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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cucurbit[6]uril-Based Supramolecular Assemblies: Possible Application in Radioactive Cesium Cation Capture.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Multidimensional supramolecular assemblies based on cucurbit[n]uril (n = 6 or 7) were constructed via the outer-surface interactions of cucurbit[n]urils with the polyaromatic compound 4,4',4?-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tribenzoate as a structure-directing agent. Most impressively, the cucurbit[6]uril-based assembly exhibits high selectivity for capture of cesium cations among the common alkali metal ions in a basic medium and releases the cesium cations under acidic conditions. This reversible process enables possible applications in cesium cation capture.
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Extracorporeal Life Support as a Bridge to Heart Transplantation: Importance of Organ Failure in Recipient Selection.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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We investigated the utility of comprehensive scoring systems for organ failure compared with the duration of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in predicting survival after heart transplantation. From November 2004 to August 2013, 25 adult patients ultimately underwent heart transplantation while on ECLS. We did not include patients who were younger than 18 years old or patients with extracorporeal ventricular assist devices. Seven patients (28%) died within one year after transplantation. The areas under the curve (optimal cutoff value) of the sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA) and the model for end-stage liver disease score modified by the United Network for Organ Sharing (MELD UNOS) scores were 0.794 (13) and 0.825 (24), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the MELD UNOS score may be independently prognostic regardless of the duration of ECLS and SOFA score.
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Integration Of A Postoperative Calcitonin Measurement Into An Anatomical Staging System Improves Initial Risk Stratification In Medullary Thyroid Cancer.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Staging systems applied to medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) rely on initial clinical and pathological features and do not consider the response to treatment. To determine whether MTC staging can be improved by incorporating the first postoperative calcitonin measurement.
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Control of acid-resistance pathways of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strain EDL933 by PsrB, a prophage-encoded AraC-like regulator.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes bloody diarrhea and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and is the most prevalent E. coli serotype associated with food-borne illness worldwide. This pathogen is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and has a low infectious dose - estimated to be between 10 and 100 cells. We and others have previously identified three prophage-encoded AraC-like transcriptional regulators, PatE, PsrA and PsrB in the EHEC O157:H7 strain, EDL933. Our analysis showed that PatE plays an important role in facilitating survival of EHEC under a number of acidic conditions, but the contribution of PsrA and PsrB to acid resistance (AR) was unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of PsrA and PsrB in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acid. Our results showed that PsrB, but not PsrA, enhanced the survival of EDL933 under various acidic conditions. Transcriptional analysis using promoter-lacZ reporters and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PsrB activates transcription of the hdeA operon, which encodes a major acid-stress chaperone, by interacting with its promoter region. Furthermore, using a mouse model, we showed that expression of PsrB significantly enhanced the ability of EDL933 to overcome the acidic barrier of the mouse stomach. Taken together, our results indicate that EDL933 acquired enhanced acid tolerance via horizontally-acquired regulatory genes encoding transcriptional regulators that activate its AR machinery.
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Antimicrobial Activity of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Other Plasma Preparations Against Periodontal Pathogens.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Background: Other than releasing a pool of growth factors upon activation, platelets also have many features that indicate their role in the anti-infective host defense. We evaluate the antimicrobial activities of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and related plasma preparations against periodontal disease associated bacteria. Methods: Four distinct plasma fractions were extracted in the formulation commonly used in dentistry and were tested their antibacterial properties against three periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The minimum inhibitory concentration of each plasma preparation was determined and in vitro time-kill assays were used to detect their abilities to inhibit bacterial growth. Bacterial adhesion interference and the susceptibility of bacterial adherence by these plasma preparations were also conducted. Results: All plasma preparations can inhibit bacterial growth with PRP showing the superior activity. Bacterial growth inhibition by PRP occurred in the first 24 hours after application in the time-kill assay. PRP interfered with P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans attachment and enhanced exfoliation of attached P. gingivalis but had no influences on F. nucleatum bacterial adherence. Conclusions: PRP expressed antibacterial properties, which may be attributed to platelets possessing additional antimicrobial molecules. The application of PRP on periodontal surgical sites is advisable due to its regenerative potential and its antibacterial effects.
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Controlled growth and gas sorption properties of IRMOF-3 nano/microcrystals.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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IRMOF-3 nano/microcrystals with controllable morphologies and sizes were successfully obtained by a simple solvothermal method. The shape evolution of IRMOF-3 crystals from cube to truncated cube, cuboctahedron, truncated octahedron and finally to octahedron was achieved by adjusting the amount of surfactant. The surfaces of the IRMOF-3 nano/microstructures are affected by the reaction temperature, and the nano/microparticles show shape-dependent sorption properties.
