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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical Implication of Highly Sensitive Detection of the BRAFV600E Mutation in Fine-Needle Aspirations According to the Thyroid Bethesda System in Patients With Conventional Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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We investigated the additional diagnostic yield of the mutation test and evaluated the frequency of the BRAF mutation in conventional PTC (cPTC) according to ultrasound (US) features and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) based on the BRAF(V600E) mutation status.
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The influence of body mass index on the diagnostic performance of preoperative staging ultrasound in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of preoperative staging ultrasound (US) according to body mass index (BMI) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 625 PTC patients who underwent preoperative staging US and surgical excision at a referral center between December 2012 and April 2013. Four experienced radiologists prospectively evaluated the extent of primary tumors, multifocality, and the presence of lymph node metastasis. Patients were grouped according to BMI (normal < 25; overweight 25 ? and < 30; obese ? 30,/non-obese < 30; obese ? 30 kg/m(2) ). Diagnostic performances of preoperative staging US (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy) were compared according to BMI based on pathologic findings of surgical specimens.
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Role of Fractalkine in the Pathogenesis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome: Increased Serum Levels of Fractalkine, Its Expression in Labial Salivary Glands, and the Association with Clinical Manifestations.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To investigate the expression of fractalkine and identify the clinical effects of fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS).
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A multimeric carcinoembryonic antigen signal inhibits the activation of human T cells by a SHP-independent mechanism: a potential mechanism for tumor-mediated suppression of T cell immunity.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a well-known tumor antigen that is found in the serum of patients with various cancers and is correlated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence and metastasis. To understand the tumor environment and to develop anti-tumor therapies, CEA has been studied as an antigen to activate/tolerate specific T cells. In this study, we show that CEA can function as a co-inhibitory molecule and can inhibit the activation of human PBMC-derived T cells. Addition of CEA-overexpressing tumor cells or immobilized CEA dampened both cell proliferation and the expression of IL-2 and CD69 expression in T cells after TCR stimulation. The phosphorylation of ERK and translocation of NFAT were hampered in these cells, while the phosphorylation of proximal TCR signaling molecules such as ZAP70 and PLC? was not affected by immobilized CEA. To determine the relevance of CEACAM1 and SHP molecules to CEA-mediated suppression, we tested the effect of the SHP inhibitor, NSC-87877 on CEA-mediated suppression of T cells, but it did not reverse the effect of CEA. Collectively, these results indicate that CEA can function as a modulator of T cell responses suggesting a novel mechanism of tumor evasion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Tumor-derived osteopontin suppresses antitumor immunity by promoting extramedullary myelopoiesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Extramedullary myelopoiesis occurs commonly in tumor-bearing animals and is known to lead to accumulation of peripheral myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which play an important role in immune escape. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which tumors induce extramedullary myelopoiesis are poorly understood. In this study, we found that osteopontin expressed by tumor cells enhances extramedullary myelopoiesis in a CD44-dependent manner through the Erk1/2-MAPK pathway. Osteopontin-mediated extramedullary myelopoiesis was directly associated with increased MDSCs in tumor-bearing hosts. More importantly, osteopontin silencing in tumor cells delayed both tumor growth and extramedullary myelopoiesis, while the same treatment did not affect tumor growth in vitro. Finally, treatment with an antibody against osteopontin inhibited tumor growth and synergized with cell-based immunotherapeutic vaccines in mediating antitumor immunity. Our findings unveil a novel immunosuppressive role for tumor-derived osteopontin and offer a rationale for its therapeutic targeting in cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6705-16. ©2014 AACR.
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[Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the pain assessment checklist for seniors with limited ability to communicate].
J Korean Acad Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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This study was done to develop and test the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate (PACSLAC-K) in assessing pain of elders with dementia living in long-term care facilities.
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Evaluation with 3.0-T MR imaging: predicting the pathological response of triple-negative breast cancer treated with anthracycline and taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which expresses neither hormonal receptors nor HER-2 is associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival. Several studies have suggested that TNBC patients attaining pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) show a longer survival than those without pCR.
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Thyroid Cancers with Benign-Looking Sonographic Features Have Different Lymph Node Metastatic Risk and Histologic Subtypes According to Nodule Size.
Endocr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A decision to perform fine needle aspiration (FNA) on thyroid nodules mainly depends on sonographic features. We investigated if lymph node metastasis (LNM) risk differed by tumor size of thyroid cancers without suspicious sonographic features. Three hundred sixty patients with thyroid cancers with benign looking sonographic features were grouped by nodule size on ultrasonography (US) (? or >1 cm). The clinicopathologic parameters were compared between the groups. A multivariate analysis was performed to discover the independent factors predicting the presence of LNM. The nodules greater than 10 mm on US (n?=?157) demonstrated a larger tumor size on histology (17.9?±?14.5 vs. 5.6?±?2.4 mm, P?10 mm were independent predictive factors of LNM after adjusting for age, sex, TSH level, and multifocality. Thyroid cancers larger than 10 mm with benign US features are more likely to be nonclassical PTC than those with smaller diameters. The larger ones also have an increased risk of LNM in classical PTC. These cases require a more aggressive approach to FNA.
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Photoacoustic imaging of breast microcalcifications: a preliminary study with 8-gauge core-biopsied breast specimens.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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We presented the photoacoustic imaging (PAI) tool and to evaluate whether microcalcifications in breast tissue can be detected on photoacoustic (PA) images.
