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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Smoking and body mass index and survival in pancreatic cancer patients.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The objective of this study was to provide further information on the role of personal characteristics and lifestyle factors, including obesity, diabetes, and tobacco smoking, on survival from pancreatic cancer.
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Deregulation of the EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1 pathway in breast cancer: possibilities for therapeutic intervention.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway plays prominent roles in malignant transformation, prevention of apoptosis, drug resistance and metastasis. The expression of this pathway is frequently altered in breast cancer due to mutations at or aberrant expression of: HER2, ERalpha, BRCA1, BRCA2, EGFR1, PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, RB as well as other oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In some breast cancer cases, mutations at certain components of this pathway (e.g., PIK3CA) are associated with a better prognosis than breast cancers lacking these mutations. The expression of this pathway and upstream HER2 has been associated with breast cancer initiating cells (CICs) and in some cases resistance to treatment. The anti-diabetes drug metformin can suppress the growth of breast CICs and herceptin-resistant HER2+ cells. This review will discuss the importance of the EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway primarily in breast cancer but will also include relevant examples from other cancer types. The targeting of this pathway will be discussed as well as clinical trials with novel small molecule inhibitors. The targeting of the hormone receptor, HER2 and EGFR1 in breast cancer will reviewed in association with suppression of the EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway.
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Survival after cancer in Italian persons with AIDS, 1986-2005: a population-based estimation.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Cancer survival in persons with AIDS (PWA) after introduction of antiretroviral therapies remains poorly characterized. The aim is to provide population-based estimates of cancer survival, overall and for the most important cancer types in PWA, and a comparison with persons without AIDS (non-PWA) affected by the same cancer.
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Roles of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in human cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Cancer remains one of the major cause of death in the Western world. Although, it has been demonstrated that new therapies can improve the outcome of cancer patients, still many patients relapse after treatment. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel factors involved in cancer development and/or progression. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been suggested as a key player in different cancer types. Its oncogenic effect may be related to the complex NGAL/MMP-9. In the present study, NGAL was analyzed at both transcript and protein levels in different cancer types by analysing 38 public available microarray datasets and the Human Protein Atlas tool. NGAL transcripts were significantly higher in the majority of solid tumors compared to the relative normal tissues for every dataset analyzed. Furthermore, concordance of NGAL at both mRNA and protein levels was observed for 6 cancer types including bladder, colorectal, liver, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic. All metastatic tumors showed a decrease of NGAL expression when compared to matched primary lesions. According to these results, NGAL is a candidate marker for tumor growth in a fraction of solid tumors. Further investigations are required to elucidate the function of NGAL in tumor development and metastatic processes.
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Metabolomics biomarkers of frailty in elderly breast cancer patients.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Metabolome analysis has emerged as a powerful technique for detecting and define specific physio-pathological phenotypes. In this investigation the diagnostic potential of metabolomics has been applied to better characterize the multiple biochemical alterations that concur in the definition of the frailty phenotype observed in elderly breast cancer patients. The study included 89 women with breast cancer (range 70-97 years) classified as Fit (n?=?49), Unfit (n?=?23), or Frail (n?=?17) according to comprehensive geriatric assessment. The serum metabolomic profile was performed by tandem mass spectrometry and included different classes of metabolites such as amino acids, acylcarnitines, sphingo-, and glycerol-phospolipids. ANOVA was applied to identify the metabolites differing significantly among Fit, Unfit, and Frail patients. In patients carrying the frail phenotype, the amino acid perturbations involve serine, tryptophan, hydroxyproline, histidine, its derivate 3-methyl-hystidine, cystine, and ?-aminoisobutyric acid. With regard to lipid metabolism, the frailty phenotype was characterized by a decrease of a wide number of glycerol- and sphingo-phospholipid metabolites. These metabolomics biomarkers may give a further insight into the biochemical processes involved in the development of frailty in breast cancer patients. Moreover, they might be useful to refine the comprehensive geriatric assessment model.