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A study on the mechanical characteristics of the EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V LCP plates in vitro.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The electron beam melting (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V material technology has been developed over a short time period. It was introduced through a research to develop Ti-6Al-4V implants for patients, but EBM printed locking compression plates have not been used for clinical implants. The main purpose of this study is to find whether the EBM Ti-6Al-4V plate suit for clinical implants.
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Acaricidal Activity of Constituents Derived from Peppermint Oil against Tyrophagus putrescentiae.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The acaricidal activities of peppermint oil and menthol isomers against mites in stored food were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassays and were compared with the activity of benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against Tyrophagus putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay, menthol (0.96 ?g/cm(2)) was approximately 12.18 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.70 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-neomenthol (1.33 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-menthol (1.60 ?g/cm(2)), and (+)-menthol (1.90 ?g/cm(2)). In the filter paper bioassay, menthol (0.55 ?g/cm(2)) was about 15.18 times more active than benzyl benzoate (8.35 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (-)-menthol (0.84 ?g/cm(2)), (+)-menthol (0.92 ?g/cm(2)), and (+)-neomenthol (1.72 ?g/cm(2)). However, (+)-isomenthol did not exhibit any acaricidal activity against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant and filter paper bioassays. These results indicate that peppermint oil and menthol isomers could be effective natural acaricides for managing mites in stored food.
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A randomized phase II clinical trial of nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin compared with gemcitabine and carboplatin as first-line therapy in locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Recent advances have shown that histology and genetic biomarkers are important in patient selection, which have led to significantly better outcomes for lung cancer patients. However, most new treatments only apply to adenocarcinoma or non-squamous, and in squamous carcinoma there is little breakthrough. In a phase III trial nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin showed superior response rate over paclitaxel and carboplatin. In subgroup analysis the squamous histology appeared to be a predictive factor to nab-paclitaxel treatment.
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Lung cancer treatment disparities in china: a question in need of an answer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of malignancies in the People's Republic of China in recent years. The goal of this study was to identify the extent to which national treatment guidelines are being used to customize patient care in lung cancer and to analyze the reasons for treatment disparities.
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A cost analysis of microalgal biomass and biodiesel production in open raceways treating municipal wastewater and under optimum light wavelength.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared to photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model and cost analysis was performed in comparison to control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (Blue, Green, Red and White) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal compared to white light. Naturally, specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on an average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low value products from microalgae like biodiesel.
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Comparison of cancer incidence among patients with rheumatic disease: a retrospective cohort study.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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IntroductionRheumatic diseases (RDs) are associated with different cancers; however, it is unclear whether particular cancers are more prevalent in certain RDs. Here, we examined the relative incidence of several cancers in a single homogenous cohort of patients with different RDs.MethodsPatients (n¿=¿3,586) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), dermatomyositis (DM), or polymyositis were included. Cancer diagnosis was based on histopathology. The 2008 Korean National Cancer Registry served as the reference for calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).ResultsDuring the follow-up period of 31,064 person-years (PYs), 187 patients developed cancer. RA and SLE patients showed an increased risk of non-Hodgkin¿s lymphoma (SIR, 3.387; 95% CI, 1.462 to 6.673, SIR, 7.408; 95% CI, 2.405 to 17.287, respectively). SLE patients also had a higher risk of cervical cancer (SIR, 4.282; 95% CI, 1.722 to 8.824). SSc patients showed a higher risk of lung cancer (SIR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.977 to 10.131). Endometrial cancer was increased only in patients with DM (SIR, 30.529; 95% CI, 3.697 to 110.283). RA patients had a lower risk for gastric cancer (SIR, 0.663; 95% CI, 0.327 to 0.998). The mean time between the RD and cancer diagnosis ranged from 0.1 to 16.6 years with the shortest time observed in patients with DM (2.0¿±¿2.1 years).ConclusionsDifferent RDs are associated with particular cancers. Thus, cancer surveillance tailored to specific RD might be beneficial.
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Venous thromboembolism risk factors in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Certain clinicopathological factors contribute to the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in lung cancer. The aim of the current study was to assess the incidence of and the potential risk factors associated with the development of VTE in Chinese lung cancer patients.