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Malignancy Risk Stratification in Thyroid Nodules with Nondiagnostic Results at Cytologic Examination: Combination of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and the Bethesda System.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Purpose To evaluate the malignancy risks of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results at ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the criteria for selecting those for repeat US-guided FNAB according to the thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Five hundred forty-eight nondiagnostic nodules were included. US features of internal composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, shape, and vascularity were evaluated, and thyroid nodules were classified according to TIRADS. TIRADS category 3 included nodules without any suspicious features of solidity, hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity, microlobulated or irregular margins, microcalcifications, and taller-than-wide shape. Categories 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5 included nodules with one, two, three or four, or five suspicious US features. The malignancy risk was calculated. Results Of the 548 nodules, 40 (7.3%) were malignant and 508 (92.7%) were benign. The malignancy risks of categories 3 and 4a nodules were 0.8% and 1.8%, respectively, whereas the malignancy risks of categories 4b, 4c, and 5 nodules were 6.1%, 14.4%, and 31%. In the 294 nodules larger than 10 mm, the malignancy risks of categories 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5 nodules were 0.9%, 1.3%, 0%, 15%, and 33%, respectively. In the 254 nodules measuring 10 mm or smaller, the malignancy risks of categories 3, 4a 4b, 4c, and 5 nodules were 0%, 2.7%, 14%, 14.3%, and 31%. Conclusion Nondiagnostic thyroid nodules without suspicious US features and those with one suspicious feature can be followed up with US, but nondiagnostic nodules with two or more suspicious features should undergo repeat US-guided FNAB. © RSNA, 2014.
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Red ginseng extract ameliorates autoimmune arthritis via regulation of STAT3 pathway, Th17/Treg balance, and osteoclastogenesis in mice and human.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA.
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Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 5 Attenuates Autoimmune Arthritis in Mice via Reciprocal Regulation of the Th17/Treg Cell Balance and Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Dual-specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP-5) is a phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylates both phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine residues of MAPK. The dysregulated activation of MAPK contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of DUSP-5 in preventing the development of autoimmune arthritis in an animal model.
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Breast papilloma without atypia and risk of breast carcinoma.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The incidence of asymptomatic papilloma has increased with the rising popularity of core needle biopsy for breast lesions. In this study, the risk of benign papilloma without atypia for subsequent breast carcinoma during follow-up was evaluated. From January 2000 to December 2010, among 39,461 women with breast ultrasonography, 37,847 women with benign papilloma on biopsy or excision, with benign diseases on biopsy, and with only ultrasonography performed were recruited. Women with concurrent or prior high-risk lesions (atypia, phyllodes tumor, or lobular neoplasm) or malignancies, or with a follow-up period of less than 12 months were excluded. The eligible 12,302 women were classified into three groups; papilloma (n = 265, patients with benign papilloma without atypia at excision), benign (n = 3,066, patients with benign results other than high risk results on core needle biopsy), and ultrasonography (n = 8,971, patients who underwent ultrasonography only without biopsy or surgery). The relative risks (RRs) of the papilloma and benign groups were calculated with intervals of 2 years using the Poisson regression analysis with age, family history, follow-up period, and breast parenchymal density being adjusted, and the ultrasonography group was used as a reference. The RR of the papilloma group was 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-9.0), significantly higher than 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.1) of the benign group. In the first 2 years, the RR of the papilloma group was 5.2 (95% CI, 2.2-12.6) but it dropped to 2.2 (95% CI, 0.5-9.2) during the next 2 years. Afterward, the RR increased over time although statistical significance was not achieved. Benign papilloma without atypia increased breast cancer risk fivefold when the ultrasonography group was used as a reference, higher than other benign lesions.
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Conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma: effects of cystic changes visible on ultrasonography on disease prognosis.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To investigate the characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with cystic changes visible on ultrasonography (US).
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Pathologic spectrum of lymphocytic infiltration and recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients according to different pathologic grades of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT).
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Can ultrasound be as a surrogate marker for diagnosing a papillary thyroid cancer? Comparison with BRAF mutation analysis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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We investigated the merit of ultrasound (US) features and BRAF(V600E) mutation as an additional study of cytology and compared the diagnostic performances of cytology alone, cytology with US correlation, cytology with BRAFV600E mutation, and a combination of cytology, US, and BRAFV600E mutation all together.
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Application of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in thyroid ultrasonography interpretation by less experienced physicians.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To verify the usefulness of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for thyroid nodule diagnosis by less experienced physicians.
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Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases.
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Imaging-cytology correlation of thyroid nodules with initially benign cytology.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Objective. To determine the role of imaging-cytology correlation in reducing false negative results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) at thyroid nodules. Methods. This retrospective study included 667 nodules 1?cm or larger in 649 patients diagnosed as benign at initial cytologic evaluation and that underwent follow-up ultrasound (US) or FNA following a radiologist's opinion on concordance between imaging and cytologic results. We compared the risk of malignancy of nodules classified into subgroups according to the initial US features and imaging-cytology correlation. Results. Among included nodules, 11 nodules were proven to be malignant (1.6%) in follow-up FNA or surgery. The malignancy rate was higher in nodules with suspicious US features (11.4%) than in nodules without suspicious US features (0.5%, P < 0.001). When a thyroid nodule had discordant US findings on image review after having benign FNA results, malignancy rate increased to 23.3%, significantly higher than that of nodules with suspicious US features (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the risk of malignancy between the nodules without suspicious US features (0.5%) and imaging-cytology concordant nodules (0.6%, P = 0.438). Conclusions. Repeat FNA can be effectively limited to patients with cytologically benign thyroid nodules showing discordance in imaging-cytology correlation after initial biopsy, which reduces unnecessary repeat aspirations.