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Duration and intensity of tobacco smoking and the risk of papillary and non-papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To evaluate the impact of tobacco smoking on specific histological subtypes of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC).
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Stereotactic body radiation therapy for re-irradiation of persistent or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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To retrospectively assess toxicity and outcome of re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with recurrent or persistent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were previously treated with radical radiation therapy (50-60 Gy). The secondary endpoint was to investigate whether there are dosimetric parameter predictors of severe radiation toxicity.
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Fiber intake and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Some studies examined the inverse relation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk and dietary fibers in endemic populations. By means of a hospital-based case-control study, we verified whether this association was also present in Italy in connection with various types of dietary fibers. Cases were 198 patients with incident, histologically confirmed, NPC admitted to major teaching and general hospitals during 1992-2008. Controls were 594 patients admitted for acute, nonneoplastic conditions to the same hospital network of cases. Information was elicited using a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 foods, food groups, or dishes. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for quartiles of intake of different types of fiber after allowance for energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Total fiber intake was inversely related to risk of NPC (OR = 0.58 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 0.34-0.96). We found an inverse association for total soluble (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.96) and total insoluble fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33-0.95), in particular cellulose (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33-0.96), and lignin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.85). In conclusion, this study suggests that dietary intake of soluble and insoluble fibers is inversely related to NPC risk in a nonendemic southern population.
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Pharmacogenetics of ABC and SLC transporters in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving first-line FOLFIRI treatment.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Membrane transporters are widely recognized as important determinants of drug disposition and response, generating increasing interest on the pharmacological implications of their genetic variations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the predictive/prognostic role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) protein polymorphisms on irinotecan (FOLFIRI regimen) outcome.
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Fiducial markers for image-guided partial breast irradiation.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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This study was undertaken to study the role of fiducial markers for image-guided partial breast irradiation (IG-PBI), and to compare the shifts based on bony anatomy and fiducial markers.
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Allergies and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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In order to quantify the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with history of any allergy and specific allergies, to investigate differences in the association with risk according to age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index, and to study the influence of age at onset, we pooled data from 10 case-control studies. In total, there were 3,567 cases and 9,145 controls. Study-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q statistic. Study-specific odds ratios were pooled by using a random-effects model. The odds ratio for any allergy was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.00) with heterogeneity among studies (P < 0.001). Heterogeneity was attributable to one study; with that study excluded, the pooled odds ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.84) (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). Hay fever (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96) and allergy to animals (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) were related to lower risk, while there was no statistically significant association with other allergies or asthma. There were no major differences among subgroups defined by age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index. Older age at onset of allergies was slightly more protective than earlier age.
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Mediterranean diet and hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a very poor prognosis and any effort to identify additional risk factors, besides those already established, would be important for the prevention of the disease. Data on the role of diet on HCC risk are still controversial.
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Radical pleurectomy/decortication followed by high dose of radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Final results with long-term follow-up.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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We have previously shown the feasibility of delivering high doses of radiotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients who underwent radical pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) or surgical biopsy. In this report, we present the long-term results of MPM patients treated with radical P/D followed by high doses of radiotherapy.
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Consumption of fruit, vegetables, and other food groups and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The role of dietary habits in the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been extensively investigated in high-incidence areas, but evidence is scanty in low-incidence populations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between NPC risk and a wide range of food groups in the Italian population.
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Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: a large case-control study in Italy.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A favorable role of fruit and vegetables on colorectal cancer risk has been related to the antioxidant properties of their components. We used data from an Italian case-control study including 1,953 patients with incident, histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (1,225 colon and 728 rectal cancers). Controls were 4,154 patients admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. A reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects usual diet. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through multiple logistic regression models, including terms for potential confounding factors, and energy intake. TAC was inversely related with colorectal cancer risk: the OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82) for FRAP, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TEAC and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TRAP. Corresponding values, excluding TAC deriving from coffee, were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for FRAP, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for TEAC and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for TRAP. The inverse association was apparently-though not significantly-stronger for rectal than for colon cancer. This is the first case-control study indicating consistent inverse relations between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer risk.