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A simple method for decomposition of peracetic acid in a microalgal cultivation system.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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A cost-efficient process devoid of several washing steps was developed, which is related to direct cultivation following the decomposition of the sterilizer. Peracetic acid (PAA) is known to be an efficient antimicrobial agent due to its high oxidizing potential. Sterilization by 2 mM PAA demands at least 1 h incubation time for an effective disinfection. Direct degradation of PAA was demonstrated by utilizing components in conventional algal medium. Consequently, ferric ion and pH buffer (HEPES) showed a synergetic effect for the decomposition of PAA within 6 h. On the contrary, NaNO3, one of the main components in algal media, inhibits the decomposition of PAA. The improved growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis PCC6803 was observed in the prepared BG11 by decomposition of PAA. This process involving sterilization and decomposition of PAA should help cost-efficient management of photobioreactors in a large scale for the production of value-added products and biofuels from microalgal biomass.
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Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in nine-spined stickleback populations.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Variation in the extent and magnitude of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) among populations residing in different habitats has seldom been studied in wild vertebrates. We used a total of 109 microsatellite markers to quantify the level and patterns of genome-wide LD in 13 Fennoscandian nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations from four (viz. marine, lake, pond, and river) different habitat types. In general, high magnitude (D' > 0.5) of LD was found both in freshwater and marine populations, and the magnitude of LD was significantly greater in inland freshwater than in marine populations. Interestingly, three coastal freshwater populations located in close geographic proximity to the marine populations exhibited similar LD patterns and genetic diversity as their marine neighbors. The greater levels of LD in inland freshwater compared with marine and costal freshwater populations can be explained in terms of their contrasting demographic histories: founder events, long-term isolation, small effective sizes, and population bottlenecks are factors likely to have contributed to the high levels of LD in the inland freshwater populations. In general, these findings shed new light on the patterns and extent of variation in genome-wide LD, as well as the ecological and evolutionary factors driving them.
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Transfromation of percutaneous extracorporeal life support to paracorporeal ventricular assist device: a case report.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Percutaneous extracorporeal life support (P-ECLS) is a useful modality for the management of refractory cardiac or pulmonary failure. However, venoarterial P-ECLS may result in a complication of left ventricular distension. In this case report, we discuss a patient with drug-induced dilated cardiomyopathy managed with venoarterial P-ECLS and a left atrial vent catheter. The venoarterial P-ECLS was modified to a paracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) by removing the femoral venous cannula. After 28 days of hospitalization, the patient was successfully weaned from the paracorporeal LVAD and discharged home from the hospital.
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Lack of association between LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Previous studies have shown conflicting results between the association of leptin receptor (LEPR) genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk. The frequent LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser genetic polymorphism has been demonstrated to be functional and may promote genetic susceptibility to cancers. However, the association between the LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser genetic polymorphism and cancer risk remains to be determined. To improve the understanding of the LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser genetic polymorphism role in global cancer, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted that comprised 2,480 cases and 3,162 controls. The LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser genetic polymorphism did not significantly affect the cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, there was no significant association of the LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser variants with any type of cancer under any model. In addition, significantly increased risks were found in the Asian population in heterozygous codominant [odds ratio (OR), 1.24 (1.01-1.53)] and dominant [OR, 1.24 (1.02-1.50)] genetic models. A significantly increased susceptibility to cancer was not found when stratified by study design. There were no significant differences found in genotype method and sample size in cases among the genotypes. These findings indicated a lack of association between LEPR Lys656Asn or Ser343Ser polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility, however, these polymorphisms may increase the cancer susceptibility among the Asian population, particularly in the dominant genetic model. The single-nucleotide polymorphism is also suggested to function as a dominant mutation, which requires verification or association with functional studies.
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Use of orange peel extract for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris: increased production of biomass and FAMEs.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Mass cultivation of microalgae is necessary to achieve economically feasible production of microalgal biodiesel, but the high cost of nutrients is a major limitation. In this study, orange peel extract (OPE) was used as an inorganic and organic nutrient source for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris OW-01. Chemical composition analysis of the OPE indicated that it contains sufficient nutrients for mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris OW-01. Analysis of biomass and FAME production showed that microalgae grown in OPE medium produced 3.4-times more biomass and 4.5-times more fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) than cells cultured in glucose-supplemented BG 11 medium (BG-G). These results suggest that growth of microalgae in an OPE-supplemented medium increases lipid production and that OPE has potential for use in the mass cultivation of microalgae.
