the strains analyzed. The sequence of TcAPX exhibited greater levels of similarity to those of orthologous enzymes from Leishmania spp than to APXs from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Northern blot and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed no significant differences in TcAPX mRNA levels between the T. cruzi strains analyzed. On the other hand, Western blots showed that the expression levels of TcAPX protein were, respectively, two and three-fold higher in T. cruzi populations with in vitro induced (17 LER) and in vivo selected (BZR) resistance to BZ, in comparison with their corresponding susceptible counterparts. Moreover, the two BZ-resistant populations exhibited higher tolerances to exogenous hydrogen peroxide than their susceptible counterparts and showed TcAPX levels that increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide.
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Age of first suicide attempt in men and women: an admixture analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal
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To define different subgroups of suicide attempters according to age at onset of suicide attempts.
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Factors contributing to the utilization of adult mental health services in children and adolescents diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder.
ScientificWorldJournal
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To examine whether age of First diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities (pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy) at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) moderate the risk of Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) utilization in patients diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS.
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Predictors of recurrence in bipolar disorders in Spain (PREBIS study data).
J Affect Disord
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The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic, psychosocial and clinical predictors of mood recurrences in bipolar disorder (BD) euthymic outpatients followed-up for 12 months in a naturalistic setting.
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Genetic epistasis in female suicide attempters.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
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Complex behaviors such as suicidal behavior likely exhibit gene-gene interactions. The main aim of this study is to explore potential single nucleotide polymorphisms combinations with epistatic effect in suicidal behavior using a data mining tool (Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.