Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate angiotensin II (AngII) lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of AngII, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given AngII either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of AngII had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of AngII was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of AngII sensitized of the dipsogenic response to AngII, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of (125)I-Sar(1)-AngII binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus (dMnPO) after 5 days of single daily injections of AngII; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily AngII injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily AngII.
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common approach in the United States and worldwide. Many studies have documented the changes in body weight, food intake, and glycemic control associated with the procedure. Although dehydration is commonly listed as a postoperative complication, little focus has been directed to testing the response to dipsogenic treatments after RYGB. Accordingly, we used a rat model of RYGB to test for procedure-induced changes in daily water intake and in the response to three dipsogenic treatments: central administration of ANG II, peripheral injection of hypertonic saline, and overnight water deprivation. We did not find any systematic differences in daily water intake of sham-operated and RYGB rats, nor did we find any differences in the response to the dipsogenic treatments. The results of these experiments suggest that RYGB does not impair thirst responses and does not enhance any satiating effect of water intake. Furthermore, these data support the current view that feedback from the stomach is unnecessary for the termination of drinking behavior and are consistent with a role of orosensory or postgastric feedback.
Hedonic overconsumption contributing to obesity involves altered activation within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) has been implicated in reward-seeking behaviors, such as binge eating, which contributes to treatment resistance in obesity (Wise, 2012). Direct modulation of the NAS with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure currently under investigation in humans for the treatment of major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction, may also be effective in ameliorating binge eating. Therefore, we examined the ability of DBS of the NAS to block this behavior in mice. c-Fos immunoreactivity was assessed as a marker of DBS-mediated neuronal activation. NAS DBS was found to reduce binge eating and increased c-Fos levels in this region. DBS of the dorsal striatum had no influence on this behavior, demonstrating anatomical specificity for this effect. The dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, attenuated the action of DBS, whereas the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH-23390, was ineffective, suggesting that dopamine signaling involving D2 receptors underlies the effect of NAS DBS. To determine the potential translational relevance to the obese state, chronic NAS DBS was also examined in diet-induced obese mice and was found to acutely reduce caloric intake and induce weight loss. Together, these findings support the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine pathways in the hedonic mechanisms contributing to obesity, and the efficacy of NAS DBS to modulate this system.
Estradiols inhibitory effect on food intake is mediated, in part, by its ability to increase the activity of meal-related signals, including serotonin (5-HT), which hastens satiation. The important role that postsynaptic 5-HT(2C) receptors play in mediating 5-HTs anorexigenic effect prompted us to investigate whether a regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT(2C) receptor activation in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We demonstrated that intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of low doses of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) decreased 1-h dark-phase food intake in estradiol-treated, but not oil-treated, OVX rats. During a longer feeding test, we demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of mCPP decreased 22-h food intake in oil-treated and, to a greater extent, estradiol-treated OVX rats. In a second study, we demonstrated that estradiol increased 5-HT(2C) receptor protein content in the caudal brainstem, but not hypothalamus, of OVX rats. We conclude that a physiologically-relevant regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases sensitivity to mCPPs anorexigenic effect. Our demonstration that this same regimen of estradiol treatment increases 5-HT(2C) receptor protein content in the caudal hindbrain of OVX rats provides a possible mechanism to explain our behavioral findings.
Estradiol (E2) exerts an inhibitory effect on food intake in a variety of species. While compelling evidence indicates that central, rather than peripheral, estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate this effect, the exact brain regions involved have yet to be conclusively identified. In order to identify brain regions that are sufficient for E2s anorectic effect, food intake was monitored for 48 h following acute, unilateral, microinfusions of vehicle and two doses (0.25 and 2.5 ?g) of a water-soluble form of E2 in multiple brain regions within the hypothalamus and midbrain of ovariectomized rats. Dose-related decreases in 24-h food intake were observed following E2 administration in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Within the former two brain areas, the larger dose of E2 also decreased 4-h food intake. Food intake was not influenced, however, by similar E2 administration in the paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, or ventromedial nucleus. These data suggest that E2-responsive neurons within the MPOA, ARC, and DRN participate in the estrogenic control of food intake and provide specific brain areas for future investigations of the cellular mechanism underlying estradiols anorexigenic effect.