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Cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides in anaerobically treated brewery wastewater for cost-effective biodiesel production.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The use of wastewater has been investigated to overcome the economic challenge involved with a production of microalgae-based biodiesel. In this study, to achieve economical biodiesel production along with effective wastewater treatment at the same time, anaerobically treated brewery wastewater (ABWW) was utilized as a low-cost nutrient source, in the cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides. About 96 and 90 % of total nitrogen and phosphorus in ABWW were removed, respectively, while C. protothecoides was accumulating 1.88 g L(-1) of biomass. The C. protothecoides grown in ABWW showed increases in cell size and cell aggregation, resulting in a near 80 % enhanced harvesting efficiency within 20 min, as compared with only 4 % in BG-11. In addition, the total fatty acid content of the C. protothecoides grown in ABWW increased by 1.84-fold (35.94 ± 1.54 % of its dry cell weight), relative to that of BG-11.
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House-Plant Placement for Indoor Air Purification and Health Benefits on Asthmatics.
Environ Health Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Some plants were placed on the indoor places for asthmatics to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits on asthmatics.
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An alternative surgical technique for repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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For the surgical management of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), there have been various techniques that reduce the tension and kinking of the coronary artery during reimplantation to the aorta. The aim of this study is to describe the results of our modified technique of coronary reimplantation for the treatment of ALCAPA.
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Interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 in estimating the severity of acute pancreatitis: an updated meta-analysis.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Early identification of severe AP can decrease the mortality rate and complications of SAP. The performance of IL-6 and IL-8 and IL-10 can act as markers of the severity of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in estimating the severity of acute pancreatitis.
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Utilization of seawater for cost-effective cultivation and harvesting of Scenedesmus obliquus.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Microalgae hold great promise as a source of biofuels and biochemicals. The main obstacles to their industrial application are the high cultivation and downstream costs related to media and harvesting. In the work, we explored the multiple potentials of seawater to address key issues relating to the cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus. Seawater can sufficiently replace some of the key elements in BG11 medium such as MgSO4, CaCl2, and NaCO3, and its use can significantly reduce the quantity of water required for the preparation of culture media. Among our results, the total chlorophyll content in cells grown in modified BG11 using 10 % (v/v) seawater was increased 1.47-fold without sacrificing biomass or lipid production. More than 70 % of the total algal biomass was auto-flocculated within one hour when cells were grown in seawater-supplemented media, which compares very favorably with a yield of only 3 % from cells grown in BG11.
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Interaction of amphiphilic ?-helical cell-penetrating peptides with heparan sulfate.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to be taken up by cells and can deliver macromolecular cargos. However, the mechanism of this internalization is not yet fully understood. Recent theories suggest that the binding of cationic CPPs to negatively charged extracellular glycosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulfate (HS), is a possible mechanism of cellular uptake (CU). Our group has screened the CU activities of 54 systematically designed amphiphilic ?-helical peptides in HeLa cells. Notably, a mutation in even a single residue significantly alters the CU ability of a peptide. To determine the structure-CU activity relationship of CPPs, four peptides, which contain a difference in one or two amino acids (i.e., Arg/Glu and Ala/Phe), were chosen from our CPP library to examine their interactions with HS. Fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering analysis indicated that the HS-binding affinities and HS-clustering abilities of the four CPPs correlated well with their CU activities in HeLa and A549 cells. The heat capacities of the CPPs, determined using ITC and binding free energy decomposition analyses in molecular dynamics simulations, revealed that electrostatic interactions were more dominant in the HS-binding processes of Arg-containing peptides in comparison to Glu-containing peptides, whereas hydrophobic contributions were the primary mode of interaction of Phe-containing peptides in comparison to Ala-containing peptides. Furthermore, it was implied that hydrophobic interactions may be more favourable than electrostatic interactions during the CU process.
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Silver-mediated radical cyclization: construction of ?(2)-isoxazolines from ?-halo ketoximes and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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A novel route to ?(2)-isoxazolines is presented via silver-mediated radical cyclization of ?-halo ketoximes with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. This method is performed using a radical strategy, and represents a new example of silver-initiated generation of oxime radicals for the formation of the C(sp(3))-O bonds.
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Clinical outcomes of slide tracheoplasty in congenital tracheal stenosis.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Treatment of long-segment congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) remains challenging. Recently, slide tracheoplasty has become the standard approach in many centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of slide tracheoplasty.