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Blocking activator protein 1 activity in donor cells reduces severity of acute graft-versus-host disease through reciprocal regulation of IL-17-producing T cells/regulatory T cells.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of mortality in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Here, the diminishing effect of activator protein 1 (AP-1) blocking with a synthetic retinoid (SR11302) on the severity of aGVHD in a murine model was investigated. MHC-mismatched strain combinations were used in vivo: C57BL/6 (H-2k(b)) donors into lethally irradiated BALB/c (H-2k(d)) recipients. SR11302 inhibited alloreactive T cell response in a dose-dependent manner and negatively regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. AP-1 blocking in T cells inhibited the differentiation of Th1 and Th17. Conversely, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) population dramatically expanded. Transfer of SR11302-treated donor splenocytes into lethally irradiated recipients diminished the lethality and clinical severity of aGVHD. In line with these results, AP-1 blocking in donor splenocytes exhibited reduced Th17/Th1 population and enhanced in vivo Treg population. Beneficial Treg expanding property of SR11302 was associated with the induction of Foxp3 and STAT5 transcription factor, where the inhibiting property of Th17 was achieved by suppressing the phosphorylated form of STAT3 and enhancing SOCS3. In conclusion, the preventive potential of AP-1 inhibitor in aGVHD may be accomplished by altering CD4(+) T cell differentiation through modulating transcription factors.
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Absence of Residual Microcalcifications in Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Diagnosed via Stereotactic Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: Is Surgical Excision Obviated?
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The purpose of our study was to evaluate the underestimation rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) on vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB), and to examine the correlation between residual microcalcifications and the underestimation rate of ADH.
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Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated ZnO nanostructures.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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We studied the effect of plasma treatment on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by chemical bath deposition in an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2 and hexamethylenetetramine. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures exhibited two emission bands due to exciton emission and defect emission. After treating with hydrogen plasma, the treated ZnO nanostructures exhibited stronger exciton emission than the as-grown, untreated ZnO nanostructures in their respective cathodoluminescence and PL spectra. The low-temperature PL spectrum of the hydrogen plasma-treated ZnO nanostructures showed a strong exciton emission at 3.34 eV, attributing to the bound exciton and its longitudinal optical-phonon sidebands. The strong exciton emission is thought to be due to the combined effect of exciton emission enhancement by defect passivation and optical confinement resulting from nanostructure geometry.
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STA-21, a promising STAT-3 inhibitor that reciprocally regulates Th17 and Treg cells, inhibits osteoclastogenesis in mice and humans and alleviates autoimmune inflammation in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To investigate the impact of STA-21, a promising STAT-3 inhibitor, on the development and progression of inflammatory arthritis and to determine the possible mechanisms by which STA-21 has antiarthritic effects in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-knockout (IL-1Ra-KO) mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Rebamipide suppresses collagen-induced arthritis through reciprocal regulation of th17/treg cell differentiation and heme oxygenase 1 induction.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Rebamipide, a gastroprotective agent, has the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen radicals. Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We undertook this study to investigate the impact of rebamipide on the development of arthritis and the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which rebamipide attenuates arthritis severity in a murine model of RA.
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Metformin attenuates experimental autoimmune arthritis through reciprocal regulation of Th17/Treg balance and osteoclastogenesis.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Metformin is widely used to suppress certain functions of the cells found in diseases including diabetes and obesity. In this study, the effects of metformin on downregulating IL-17-producing T (Th17) cells, activating and upregulating regulatory T (Treg) cells, suppressing osteoclastogenesis, and clinically scoring collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated. To evaluate the effect of metformin on CIA, mice were orally fed with either metformin or saline as control three times a week for nine weeks. Histological analysis of the joints was performed using immunohistochemistry and Th17 cells and Treg cells of the spleen tissue were examined by confocal microscopy staining. Metformin mitigated the severity of CIA, reduced serum immunoglobulin concentrations, and reciprocally regulated Th17/Treg axis. Also, metformin treatment of normal cells cultured in Th17 conditions decreased the number of Th17 cells and increased the number of Treg cells. Metformin decreased gene expression and osteoclastogenic activity in CIA and normal mice. These results indicate that metformin had immunomodulatory actions influencing anti-inflammatory action on CIA through the inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation and the upregulation of Treg cell differentiation along with the suppression of osteoclast differentiation. Our results suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic for rheumatoid arthritis.
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Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy under ultrasonographic guidance: analysis of a 10-year experience.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To determine the indications and the diagnostic accuracy of vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) under ultrasonographic (US) guidance based on a 10-year period of clinical use.
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Assessment of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle.
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JAK2-STAT3 blockade by AG490 suppresses autoimmune arthritis in mice via reciprocal regulation of regulatory T Cells and Th17 cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling is essential for Th17 differentiation and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the antirheumatic effects and T cell regulatory effects of STAT3 inhibition, we studied the effects of the JAK 2 inhibitor AG490 on Th17 cell/regulatory T cell (Treg) balance and osteoclastogenesis. AG490 was administered to mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) via i.p. injection, and its in vivo effects were determined. Differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-1?, and IL-6, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and STAT5 and differentiation of Th17 cells and Tregs after AG490 treatment in our CIA model were analyzed by immunostaining. In vitro development of Th17 cells and Tregs was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. AG490 ameliorated the arthritic phenotype in CIA and increased the proportion of Foxp3(+) Tregs. In contrast, the proportion of IL-17A-producing T cells and levels of inflammatory markers were reduced in AG490-treated mice. Numbers of p-STAT3(+) CD4(+) T cells and p-STAT5(+) CD4(+) T cells were reduced and elevated, respectively, after treatment with AG490. Furthermore, AG490 markedly increased the expression of molecules associated with Treg development (ICOS, programmed cell death protein 1, ICAM-1, and CD103). The development and function of osteoclasts were suppressed by AG490 treatment. Our results suggest that AG490, specifically regulating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, may be a promising treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
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A case of pulmonary artery sarcoma presented as cavitary pulmonary lesions.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare, poorly differentiated malignancy arising from the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) is a good diagnostic modality that shows a low-attenuation filling defect of the pulmonary artery in PAS patients. An 18-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the evaluation and management of cavitary pulmonary lesions that did not respond to treatment. A contrast-enhanced CT of the chest was performed, which showed a filling defect within the right interlobar pulmonary artery. The patient underwent a curative right pneumonectomy after confirmation of PAS. Although lung parenchymal lesions of PAS are generally nonspecific, it can be presented as cavities indicate pulmonary infarcts. Clinicians must consider the possibility of PAS as well as pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with pulmonary infarcts. So, we report the case with PAS that was diagnosed during the evaluation of cavitary pulmonary lesions and reviewed the literatures.