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Toxicity and cosmesis following partial breast irradiation consisting of 40 Gy in 10 daily fractions.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To assess the toxicity and cosmetic results in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant partial breast irradiation (PBI) to a total dose of 40 Gy in 10 daily fractions (4 Gy/fraction).
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Nutrient-based dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Few data are available on the role of combinations of foods and/or nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk. To add further information on dietary patterns potentially associated to pancreatic cancer, we applied an exploratory principal component factor analysis on 28 major nutrients derived from an Italian case-control study.
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IL-6-174 G > C and MMP-9-1562 C > T polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in cancer patients.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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A growing body of evidence shows an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among cancer patients. Novel markers are needed to identify patients prone to develop DVT. The aim of the present study was to determine whether IL-6-174 G > C and MMP-9-1562 C > T polymorphisms may influence the development of DVT in cancer patients.
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Overexpression of TWIST2 correlates with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable presentation and clinical behavior. Despite improvements in surgical and radiation therapy techniques, the 5-year survival rate has not improved significantly over the past decades. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel markers that may allow for the development of personalized therapeutic approaches. In the present study we evaluated the prognostic role of the expression of genes related to the induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). To this aim, a consecutive series of 69 HNSCC were analyzed for the expression of TWIST1, TWIST2, SNAI1, SNAI2, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and Vimentin.TWIST1, TWIST2, SNAI1 and SNAI2 were significantly overexpressed in HNSCC, with TWIST2, SNAI1 and SNAI2 being more markedly increased in tumors compared to normal mucosae. The expression of TWIST1 and SNAI2 was associated with upregulation of mesenchymal markers, but failed to correlate with pathological parameters or clinical behaviour. In contrast, we found that upregulation of TWIST2, which was independent of the activation of a mesenchymal differentiation program, correlated with poor differentiation grade (p=0.016) and shorter survival (p=0.025), and identifies a subset of node-positive oral cavity/pharynx cancer patients with very poor prognosis (p less than 0.001). Overall our study suggests that the assessment of TWIST2 expression might help to stratify HNSCC patients for risk of disease progression, pointing to TWIST2 as a potential prognostic marker.
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Long-term outcome of patients with complete pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for cT3 rectal cancer: implications for local excision surgical strategies.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by radical surgery including total mesorectal excision (TME) is standard treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Emerging data indicate that patients with complete pathologic response (ypCR) after CRT have favorable outcome, suggesting the possibility of less invasive surgical treatment. We analyzed long-term outcome of cT3 rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant CRT in relation to ypCR and type of surgery.
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Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled-analysis of two Italian case-control studies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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To evaluate the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of two Italian case-control studies, between 1983 and 2008, we conducted two case-control studies in Northern Italy, including a total of 688 pancreatic cancer cases and 2204 hospital controls with acute, non-neoplastic diseases. We computed multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee drinking (mostly espresso and mocha), adjusting for age, sex, center, year of interview, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and diabetes. Compared with coffee nondrinkers, the multivariate OR for coffee drinkers was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77). However, there was no trend in risk with respect to dose and duration. The OR for an increment of one cup per day was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.98-1.11). There was no heterogeneity in strata of age, sex, and other covariates, including tobacco smoking. No association emerged for decaffeinated coffee (for drinkers the OR was 0.87, 95% CI: 0.60-1.26, compared with decaffeinated coffee nondrinkers) or tea (for tea drinkers the OR was 0.92, 95% CI: 0.75-1.14). The lack of relationship with dose and duration weighs against a causal association between coffee and pancreatic cancer, which is in agreement with most evidence on the issue.