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Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.
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Prognostic significance of genotype and number of metastatic sites in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in clinical practice. The 7th edition lung cancer staging system has not considered some important prognostic factors, such as the number of metastatic organ sites and the molecular biologic characterization.
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A pan-cancer proteomic perspective on The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Protein levels and function are poorly predicted by genomic and transcriptomic analysis of patient tumours. Therefore, direct study of the functional proteome has the potential to provide a wealth of information that complements and extends genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic analysis in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects. Here we use reverse-phase protein arrays to analyse 3,467 patient samples from 11 TCGA 'Pan-Cancer' diseases, using 181 high-quality antibodies that target 128 total proteins and 53 post-translationally modified proteins. The resultant proteomic data are integrated with genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the same samples to identify commonalities, differences, emergent pathways and network biology within and across tumour lineages. In addition, tissue-specific signals are reduced computationally to enhance biomarker and target discovery spanning multiple tumour lineages. This integrative analysis, with an emphasis on pathways and potentially actionable proteins, provides a framework for determining the prognostic, predictive and therapeutic relevance of the functional proteome.
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Surgery for partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections: modification of the warden procedure with a right atrial appendage flap.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Surgical repair of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) to the superior vena cava (SVC) may be complicated by sinus node dysfunction or SVC obstruction. We modified the Warden procedure by using a right atrial auricular flap to decrease the occurrence of these complications.
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Controlled Synthesis of Porous Coordination-Polymer Microcrystals with Definite Morphologies and Sizes under Mild Conditions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Herein, we report a facile and convenient method for the synthesis of the porous coordination polymer MOF-14 [Cu3 (BTB)2 ] (H3 BTB=4,4',4''-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tribenzoic acid) as microcrystals with definite shapes and crystal facets controlled by the reaction medium at room temperature. The amount of sodium acetate added to the reaction system plays a crucial role in the shape evolution of MOF-14 from rhombic dodecahedrons to truncated rhombic dodecahedrons and cubes with truncated edges and then to cubes. The addition of a base could accelerate the formation rate of crystal growth and increase the supersaturation of crystal growth, thus resulting in the formation of MOF-14 cube crystals with high-energy crystal facets. The morphological evolution was also observed for HKUST-1 [Cu3 (BTC)2 ] (H3 BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarbocylic acid) from octahedrons to cubes, thus verifying the probable mechanism of the morphological transformation. The gas-adsorption properties of MOF-14 with different shapes were studied and reveal that the porous coordination-polymer microcrystals display excellent and morphology-dependent sorption properties.
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A putative novel protein, DEPDC1B, is overexpressed in oral cancer patients, and enhanced anchorage-independent growth in oral cancer cells that is mediated by Rac1 and ERK.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The DEP domain is a globular domain containing approximately 90 amino acids, which was first discovered in 3 proteins: Drosophila disheveled, Caenorhabditis elegans EGL-10, and mammalian Pleckstrin; hence the term, DEP. DEPDC1B is categorized as a potential Rho GTPase-activating protein. The function of the DEP domain in signal transduction pathways is not fully understood. The DEPDC1B protein exhibits the characteristic features of a signaling protein, and contains 2 conserved domains (DEP and RhoGAP) that are involved in Rho GTPase signaling. Small GTPases, such as Rac, CDC42, and Rho, regulate a multitude of cell events, including cell motility, growth, differentiation, cytoskeletal reorganization and cell cycle progression.
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How to get the most from microarray data: advice from reverse genomics.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Whole-genome profiling of gene expression is a powerful tool for identifying cancer-associated genes. Genes differentially expressed between normal and tumorous tissues are usually considered to be cancer associated. We recently demonstrated that the analysis of interindividual variation in gene expression can be useful for identifying cancer associated genes. The goal of this study was to identify the best microarray data-derived predictor of known cancer associated genes.
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Efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors versus chemotherapy as second-line treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with wild-type EGFR: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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EGFR mutation status is closely related to the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR-TKIs have become the standard first-line treatment for advanced EGFR-mutation NSCLC, while for EGFR wild-type tumors, the preferred first-line treatment is chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs as second-line treatment in EGFR wild-type NSCLC remains controversial. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of EGFR-TKI as second-line treatment in EGFR wild-type NSCLC.