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Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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This study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task.
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Conversion coefficients for the estimation of effective dose in cone-beam CT.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To determine the conversion coefficients (CCs) from the dose-area product (DAP) value to effective dose in cone-beam CT.
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Intravenous immunoglobulin attenuates experimental autoimmune arthritis by inducing reciprocal regulation of Th17 and Treg cells in an interleukin-10-dependent manner.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used as a therapeutic agent in various autoimmune diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic effects of IVIG on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and identify the mechanism responsible for any therapeutic effects.
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Intra-observer reproducibility and diagnostic performance of breast shear-wave elastography in Asian women.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Our aim was to evaluate intra-observer reproducibility of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in Asian women. Sixty-four breast masses (24 malignant, 40 benign) were examined with SWE in 53 consecutive Asian women (mean age, 44.9 y old). Two SWE images were obtained for each of the lesions. The intra-observer reproducibility was assessed by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). We also evaluated various clinicoradiologic factors that can influence reproducibility in SWE. The ICC of intra-observer reproducibility was 0.789. In clinicoradiologic factor evaluation, masses surrounded by mixed fatty and glandular tissue (ICC: 0.619) showed lower intra-observer reproducibility compared with lesions that were surrounded by glandular tissue alone (ICC: 0.937; p < 0.05). Overall, the intra-observer reproducibility of breast SWE was excellent in Asian women. However, it may decrease when breast tissue is in a heterogeneous background. Therefore, SWE should be performed carefully in these cases.
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Mid-term clinical outcomes and morphological changes after endovascular aneurysm repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: a single-center experience.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been suggested as treatment for inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA), but the actual clinical and radiological outcomes need to be evaluated.
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Mammographic density estimation with automated volumetric breast density measurement.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To compare automated volumetric breast density measurement (VBDM) with radiologists' evaluations based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to identify the factors associated with technical failure of VBDM.
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Gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 attenuates murine autoimmune arthritis by regulation of th17 and treg cells.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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STAT-3 is a key transcriptional factor in the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated differentiation of Th17 cells. Because Th17 is believed to be a central player in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we sought to evaluate whether an endogenous inhibitor of the STAT3 gene, GRIM-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19), could attenuate the progression and severity of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) through suppression of Th17 cells and, reciprocally, could increase expression of Treg cells.
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Malignancy risk stratification in thyroid nodules with benign results on cytology: combination of thyroid imaging reporting and data system and bethesda system.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The indications of repeat fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for thyroid nodules with benign results of the Bethesda system were investigated.
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Thyroid nodules with macrocalcification: sonographic findings predictive of malignancy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To analyze which sonographic features of thyroid nodules with macrocalcifications were predictable of thyroid malignancy.
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Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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In the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of Bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens Vibrio cholera, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Moreover it showed above 70% cell surface hydrophobicity, significant low-invasion ability and potential adherence capacity in Caco-2 cells when compared with the control. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?) was greatly reduced in rumen bacteria treatment and ARBS-1 modulate the immune response by activating the IL-4 secretion in parallel to TNF-? suppression. The 16s rRNA gene sequence of the active isolates were identified as Enterococcus hirae (ARBS-1), Pediococcus acidilactici (ARBS-4) and Bacillus licheniformis (ARBS-7). This study revealed the probiotic bactericidal properties of E. hirae obtained from the rumen of B. primigenius with potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies with the strains may yield some novel probiotic product for livestock's.
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High-intensity swimming exercise increases dust mite extract and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-derived atopic dermatitis in BALB/c mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity swimming exercise (HISE) on atopic dermatitis (AD). For the study, we established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) to the ears. After HISE for 4 weeks, epidermal thickness, mast cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and histamine were measured. In addition, the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-31 in the ears was assayed. HISE increased DFE/CDNB-induced AD symptoms based on ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum IgE level. Moreover, HISE exercise stimulated mast cell infiltration into the ear, elevation of serum histamine, and DFE/CDNB-induced expression of IL-5 and IL-31 in the ears in the AD model. Taken together, our results indicate the possibility that HISE-induced stress gives rise to AD symptoms through the stimulation of IgE level by increasing IL-5 and IL-31 production.
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Higher body mass index may be a predictor of extrathyroidal extension in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Recently, higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with aggressive pathologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between BMI and aggressive pathologic features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and to evaluate whether the BMI can be a prognostic factor of PTMC. This retrospective study included 612 PTMC patients who underwent surgical excision at a referral center between April 2006 and December 2007. Patients were grouped according to BMI (<25 or ?25 kg/m(2)). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of aggressive pathologic features (advanced stage, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis), with adjustment for age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, and BMI (value/group). PTMC patients with a BMI ? 25 kg/m(2) showed significantly higher prevalences of extrathyroidal extension, advanced pathologic TNM stage, and male gender, compared to those of patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2). Lymph node metastasis and mean TSH level were not significantly different between the two BMI subgroups. In multivariable analysis, the BMI ? 25 kg/m(2) group was positively associated with the presence of extrathyroidal extension (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, P = 0.05). Higher BMI was associated with extrathyroidal extension in PTMC patients. This study suggests that the BMI could be considered as a prognostic factor for predicting the presence of extrathyroidal extension and it may help decide the appropriate surgical extent for PTMC patients.