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Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and the risk of different histological types of nasopharyngeal cancer in a low-risk population.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in western Countries. Tobacco smoking is a well-recognised risk factor, whereas the role of alcohol drinking is still in debate. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Italy on 150, histologically-confirmed, NPC cases of Caucasian ethnicity, aged 18-76years, including 118 undifferentiated NPCs and 22 differentiated squamous-cell NPC. Controls were 450 Caucasian cancer-free patients admitted to general hospitals for acute conditions. Cases and controls were matched according to sex, age, and place of residence. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for known confounders. No significant association emerged between tobacco smoking and all NPCs (OR for current vs. never smokers=1.52; 95% CI: 0.89-2.60). Conversely, for differentiated NPC only, statistically significant elevated OR were associated with increasing smoking intensity (OR for ?15cigarettes/day=5.40; 95% CI: 1.34-21.76) and duration of the habit (OR for ?32years=4.48; 95% CI: 1.11-18.04). Although alcohol drinking was not, per se, significantly associated to NPC risk, the combination of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking accounted for 57% of differentiated NPCs, whereas it accounted for only 14% of undifferentiated carcinomas. Our findings suggest that, in western populations, NPC includes two separate entities: the differentiated NPC, associated with tobacco smoking like other cancers of head and neck, and the undifferentiated NPC, upon which tobacco smoking has little or no influence.
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Metabolic syndrome and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy and meta-analysis.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published up to February 2011. The case-control study included 326 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 controls admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. MetS was defined as having at least 3 conditions among diabetes, drug-treated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index at least 25 kg/m(2) at age 30 years. We computed multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models adjusted for tobacco smoking, education, and other sociodemographic variables. For the meta-analysis, we calculated summary relative risks (RRs) using random-effects models. The OR of pancreatic cancer in the case-control study was 2.36 (95% CI, 1.43-3.90) for diabetes, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.55-1.08) for hypertension, 1.38 (95% CI, 0.94-2.01) for hypercholesterolemia, and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.91-1.78) for being overweight at age 30 years. The risk was significantly increased for subjects with 3 or more MetS components (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.01-4.49) compared with subjects with no component, the estimates being consistent among strata of sex, age, and alcohol consumption. The meta-analysis included 3 cohort studies and our case-control study, and found a summary RR of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.19-2.01) for subjects with MetS. Metabolic syndrome is related to pancreatic cancer risk. Diabetes is the key component related to risk.
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Excess mortality for non–AIDS-defining cancers among people with AIDS.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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During the period 1999–2006, non–AIDS-defining cancers accounted for 7.4% of deaths among Italian people with AIDS. The risk of death was 6.6-fold higher than in the general population, being particularly elevated for virus-related cancers. The study findings highlighted the importance of monitoring the cancer burden on mortality for people with AIDS.
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Association between hsa-mir-146a genotype and tumor age-of-onset in BRCA1/BRCA2-negative familial breast and ovarian cancer patients.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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An increasing body of evidence points to a possible role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in hereditary cancer syndromes. To evaluate the role of miRNA allelic variants in the susceptibility to familial breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1/BRCA2-negative patients, we focused our attention on three miRNAs, miR-146a, miR-17 and miR-369, based on their affinity to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 messenger RNA and their localization on chromosome regions commonly deleted in those tumors. The analysis was performed on 101 Italian probands with ascertained familiarity for breast/ovarian cancer and tested negative for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. No allelic variant was detected for hsa-mir-17 and hsa-mir-369, and allelic and genotype frequencies for miR-146a rs2910164 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were comparable with that of 155 controls from the same population, ruling out a role for genetic variations in these three miRNAs as major determinants in cancer predisposition of BRCA1/BRCA2-negative patients. Instead, our study suggests that mir-146a rs2910164 SNP may impact on the age of cancer onset. In fact, subjects with mir-146a a GC or CC genotypes developed tumors at younger age compared with individuals with the GG genotype Thus, in contrast to a recent report, our data support the hypothesis by Shen and coworkers of an association between the C allele of hsa-mir-146a and early cancer onset and prompt further investigations on the relevance of this polymorphism in early familial breast/ovarian tumor development.