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Effects of molten-salt/ionic-liquid mixture on extraction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich lipids from Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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In this study, lipid extraction from Aurantiochytrium sp. was performed using a molten-salt/ionic-liquid mixture. The total fatty acid content of Aurantiochytrium sp. was 478.8 mg/g cell, from which 145 mg/g cell (30.3 % of total fatty acids) of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was obtained. FeCl3·6H2O showed a high lipid extraction yield (207.9 mg/g cell), when compared with that of [Emim]OAc, which was only 118.1 mg/g cell; notably however, when FeCl3·6H2O was mixed with [Emim]OAc (5:1, w/w), the yield was increased to 478.6 mg/g cell. When lipid was extracted by the FeCl3·6H2O/[Emim]OAc mixture at a 5:1 (w/w) blending ratio under 90 °C, 30 min reaction conditions, the fatty acid content of the extracted lipid was a high purity 997.7 mg/g lipid, with most of the DHA having been extracted (30.2 % of total fatty acids). Overall, lipid extraction from Aurantiochytrium sp. was enhanced by the synergistic effects of the molten-salt/ionic-liquid mixture with different ions.
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Osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties of dental pulp cell on novel injectable tricalcium phosphate cement by silica doped.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) is an osteoconductive material in clinical. In this study, we have doped silica (Si) into ?-TCP and enhanced its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of Si-doped with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of the diametral tensile strength, ions released and weight loss of cements was considered after immersion. In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on Si-doped ?-TCP cements. The results showed that setting time and injectability of the Si-doped ?-TCP cements were decreased as the Si content was increased. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 30.1%, 36.9%, 48.1%, and 55.3% were observed for the cement doping 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% Si into ?-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the Si-rich cements promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the Si-doped in the cement is more than 20%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by Si released from Si-doped ?-TCP cements. The degradation of ?-TCP and osteogenesis of Si gives a strong reason to believe that these Si-doped ?-TCP cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials.
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Acaricidal activities against house dust mites of spearmint oil and its constituents.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activities of spearmint oil and carvone derivatives against house dust mites using contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays to replace benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the LD50 values, the contact toxicity bioassay revealed that dihydrocarvone (0.95 and 0.88?µg/cm2) was 7.7 and 6.8 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (7.33 and 6.01?µg/cm2) against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively, followed by carvone (3.78 and 3.23?µg/cm2), spearmint oil (5.16 and 4.64?µg/cm2), carveol (6.00 and 5.80?µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (8.23 and 7.10?µg/cm2). Results of the fumigant toxicity bioassay showed that dihydrocarvone (2.73 and 2.16?µg/cm2) was approximately 4.0 and 4.8 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.00 and 10.27?µg/cm2), followed by carvone (6.63 and 5.78?µg/cm2), carveol (7.58 and 7.24?µg/cm2), spearmint oil (9.55 and 8.10?µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (9.79 and 8.14?µg/cm2). Taken together, spearmint oil and carvone derivatives are a likely viable alternative to synthetic acaricides for managing house dust mites.
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Responses to crizotinib in a patient with c-ros oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase-positive advanced lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Rearrangements to the c-ros oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) gene are reported in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas. These rearrangements are associated with a response to the small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. ROS1 rearrangements can be detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is considered the gold standard technique in detecting ROS1 rearrangements, and determining whether a patient would respond well to crizotinib treatment. However, FISH is an expensive and time-consuming assay, requiring specialized microscopy equipment and some level of technical expertise. The present report describes the case of a patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, who was identified to be negative for ROS-1 rearrangements by FISH, but positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The health of the patient improved following treatment with crizotinib. These results indicate that IHC assay could be an alternative option for the detection of ROS1 gene rearrangements.
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Rapid quantification of microalgal lipids in aqueous medium by a simple colorimetric method.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Identification of novel microalgal strains with high lipid productivity is one of the most important research topics in renewable biofuel research. However, the major bottleneck in the strain screening process is that currently known methods for the estimation of microalgal lipid are laborious and time-consuming. The present study successfully employed sulpho-phospho-vanillin (SPV) colorimetric method for direct quantitative measurement of lipids within liquid microalgal culture. The SPV reacts with lipids to produce a distinct pink color, and its intensity can be quantified using spectrophotometric methods by measuring absorbance at 530nm. This method was employed for a rapid quantification of intracellular lipid contents within Chlorella sp., Monoraphidium sp., Ettlia sp. and Nannochloropsis sp., all of which were found to have lipid contents ranging in between 10% and 30%. Subsequent analysis of the biomass using gas chromatography confirmed that our protocol is highly accurate (R(2)=0.99).