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Ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed using an ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses: can underestimation be predicted preoperatively?
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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This study was designed to determine the rate of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)underestimation diagnosed after an ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy (US-14G-CNB) of breast masses and to compare the clinical and imaging characteristics between trueDCIS and underestimated DCIS identified following surgical excision.
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Serum amyloid A3 exacerbates cancer by enhancing the suppressive capacity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells via TLR2-dependent STAT3 activation.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which suppress diverse innate and adaptive immune responses and thereby provide an evasion mechanism for tumors, are emerging as a key population linking inflammation to cancer. Although many inflammatory factors that induce MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment are known, the crucial components and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we proposed a novel mechanism by which serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), a well-known inflammatory factor, connects MDSCs with cancer progression. We found that SAA3 expression in BALB/c mice increased in monocytic MDSCs (Mo MDSCs) with tumor growth. The induction of SAA3 by apo-SAA treatment in Mo MDSCs enhanced their survival and suppressive activity, while it inhibited GM-CSF-induced differentiation. Endogenous SAA3 itself contributed to the increase in the survival and suppressive activity of Mo MDSCs. We demonstrated that SAA3 induced TLR2 signaling, in turn increasing the autocrine secretion of TNF-?, that led to STAT3 activation. In addition, activated STAT3 enhanced the suppressive activity of Mo MDSCs. Furthermore, SAA3 induction in Mo MDSCs contributed to accelerating tumor progression in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest a novel mechanism by which Mo MDSCs mediate inflammation through SAA3-TLR2 signaling and thus exacerbate cancer progression by a STAT3-dependent mechanism.
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BRAF mutation in Fine Needle Aspiration Specimens as a Potential Predictor for Persistence/Recurrence in Patients with Classical Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Larger than 10 mm at a BRAF Mutation Prevalent Area.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Background. The association between the BRAF mutation and persistence/recurrence was investigated in patients with classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) at a BRAF mutation prevalent area. Methods. A total of 282 patients with total thyroidectomy and prophylactic central neck dissection were included. The BRAF mutation was evaluated with cytology specimen using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based multiplex PCR and direct sequencing preoperatively. Results. Thirty four patients (12%) had persistence/recurrence. In all PTC, the BRAF mutation on both methods was not associated with persistence/recurrence. In PTC > 10 mm, the BRAF mutation on DPO-based multiplex PCR was significantly associated with persistence/recurrence and a potential predictor for persistence/recurrence. In PTC ? 10 mm, none of the covariates were significantly different between patients with and without persistence/recurrence. Conclusions. The BRAF mutation was significantly associated with persistence/recurrence and a potential predictor in patients with classical PTC > 10 mm at a BRAF mutation prevalent area. Head Neck, 2014.
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Benign core biopsy of probably benign breast lesions 2 cm or larger: correlation with excisional biopsy and long-term follow-up.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To evaluate the accuracy of benign core biopsy of probably benign breast lesions (category 3) 2 cm or larger on the basis of excisional biopsy and long-term follow-up.
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Ultrasound elastography for thyroid nodules: recent advances.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Ultrasonography (US)-based elastography has been introduced as a noninvasive technique for evaluating thyroid nodules that encompasses a variety of approaches such as supersonic shear imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging as well as real-time tissue elastography. However, the diagnostic performances for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones with elastography as an adjunctive tool of gray-scale US is still under debate. In this review article, diagnostic performances of conventional US and a combination of conventional US and elastography are compared according to the type of elastography. Further, the interobserver variability of elastography is presented according to the type of elastography.
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Incidentally diagnosed Takayasu arteritis on thyroid ultrasonography showing prominent collateral vessels of thyroidal arteries and common carotid artery occlusion.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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We report a case of middle-aged woman incidentally diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis during the ultrasonography of a thyroid gland nodule. Prominent collaterals of the thyroidal arteries and a thin common carotid artery with mural thickening and deficient intraluminal flow signals were initially depicted on the ultrasonography with color Doppler. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography aortography confirmed the diagnosis with the imaging features of a bilateral long segment common carotid artery occlusion and segmental stenosis of the left subclavian artery in addition to the suggestive physical findings.
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PIAS3 suppresses acute graft-versus-host disease by modulating effector T and B cell subsets through inhibition of STAT3 activation.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) caused by transplanted donor T cells remains the major obstacle of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Previous reports have suggested that IL-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells mediate the development of acute GVHD (aGVHD). Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS) inhibits the activity of the transcription factor STAT3, which is a pivotal transcription factor for Th17 differentiation. To elucidate whether PIAS3 could inhibit the development of aGVHD, pcDNA-PIAS3 or mock vector was administered in a murine model of aGVHD by intramuscular injection and subsequent electroporation. The results demonstrated that PIAS3 overexpression by pcDNA-vector administration significantly attenuated the clinical severity and histopathological severities of aGHVD involving the skin, liver, intestine, and lung. Additionally, the STAT3 activities in aGVHD target organs were suppressed by PIAS3 overexpression. Furthermore, phosphorylated (p) STAT3 activity in the spleen was profoundly attenuated in PIAS3-overexpressing GVHD mice. Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the populations of CD21(high)CD23(low) marginal zone B cells were dramatically expanded in PIAS3-overexpressing mice. PIAS3-induced inhibition of aGVHD was largely related to the downregulation of Th1 and Th17 and the upregulation of Th2 and Treg populations. Both populations of pSTAT3(Tyr705)-expressing Th17 cells and B cells were significantly reduced in the spleens of PIAS3-overexpressing mice, whereas pSTAT5 activity was increased. In addition to CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells, the populations of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells were also expanded by treatment with PIAS3. These data suggest the therapeutic potential of PIAS3 in the development of aGVHD through reciprocal regulation of Th17/Treg lineages.