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Soft drinks, sweetened beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Soft drinks usually contain sugar and caffeine that might influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. We considered the association between carbonated drink consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study conducted in 1991-2008 on 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 matched controls. We also combined the results from all the studies on soft drinks or sweetened beverages and pancreatic cancer published before June 2010, using a meta-analytic approach. In the case-control study, compared with non-drinkers, the multivariate odds ratio was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.72-1.44) for carbonated drink consumers and 0.89 (95% CI 0.53-1.50) for regular consumers (at least one drink/day). Besides our study, from the literature search, we identified 4 other case-control (1,919 cases) and 6 cohort studies (2,367 cases). The pooled relative risks (RR) for soft drink consumers vs. non-consumers were 0.97 (95% CI 0.81-1.16) for case-control, 1.05 (95% CI 0.94-1.17) for cohort, and 1.02 (95% CI 0.93-1.12) for all studies. The pooled RRs for heavy drinkers were 1.08 (95% CI 0.73-1.60) for case-control, 1.21 (95% CI 0.90-1.63) for cohort, and 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45) for all studies. In conclusion, soft drink consumption is not materially related to pancreatic cancer risk.
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Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening.
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Aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Preclinical findings suggest that aspirin might inhibit pancreatic carcinogenesis, but epidemiological data are scanty and controversial. The role of aspirin use in pancreatic cancer is further analyzed in a multicentric hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. Cases were 308 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and controls were 477 patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute conditions, not related to risk factors for pancreatic cancer. A total of 22 cases (7%) and 37 controls (8%) reported regular aspirin use, with a corresponding adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-1.61]. A slight protection, although not significant, was observed for duration of use > or =5 years (OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.21-1.33) and for time since first use > or =10 years (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.25-1.93). The risk of pancreatic cancer was significantly below unity for current users of > or =5 years (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.90), but the risk was based on three cases and 16 controls only. We observed no association between regular aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk, although our results suggested a possible protective effect for long-term current users.
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Extrahepatic disorders of HCV infection: a distinct entity of B-cell neoplasia?
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Some infectious agents have been associated with B-cell lymphoma development. In the last decades, it has been demonstrated that patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) are more likely to develop B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) than those uninfected. The prevalence of HCV-infection among NHL patients is reported in this review of all Italian studies on NHL and HCV infection, both case-control and case series. From 18 studies, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in 2736 NHL patients was 19.7% (range: 8.3-37.1%). The association of HCV-infection with each NHL histotype in case-control studies is discussed. Molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection promotes B-cell NHL development is also explored and indicate that HCV-associated lymphomas may be a distinct entity. Clarification of these mechanisms may improve diagnosis, classification and therapy of this subset of NHL. Finally, treatment of HCV-positive patients with lymphoproliferative disorders are herein summarized and further support the notion that HCV infection contributes to the development of these pathologic conditions.
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Alcohol and endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk, we analyzed data from a hospital-based case-control study, conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2006, on 454 endometrial cancer cases and 908 controls, and performed a meta-analysis updated to October 2009. Compared to never alcohol drinkers, the odds ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-1.41) for < or = 7, 1.27 (95% CI 0.86-1.87) for 8-14, and 1.19 (95% CI 0.80-1.77) for > or = 15 drinks/week, with no trend in risk. No association emerged for wine, beer, and spirit consumption analyzed separately. The meta-analysis included 20 case-control and seven cohort studies, for a total of 13,120 cases. Compared to non/low drinkers, the pooled relative risks for drinkers were 0.90 (95% CI 0.80-1.01) for case-control studies, 1.01 (95% CI 0.90-1.14) for cohort studies, and 0.95 (95% CI 0.88-1.03) overall, with no heterogeneity between study design (p = 0.156). The overall estimate for heavy versus non/low drinkers was 1.12 (95% CI 0.87-1.45). The results were consistent according to selected study characteristics, including geographic area, definition of alcohol drinkers, and type of controls in case-control studies. Our findings provide evidence that alcohol drinking is not associated with endometrial cancer risk, although a weak positive association for very high drinkers cannot be excluded.