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Listr1 locus regulates innate immunity against Listeria monocytogenes infection in the mouse liver possibly through Cxcl11 polymorphism.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Inbred stains of mice display differential susceptibility to infection with the common foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Previously, Listr1 and Listr2, two genetic loci that control differential sensitivity to Lm infection between BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6ByJ mice, were identified. To analyze the role of Listr1 in innate immune responses, we employed congenic mice (C.B6By-Listr1/Rag2 (-/-) ) bearing the C57BL/6ByJ-derived Listr1 locus on a BALB/c-Rag2 (-/-) background. Consistent with the results of a previous genetic analysis, the congenic mice showed increased susceptibility to Lm infection. The bacterial burden in the liver between the congenic and control lines was significantly different (P?
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Antimicrobial potentials of active component isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues against foodborne bacteria.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Synthetic preservatives have been consistently used to maintain the quality of food products. However, the degree of danger to human health cannot be ignored. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of Citrullus colocynthis fruits and 4-methylquinoline analogues were investigated to develop natural preservatives against foodborne bacteria.
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Lung cancers with concomitant EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements: diverse responses to EGFR-TKI and crizotinib in relation to diverse receptors phosphorylation.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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We investigated the incidence of concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and assessed responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and crizotinib in such tumors.
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Outcome of pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage: A retrospective review of 117 cases.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate indications, efficacy, and complications associated with pelvic arterial embolization (PAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH).
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Evaluation of the acaricidal toxicities of camphor and its structural analogues against house dust mites by the impregnated fabric disc method.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The acaricidal activities of (±)-camphor structural analogues against house dust mites were evaluated using the impregnated fabric disc bioassay.
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Weight reduction effect of Puerh tea in male patients with metabolic syndrome.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Puerh tea has been proposed to promote weight loss and favorably modify glucose, insulin and blood lipids. This study tested the effect of daily Puerh tea consumption for 3?months on weight and body mass index (BMI), and select metabolic parameters. The effect of daily Puerh tea intake on weight, BMI and changes in glucose, HbA1c and lipids was evaluated in patients with metabolic syndrome. The patients (N?=?70) were randomized into two groups: those taking Puerh tea extract capsule (333?mg Puerh tea extract) three times a day and those taking a placebo tea for 3?months. There was a decrease in body weight of 1.3?kg in the Puerh tea group (p?=?0.077) versus 0.23?kg in the placebo arm (p?=?0.186). There was also a slight decrease in BMI 0.47?kg/m(2) in the Puerh tea group (p?=?0.076) versus 0.09?kg/m(2) in the placebo arm (p?=?0.185), suggesting a trend of weight change, but without statistical significance. Subgroup analysis of the male patients demonstrated statistically significant improvements in body weight reduction (p?=?0.004) and BMI (p?=?0.004). However, the change in other metabolic parameters (cholesterol or triglyceride) or HbA1c was not statistically significant. Intake of Puerh tea for 3?months was associated with a slight reduction in body weight and BMI, especially in the male patients. Therefore, daily Puerh tea consumption may be an alternative choice to modify body weight.
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Increased frequency of Th17 cells in systemic sclerosis is related to disease activity and collagen overproduction.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Although immune dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), involvement of T helper 17 (Th17) and T regulatory (Treg) cells remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the presence of Th17 and Treg cells in SSc patients and the role of Th17 cells in collagen production in SSc fibroblasts.
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Comparison of severe pelvic inflammatory disease, pyosalpinx and tubo-ovarian abscess.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Inflammation of the upper genital tract causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which may be complicated by pelvic abscesses, such as pyosalpinx and tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). This study aimed to determine the clinical differences between pyosalpinx and TOA in patients with PID.
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A multicenter phase II study of sorafenib monotherapy in clinically selected patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma after failure of EGFR-TKI therapy (Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group, CTONG 0805).
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Aim of the study was to investigate efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma after failure of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) therapy.