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Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors.
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Thyroid ultrasonography: pitfalls and techniques.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.
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Better understanding in the differentiation of thyroid follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a retrospective study.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Background. To evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US), US-guided fine-needle aspiration (USFNA) and intraoperative frozen section (FS) in follicular neoplasm. Methods. US features, USFNA cytology, and FS results were compared based on the pathology results of patients with follicular adenoma (FA), follicular carcinoma (FC), and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). Results. FC and FVPTC showed significantly higher rates of suspicious US features (P < 0.05) and positive findings on either US or cytology, 80.0% and 90.7%, compared to FA, 64.5% (P = 0.001). Intraoperative FS showed higher malignant rates in FVPTC and FC (81.8% and 75.0%, resp.), compared to FA (3.8%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Suspicious US features were more significantly seen in FC and FVPTC compared to FA. Intraoperative FS is useful in the differential diagnosis of these lesions and supplements cytology results of USFNA.
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Outbreaks of mumps: an observational study over two decades in a single hospital in Korea.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The introduction of the mumps vaccine has dramatically reduced the number of mumps cases, but outbreaks have recently occurred among highly vaccinated populations in developed countries. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with mumps admitted between 1989 and 2012 in a single hospital in Korea are described in the present study.
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Real-time elastography in the evaluation of diffuse thyroid disease: a study based on elastography histogram parameters.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative histogram parameters using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) in the diagnosis of patients with diffuse thyroid disease. One hundred and sixteen patients (mean age, 43.7 ± 10.97 y) who had undergone pre-operative staging ultrasonography and RTE were included. For each patient, 11 parameters were obtained from RTE images, from which the "elastic index" was calculated. Diagnostic performance of the elastic index and that of the 11 parameters on RTE were calculated and compared. Of the 116 patients, 31 had diffuse thyroid disease and 85 had normal thyroid parenchyma. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A(z)) of MEAN (average relative value) elasticity was high (0.737), without significant differences from other elasticity values. Diagnostic performance of the elastic index was higher than the MEAN, A(z) = 0.753, without significance (p = 0.802). In conclusion, RTE using the elastic index was found to have good diagnostic performance and may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with diffuse thyroid disease.
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Benign Aspirates on Follow-Up FNA May Be Enough in Patients with Initial Atypia of Undetermined Significance/Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Background. Management of thyroid nodules with benign aspirates following atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is not well established. We reviewed the risk of malignancy and the role of ultrasound (US) features among thyroid nodules with benign results following initial AUS/FLUS diagnoses. Methods. From December 2009 to February 2011, a total of 114 nodules in 114 patients diagnosed as benign on follow-up fine-needle aspiration (FNA) after AUS/FLUS results were included in our study. Eight among 114 nodules were confirmed pathologically and 106 were clinically observed by a follow-up FNA or US. Suspicious US features were defined as markedly hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margin, presence of microcalcifications, and taller than wide shape. Results. There were 110 (96.5%) benign nodules and 4 (3.5%) malignant nodules. Two (4.8%) among 42 nodules without suspicious US features and 2 (2.8%) out of 72 nodules with suspicious US features were confirmed as malignancy, but there were no significant associations between the malignancy rate and US features (P = 0.625). Conclusion. Clinical follow-up instead of surgical excision or continuous repeat FNA may be enough for benign thyroid nodules after AUS/FLUS. The role of US features might be insignificant in the management of these nodules.
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A nomogram for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesions of undetermined significance on fine needle aspiration.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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We hypothesized that a nomogram constructed of clinical and imaging variables could be applied to predicting the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) on ultrasonographic fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA).
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HER2 Expression in Fine Needle Aspirates of Lymph Nodes Detected by Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of HER2 levels in ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) aspirates of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in the determination of lymph node metastasis or the characterization of primary breast cancer, and to correlate the HER2 levels in US-FNA aspirates (FNA-HER2s) of metastatic ALNs with the HER2 statuses of corresponding primary breast cancers. An institutional review board approved the study. Between January and October 2010, 164 patients with 167 ALNs examined by US-FNA were included. FNA-HER2s of ALNs were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and they were correlated with cytologic/final diagnoses. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic ability to differentiate benign and metastatic ALNs. Additionally, FNA-HER2s of metastatic ALNs were correlated with HER2 status and other clinicopathologic variables of the primary breast cancers. Among the 167 ALNs, 138 were metastatic and 29 were benign. The mean FNA-HER2 (6.3 ng/ml) of metastatic ALNs was higher than that of benign ALNs. All 29 benign ALNs showed no measurable value of FNA-HER2 (0.0 ng/ml). The area under the ROC curves of FNA-HER2 of ALNs was 0.679 for the diagnosis of ALN metastasis. The FNA-HER2 statuses of 108 metastatic ALNs (79.4%) were concordant with the HER2 statuses of the corresponding primary breast cancers. In a subgroup analysis of HER2-positive cancers with ALN metastasis, distant metastasis was significantly associated with FNA-HER2-negativity of metastatic ALNs (P?=?0.04). Although FNA-HER2 of ALNs did not improve the diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in preoperative diagnosis of ALN metastasis of overall patients, FNA-HER2-positive metastatic ALNs were significantly associated with HER2-positivity of primary breast cancers. Additionally, FNA-HER2 analysis of ALN may help to develop more personalized treatment protocol for breast cancer patients by determining the concordance or discordance of HER2 status between primary cancers and metastatic ALNs.