While there is considerable evidence that the ovarian hormone estradiol reduces food intake in female rats, it is unclear which estrogen receptor (ER) subtype, ER? or ER?, mediates this effect. While several studies have demonstrated that activation of ER?, but not ER?, is sufficient to reduce food intake in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, there are limited data regarding which receptor subtype is necessary. Here we used the selective ER? and ERß antagonists, MPrP and PHTPP, respectively, to investigate this question. We found that antagonism of ER?, but not ER?, prevented the decrease in food intake following acute administration of estradiol in OVX rats. In addition, antagonism of ER? prevented the estrous-related, phasic reduction in food intake that occurs in response to the rise in circulating levels of estradiol in cycling rats. We conclude that activation of ER? is necessary for the anorexigenic effects of exogenous and endogenous estradiol in female rats.
Estrogens exert many of their behavioral effects by binding to nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) proteins, ERalpha and ERbeta. Recent studies involving ER knockout mice and selective ER agonists suggest that estradiols anorexigenic effect is mediated via activation of ERalpha. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether the presumptive ERalpha antagonist, MPP, could block estradiols anorexigenic effect. In the first series of experiments, the effects of MPP on food intake and uterine weight were monitored in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with either a physiological dose of estradiol benzoate (EB) or a selective ERalpha agonist (PPT). In the final experiment, food intake was monitored following acute administration of MPP in ovarian-intact (cycling) female rats. Contrary to our hypothesis, MPP failed to attenuate either EBs or PPTs ability to decrease food intake and increase uterine weight in OVX rats. However, in ovarian-intact rats, a similar regimen of MPP treatment attenuated the phasic decrease in food intake that is associated with estrus. We conclude that MPP may be a useful tool to investigate the behavioral actions of endogenous estradiol, but may have limited utility in studying the behavioral effects of exogenous estradiol in OVX rats.
Estradiol (E2) decreases food and water intake in a variety of species, including rats. Available evidence suggests that this is mediated by genomic mechanisms that are most often attributed to nuclear estrogen receptors. More recent studies indicate that membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) also can influence gene expression through the activation of transcription factors, yet it is unclear whether mERs are involved in mediating the hypophagic and antidipsetic effects of E2. In the present experiments, we injected E2 or a membrane-impermeable form of E2 (E2-BSA) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of ovariectomized female rats and evaluated the effect on 23 h food and water intake. First, we found that higher doses of E2 were necessary to reduce water intake than were sufficient to reduce food intake. Analysis of drinking microstructure revealed that the decrease in water intake after E2 treatment was mediated by both a decrease in burst number and burst size. Next, the activation of mERs with E2-BSA decreased both overnight food and water intake and analysis of drinking microstructure indicated that the decreased water intake resulted from a decrease in burst number. Finally, E2-BSA did not condition a taste aversion, suggesting that the inhibitory effects on food and water intake were not secondary to malaise. Together these findings suggest that activation of mERs is sufficient to decrease food and water intake in female rats.
It is well established that estradiol (E2) decreases food intake and body weight in young female rats. However, it is not clear if female rats retain responsiveness to the anorexigenic effect of E2 during middle age. Because middle-aged females exhibit reduced responsiveness to E2, manifesting as a delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone surge, it is plausible that middle-aged rats are less responsive to the anorexigenic effect of E2. To test this we monitored food intake in ovariohysterectomized young and middle-aged rats following E2 treatment. E2 decreased food intake and body weight to a similar degree in both young and middle-aged rats. Next, we investigated whether genes that mediate the estrogenic inhibition of food intake are similarly responsive to E2 by measuring gene expression of the anorexigenic genes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the long form of the leptin receptor (Lepr) and serotonin 2C receptors (5HT2CR) and the orexigenic genes agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), prepromelanin-concentrating hormone (pMCH) and orexin in the hypothalamus of young and middle-aged OVX rats treated with E2. As expected, E2 increased expression of all anorexigenic genes while decreasing expression of all orexigenic genes in young rats. Although CRH, 5HT2CR, Lepr, AgRP, NPY and orexin were also sensitive to E2 treatment in middle-aged rats, POMC and pMCH expression were not influenced by E2 in middle-aged rats. These data demonstrate that young and middle-aged rats are similarly sensitive to the anorexigenic effect of E2 and that most, but not all feeding-related genes retain sensitivity to E2.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.