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Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Carbohydrates and dietary glycemic index (GI) influence the secretion of insulin and insulin-related growth factors and may play a role in the development of diabetes and obesity, both of which have been related to pancreatic cancer risk.
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Fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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The epidemiological evidence on the relation between dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer is contradictory. Consequently, a case-control study was carried out to further investigate the role of dietary fiber intake in the etiology of endometrial cancer.
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Cancer incidence in people with AIDS in Italy.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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People with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) have increased risk of some cancers. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) has improved their life expectancy, exposing them to the combined consequences of aging and of a prolonged exposure to cancer risk factors. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates (IR) in PWHA in Italy, before and after the introduction of HAART, after adjusting for sex and age through direct standardization. An anonymous record linkage between Italian AIDS Registry (21,951 cases) and Cancer Registries (17.3 million, 30% of Italian population) was performed. In PWHA, crude IR, sex- and age-standardized IR and age-specific IR were estimated. The standardized IR for Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma greatly declined in the HAART period. Although the crude IR for all non-AIDS-defining cancers increased in the HAART period, standardized IR did not significantly differ in the 2 periods (352 and 379/100,000, respectively). Increases were seen only for cancer of the liver (IR ratio = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.3-17.0) and lung (IR ratio = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.2). Age-specific IRs for liver and lung cancers, however, largely overlapped in the 2 periods pointing to the strong influence of the shift in the age distribution of PWHA on the observed upward trends. In conclusion, standardized IRs for non-AIDS-defining cancers have not risen in the HAART period, even if crude IRs of these cancers increased. This scenario calls, however, for the intensification of cancer-prevention strategies, notably smoking cessation and screening programs, in middle-aged HIV-patients.
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Dietary habits and risk of pancreatic cancer: an Italian case-control study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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To investigate the association between dietary habits and pancreatic cancer.
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Assessing cancer-related fatigue: the psychometric properties of the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale in Italian cancer inpatients.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Fatigue is the most distressing untreated symptom for many cancer patients, and its measurement is of great topical interest. The aim of the present study was to assess psychometric properties of Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS-r) in Italian cancer patients.
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Macronutrients, fatty acids, cholesterol and pancreatic cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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A role of diet and nutrition in pancreatic carcinogenesis has been suggested, but the association between selected macronutrients, fatty acids, cholesterol and pancreatic cancer remains controversial. We analysed data from a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008, including 326 cases (174 men and 152 women) with incident pancreatic cancer, and 652 controls (348 men and 304 women) frequency-matched to cases by sex, age and study centre. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models conditioned on age, sex and study centre, and adjusted for year of interview, education, tobacco smoking, history of diabetes and energy intake. A positive association was found for animal proteins (OR=1.85 for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake; 95% CI: 1.15-2.96; p for trend=0.039), whereas a negative association was observed for sugars (OR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.31-0.86; p for trend=0.003). Non-significant negative associations emerged for vegetable proteins (OR=0.69) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR=0.67). In conclusion, a diet poor in animal proteins and rich in sugars (mainly derived from fruit) appears to have a beneficial effect on pancreatic cancer risk.
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Cigarette smoking and endometrial cancer risk: the modifying effect of obesity.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and endometrial cancer risk by investigating potential modifying effects of menopausal status, obesity, and exogenous hormones. We pooled data from three case-control studies with the same study design conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1982 and 2006. Overall, 1446 incident endometrial cancers and 4076 hospital controls were enrolled. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models, conditioned on study and centre, and adjusted for age, period of interview, age at menarche, parity, and body mass index. In comparison with never smokers, current smokers showed reduced endometrial cancer risk (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66-0.96), with a 28% decrease in risk for smoking ? 20 cigarettes/day. The association did not vary according to menopausal status, oral contraceptive use, or hormone replacement therapy. However, heterogeneity emerged according to body mass index among postmenopausal women, with obese women showing the greatest risk reduction for current smoking (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27-0.81). In postmenopausal women, obesity turned out to be an important modifier of the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of endometrial cancer. This finding calls for caution in interpreting the favorable effects of cigarette smoking, considering the toxic and carcinogenic effects of tobacco.