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EGCG attenuates autoimmune arthritis by inhibition of STAT3 and HIF-1? with Th17/Treg control.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol exerting potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting signaling and gene expression. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of EGCG on interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1RaKO) autoimmune arthritis models. IL-1RaKO arthritis models were injected intraperitoneally with EGCG three times per week after the first immunization. EGCG decreased the arthritis index and showed protective effects against joint destruction in the IL-1RaKO arthritis models. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress proteins, and p-STAT3 (Y705) and p-STAT3 (S727), mTOR and HIF-1? were significantly lower in mice treated with EGCG. EGCG reduced osteoclast markers in vivo and in vitro along with anti-osteoclastic activity was observed in EGCG-treated IL-1RaKO mice. The proportion of Foxp3(+) Treg cells increased in the spleens of mice treated with EGCG, whereas the proportion of Th17 cells reduced. In vitro, p-STAT3 (Y705) and p-STAT3 (S727), HIF1? and glycolytic pathway molecules were decreased by EGCG. EGCG suppressed the activation of mTOR and subsequently HIF-1?, which is considered as a metabolic check point of Th17/Treg differentiation supporting the therapeutic potential of EGCG in autoimmune arthritis.
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Sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Objectives- To analyze sonographic findings suggesting central lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis. Methods- A total of 124 patients (101 female and 23 male; mean age, 47.5 years; range, 21-74 years) underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration in central lymph nodes from January 2008 to July 2011. Sonographic features of size, shape, margin, thickening of the cortex, cortical echogenicity, presence of a hilum, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed before fine-needle aspiration and classified into 2 categories (probably benign and suspicious). Sonographic findings were correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis according to the associated thyroiditis. Results- Fifty-one lymph nodes (39.5%) were malignant, and 73 (60.5%) were benign. On univariate analysis, size, shape, margin, cortical thickening, cortical echogenicity, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity were significantly different between the benign and metastatic nodes (P < .05). On multivariate analysis, eccentric cortical thickening (odds ratio, 26.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.26-216.66) and hyper echogenicity of the cortex (odds ratio, 18.46; 95% CI, 2.44-139.64) were significantly associated with malignant nodes (P < .05). The area under the curve values for sonography for predicting metastasis were 0.756 (95% CI, 0.618-0.894) in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-positive patients and 0.971 (95% CI, 0.938-1.000) in negative patients. Conclusions- Eccentric cortical thickening and cortical hyperechogenicity were the sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting metastasis was superior in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-negative patients than in positive patients.
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Role of diffusion-weighted MRI: predicting axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Ultrasound (US) is probably the standard imaging procedure in most centers, and US-guided fine needle aspiration can be added if suspicious lymph nodes are found. However, US-guided fine needle aspiration is an invasive method to diagnose a metastasis and has showed relatively low sensitivity. In general, diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an emerging technique for discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions in a short imaging acquisition time.
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Purification of a Novel Peptide Derived from a Shellfish, Crassostrea gigas, and Evaluation of Its Anticancer Property.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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A novel anticancer peptide was purified from Crassostrea gigas and investigated for its cytotoxic activity. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavourzyme hydrolysate, which showed clearly superior cytotoxic activity on prostate cancer cells, was further purified using a membrane system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anticancer peptide was obtained, and the sequence was partially purified as His-Phe-Asn-Ile-Gly-Asn-Arg-Cys-Leu-Cys at the N-terminus. The peptide purified from C. gigas effectively induced the death of prostate, breast, and lung cancer cells but not normal liver cells. This is the first report of an anticancer peptide derived from the enzymatic hydrolysates of C. gigas.
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Imaging findings for malignancy-mimicking nodular fasciitis of the breast and a review of previous imaging studies.
Acta Radiol Short Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast mimicking malignant tumor. A 41-year-old female patient with a palpable mass in the upper center of the left breast present for 1 week visited our hospital. A mammogram showed an oval isodense with a partially indistinct margin. Ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass, 8?×?11?mm in size. Breast cancer could not be excluded based on mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) findings. A core needle biopsy and excisional biopsy were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. The mammographic and US findings of nodular fasciitis in the breast is reviewed.
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Extensive tuberculous lymphadenitis mimicking distant lymph node metastasis on F-18FDG PET/CT in a patient with a history of malignant melanoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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18-Fluoredeoxyglucose position emission tomography and computed tomography (F-18FDG PET/CT) scanning has been useful in the evaluation of malignant disorders and has been extensively used in cancer screening. However, F-18FDG uptake was not found to be specific for cancer diagnosis. Here, we describe increased F-18FDG uptake on PET/CT caused by extensive tuberculous lymphadenitis in a 62-year-old woman with malignant melanoma.
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Anaplastic thyroid cancer: ultrasonographic findings and the role of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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To investigate the ultrasonographic (US) features of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and the diagnostic performance of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) therein.
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Can increased tumoral vascularity be a quantitative predicting factor of lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma?
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical implications of the vascular index (VI) as a predicting factor for central and lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). From January 2011 to October 2011, 588 patients (495 females, 93 males) who were diagnosed with PTMC were included. Clinicopathologic characteristics of patients and ultrasound (US) features of the lesions including VI were evaluated retrospectively. The VI was measured with QLAB 7.0 quantification software using preoperative Doppler US images. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to assess predictive factors of LNM. From 588 patients, 140 patients (23.8 %) had central LNM and 26 patients (4.4 %) had lateral LNM on pathologic results. The presence of lateral LNM [odds ratio (OR) 5.46; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.19-13.64], bilaterality (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.17-4.01), and increased tumor size (OR 1.15; 95 % CI 1.04-1.28) were significant independent factors for predicting central LNM. The presence of central LNM (OR 5.58; 95 % CI 2.22-14.04), upper third location of malignancy (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.01-6.21), and tumor size (OR 1.34; 95 % CI 1.03-1.73) were significant independent factors for predicting lateral LNM. However, the VI was not a significant predicting factor for both central and lateral LNM. Therefore, the VI of PTMC may not be useful for predicting central and lateral LNM in patients with PTMC.