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Hormone-related factors and gynecological conditions in relation to endometrial cancer risk.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of menstrual and reproductive variables, breastfeeding, exogenous hormones, and gynecological conditions on endometrial cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study in Italy, including 454 women with endometrial cancer and 908 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. Endometrial cancer risk was inversely associated with age at menarche (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-1.0, for > or =14 vs. <12 years), and directly associated with age at menopause (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.7, for > or =55 vs. <50 years) and years of menstruation (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4, for highest vs. lowest tertile). Multiparity strongly reduced the risk among women under 60 years of age (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6, for > or =3 deliveries vs. <2). Oral contraceptive use conferred a 40% reduced risk (95% CI = 0.4-1.0), irrespective of time since cessation. Although based on small numbers, women with a history of treated infertility (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.4) or endometriosis (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.0-15.5) were at increased risks. No significant associations with endometrial cancer risk emerged for age at first/last birth, breastfeeding, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, and history of uterine fibromyomas or polycystic ovary. In conclusion, this study confirms the importance of multiparity, years of menstruation, and oral contraceptive use in endometrial cancer etiology, thus contributing to identify women at elevated risk of such neoplasm.
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Dietary vitamins E and C and prostate cancer risk.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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The epidemiologic evidence on dietary vitamins E and C and prostate cancer is controversial. Therefore, a case-control study was carried out to investigate the role of dietary intake of vitamins E and C in the etiology of prostate cancer.
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Advances in targeting signal transduction pathways.
Oncotarget
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Over the past few years, significant advances have occurred in both our understanding of the complexity of signal transduction pathways as well as the isolation of specific inhibitors which target key components in those pathways. Furthermore critical information is being accrued regarding how genetic mutations can affect the sensitivity of various types of patients to targeted therapy. Finally, genetic mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance after targeted therapy are being discovered which may allow the creation of alternative therapies to overcome resistance. This review will discuss some of the highlights over the past few years on the roles of key signaling pathways in various diseases, the targeting of signal transduction pathways and the genetic mechanisms governing sensitivity and resistance to targeted therapies.
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Risk factors for young-onset colorectal cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
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We investigated risk factors for colorectal cancer in early-onset cancers, to provide quantitative estimates for major selected risk factors.
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Ectopic NGAL expression can alter sensitivity of breast cancer cells to EGFR, Bcl-2, CaM-K inhibitors and the plant natural product berberine.
Cell Cycle
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Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a.k.a Lnc2) is a member of the lipocalin family and has diverse roles. NGAL can stabilize matrix metalloproteinase-9 from autodegradation. NGAL is considered as a siderocalin that is important in the transport of iron. NGAL expression has also been associated with certain neoplasias and is implicated in the metastasis of breast cancer. In a previous study, we examined whether ectopic NGAL expression would alter the sensitivity of breast epithelial, breast and colorectal cancer cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. While abundant NGAL expression was detected in all the cells infected with a retrovirus encoding NGAL, this expression did not alter the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin as compared with empty vector-transduced cells. We were also interested in determining the effects of ectopic NGAL expression on the sensitivity to small-molecule inhibitors targeting key signaling molecules. Ectopic NGAL expression increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to EGFR, Bcl-2 and calmodulin kinase inhibitors as well as the natural plant product berberine. Furthermore, when suboptimal concentrations of certain inhibitors were combined with doxorubicin, a reduction in the doxorubicin IC 50 was frequently observed. An exception was observed when doxorubicin was combined with rapamycin, as doxorubicin suppressed the sensitivity of the NGAL-transduced MCF-7 cells to rapamycin when compared with the empty vector controls. In contrast, changes in the sensitivities of the NGAL-transduced HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line and the breast epithelial MCF-10A cell line were not detected compared with empty vector-transduced cells. Doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox (R) cells were examined in these experiments as a control drug-resistant line; it displayed increased sensitivity to EGFR and Bcl-2 inhibitors compared with empty vector transduced MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that NGAL expression can alter the sensitivity of certain cancer cells to small-molecule inhibitors, suggesting that patients whose tumors exhibit elevated NGAL expression or have become drug-resistant may display altered responses to certain small-molecule inhibitors.
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Tomotherapy after pleurectomy/decortication or biopsy for malignant pleural mesothelioma allows the delivery of high dose of radiation in patients with intact lung.
J Thorac Oncol
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This study aimed to assess the safety of high doses of radiation delivered with tomotherapy to the intact lung after radical pleurectomy/decortication or biopsy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).
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Effects of ectopic expression of NGAL on doxorubicin sensitivity.
Oncotarget
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Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a.k.a Lnc2) is a member of the lipocalin family which has diverse roles including stabilizing matrix metalloproteinase-9 from auto-degradation and as siderocalins which are important in the transport of iron. NGAL also has important biological functions involved in immunity and inflammation as well as responses to kidney damage. NGAL expression has also been associated with certain neoplasia and is important in the metastasis of breast cancer. Many advanced cancer patients have elevated levels of NGAL in their urine and it has been proposed that NGAL may be a prognostic indicator for certain cancers (e.g. breast, brain, and others). NGAL expression is detected in response to various chemotherapeutic drugs including doxorubicin and docetaxel. We were interested in the roles of NGAL expression in cancer and whether it is associated with chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether increased NGAL expression led to resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and colorectal cancer cells (HT-29). We infected the various cell lines with a retrovirus encoding NGAL which we constructed. Increased NGAL expression was readily detected in the NGAL-infected cells but not the empty vector-infected cells. However, increased NGAL expression did not alter the sensitivity of the cells to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Thus, although NGAL expression is often detected after chemotherapeutic drug treatment, it by itself, does not lead to doxorubicin resistance.
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Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.
Nutr Cancer
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Diabetes has been associated to the risk of a few cancer sites, though quantification of this association in various populations remains open to discussion. We analyzed the relation between diabetes and the risk of various cancers in an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2009. The studies included 1,468 oral and pharyngeal, 505 esophageal, 230 gastric, 2,390 colorectal, 185 liver, 326 pancreatic, 852 laryngeal, 3,034 breast, 607 endometrial, 1,031 ovarian, 1,294 prostate, and 767 renal cell cancer cases and 12,060 hospital controls. The multivariate odds ratios (OR) for subjects with diabetes as compared to those without-adjusted for major identified confounding factors for the cancers considered through logistic regression models-were significantly elevated for cancers of the oral cavity/pharynx (OR = 1.58), esophagus (OR = 2.52), colorectum (OR = 1.23), liver (OR = 3.52), pancreas (OR = 3.32), postmenopausal breast (OR = 1.76), and endometrium (OR = 1.70). For cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, colorectum, liver, and postmenopausal breast, the excess risk persisted over 10 yr since diagnosis of diabetes. Our data confirm and further quantify the association of diabetes with colorectal, liver, pancreatic, postmenopausal breast, and endometrial cancer and suggest forthe first time that diabetes may also increase the risk of oral/pharyngeal and esophageal cancer.
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Locoregional failure in early-stage breast cancer patients treated with radical mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy: which patients benefit from postmastectomy irradiation?
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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To assess the locoregional failure in patients with Stage I-II breast cancer treated with radical mastectomy and to evaluate whether a subset of these patients might be at sufficiently high risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) to benefit from postmastectomy irradiation (PMRT).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.