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Second-look US: how to find breast lesions with a suspicious MR imaging appearance.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has high sensitivity in breast cancer diagnosis. The probability of malignancy for additional detected lesions is higher in patients with breast cancer than in the population without malignancy, which is why biopsy or further study should be considered for additional detected lesions. Because of the shortcomings of MR imaging-guided biopsy, second-look ultrasonography (US) may be the preferred next step. Detecting target lesions at second-look US and correlating lesions between the two modalities may be challenging. Using axial MR imaging to localize the lesion with respect to the nipple and the lesion-to-nipple distance can narrow the scan range at US. Evaluating the lesions location relative to the mammary zones and surrounding tissues, as well as noting its depth, characteristics, and nearby landmarks, will aid in lesion correlation. Doppler imaging, tissue harmonic imaging, and other US techniques can be used to identify subtle lesions. Although malignant breast lesions may appear probably benign at second-look US, decision making for biopsy must be based primarily on MR imaging findings. In sonographically occult, MR imaging-detected lesions with suspicious MR imaging features, the probability of malignancy is much higher than 2%, and MR imaging-guided biopsy must be performed.
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Diagnostic Accuracy of the Ultrasonographic Features for Subcentimeter Thyroid Nodules Suggested by the Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Background: Recommendations for subcentimeter thyroid nodules that need fine-needle aspiration biopsy are renewed in the revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines published in 2009. We applied these recommendations to analyze the diagnostic performance of the ATA guidelines and compared it to that of other modified guidelines. Methods: We evaluated 1054 nodules with sizes of 6-10?mm in 991 patients. A total of 713 nodules were included in the study population by excluding nodules with insufficient results for deciding whether they had a benign or malignant cytology. Frequencies of ultrasonographic features in benign and malignant nodules were compared, and odds ratios of suspicious ultrasonographic features were obtained with univariate and multivariate analysis. Seven modified guidelines were made based on the revised ATA guidelines and from multivariate analysis results. Diagnostic performances of the guidelines were compared by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) value. Results: In addition to hypoechogenicity, infiltrative margin, microcalcification, and taller-than-wide shape that were suggested by the ATA guidelines, solid composition and macrocalcification were significantly associated with malignancy on multivariate analysis (p=0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Increased vascularity, however, was not significantly associated with malignant nodules (odds ratio 0.729, p=0.212). Among the eight guidelines, the ATA guidelines showed the lowest diagnostic performance (Az=0.616). Excluding increased vascularity and including solid composition with or without macrocalcification to the suspicious ultrasonographic features of the ATA guidelines improved sensitivity (96.6% vs. 97.0%), specificity (26.6% vs. 42.9%), PPV (48.3% vs. 54.7%), and NPV (91.7% vs. 95.2%), thereby resulting in the highest Az value (Az=0.699, p<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that excluding increased vascularity and adding solid composition to the suspicious ultrasonographic features of the ATA guidelines would significantly improve the diagnostic performance in subcentimeter nodules for the identification of malignant lesions.
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S-1 combined with docetaxel following doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer: phase II trial.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of S-1 combined with docetaxel (SD) following doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC) as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-negative, stage II-III breast cancer.
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Tumor microenvironmental conversion of natural killer cells into myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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How myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) emerge in the tumor environment remains unclear. Here, we report that GM-CSF can convert natural killer (NK) cells into MDSCs. When transferred into tumor-bearing mice, adoptively transferred NK cells lost their NK phenotype and were converted into Ly6C(high)Ly6G(high) MDSC. This conversion was abolished by exposure to IL-2 either in vitro or in vivo. Notably, we found that of the 4 maturation stages based on CD11b/CD27 expression levels, only the CD11b(high)CD27(high) NK cells could be converted into CD11b(+)Gr1(+) MDSC ex vivo. Transfer of CD27(high) NK cells from tumor-bearing mice into tumor-bearing recipients was associated with conversion to MDSC in a manner associated with reduced numbers of CD11b(high)CD27(high) and CD11b(high)CD27(low) NK cell populations in the recipients. Our results identify a pathway of MDSC development from immature NK cells in tumor-bearing hosts, providing new insights into how tumor cells modulate their host immune microenvironment to escape immune surveillance.
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In vivo action of IL-27: reciprocal regulation of Th17 and Treg cells in collagen-induced arthritis.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-27 is a novel cytokine of the IL-6/IL-12 family that has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and has a pivotal role as both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine. We investigated the in vivo effects of IL-27 on arthritis severity in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and its mechanism of action regarding control of regulatory T (Tregs) and IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells. IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice showed a lower severity of arthritis. IL-17 expression in the spleens was significantly decreased in IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice compared with that in the CIA model. The Th17 population was decreased in the spleens of IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice, whereas the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg population increased. In vitro studies revealed that IL-27 inhibited IL-17 production in murine CD4(+) T cells, and the effect was associated with retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ?T and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inhibition. In contrast, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and IL-10 were profoundly augmented by IL-27 treatment. Regarding the suppressive capacity of Treg cells, the proportions of CTLA-4(+) (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4), PD-1(+) (programmed cell death protein 1) and GITR(+) (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor) Tregs increased in the spleens of IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, in vitro differentiated Treg cells with IL-27 exerted a more suppressive capacity on T-cell proliferation. We found that IL-27 acts as a reciprocal regulator of the Th17 and Treg populations in CD4(+) cells isolated from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as from humans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) PBMCs. Our study suggests that IL-27 has the potential to ameliorate overwhelming inflammation in patients with RA through a reciprocal regulation of Th17 and Treg cells.
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