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F9 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are expressed at low temperature and recognise Gal?1-3GlcNAc-containing glycans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the developed world. Among the major virulence factors of UPEC, surface expressed adhesins mediate attachment and tissue tropism. UPEC strains typically possess a range of adhesins, with type 1 fimbriae and P fimbriae of the chaperone-usher class the best characterised. We previously identified and characterised F9 as a new chaperone-usher fimbrial type that mediates biofilm formation. However, the regulation and specific role of F9 fimbriae remained to be determined in the context of wild-type clinical UPEC strains. In this study we have assessed the distribution and genetic context of the f9 operon among diverse E. coli lineages and pathotypes and demonstrated that f9 genes are significantly more conserved in a UPEC strain collection in comparison to the well-defined E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. In the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073, the global regulator protein H-NS was identified as a transcriptional repressor of f9 gene expression at 37°C through its ability to bind directly to the f9 promoter region. F9 fimbriae expression was demonstrated at 20°C, representing the first evidence of functional F9 fimbriae expression by wild-type E. coli. Finally, glycan array analysis demonstrated that F9 fimbriae recognise and bind to terminal Gal?1-3GlcNAc structures.
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T follicular helper cells and regulatory B cells dynamics in systemic lupus erythematosus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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T follicular helper (Tfh) cells aid effector B cells, and augment autoimmunity, whereas the role of Tfh cells on regulatory B (Breg) cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the percentage of Breg cells in SLE, and the role of Tfh cells on Breg cells. First, we demonstrated the presence of Breg cells in SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in involved skins. Both the percentage of circulating Breg cells and the ability to produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated in SLE patients. The percentage of Breg cells increased during SLE flares and decreased following disease remission. Second, Tfh cell expansion was not only related to autoantibody production but also correlated with the increased percentage of Breg cells. Third, in vitro studies revealed that Tfh cell-derived IL-21 could promote IL-10 production and Breg cell differentiation. In conclusions, these data imply that SLE flares may be linked to the expansion of Tfh cells and that Breg cells are increased in a regulatory feedback manner. Thus, SLE development may be associated with the complex regulation of Tfh cells and diverse B cell subsets.
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Verbenone Structural Analogues Isolated from Artemesia aucheri as Natural Acaricides against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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The acaricidal activities of Artemisia aucheri oil and (1S)-(-)-verbenone structural analogues were evaluated using a fumigant method against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and then compared to those of benzyl benzoate. On the basis of the LD50 values against D. farinae , (1S)-(-)-verbenone (1.38 ?g/cm(2)) was about 7.4 times more active than benzyl benzoate (10.15 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-trans-myrtanol (2.27 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-trans-myrtanol (2.30 ?g/cm(2)), and A. aucheri oil (8.75 ?g/cm(2)). (1S)-(-)-Verbenone (1.25 ?g/cm(2)) was approximately 7.8 times more effective against D. pteronyssinus than benzyl benzoate (9.80 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-trans-myrtanol (2.18 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-trans-myrtanol (2.22 ?g/cm(2)), and A. aucheri oil (8.46 ?g/cm(2)). In the case of T. putrescentiae , (1S)-(-)-verbenone (3.75 ?g/cm(2)) was roughly 3.5 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (13.25 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-trans-myrtanol (12.57 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-trans-myrtanol (12.95 ?g/cm(2)), and A. aucheri oil (11.55 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that A. aucheri oil and (1S)-(-)-verbenone structural analogues may be effective natural agents to control house dust and storage mites.
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Changes in Acaricidal Potency by Introducing Functional Radicals and an Acaricidal Constituent Isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The acaricidal potential of an active constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia oil and its structurally related derivatives was evaluated using filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays against house dust and stored food mites. The acaricidal constituent of S. tenuifolia oil was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone by GC-MS, (1)H-, and (13)C NMR spectra. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone was a potent acaricide against house dust and stored food mites, based on the LD50 values from the filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays, followed by 4-isopropylcyclohexanone, 2-isopropylidene-5-methylcyclohexanone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and benzyl benzoate. Furthermore, 4-isopropylcyclohexanone and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone, which were introduced on the isopropyl (C3H7) functional radical of the cyclohexanone skeleton, had the highest acaricidal potency. These results indicate that S. tenuifolia oil and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone structural analogues could be effective natural acaricides for managing house dust and stored food mites.
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Fragmented QRS Complex in Adult Patients With Ebstein Anomaly and Its Association With Arrhythmic Risk and the Severity of the Anomaly.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Background- Fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) on 12-lead ECG, a marker of myocardial scar, is a predictor of arrhythmic events in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether the presence of fQRS is associated with the severity of the anomaly and with increased arrhythmic events in adult patients with Ebstein anomaly (EA). Methods and Results- In 51 consecutive adult patients with EA (median age, 37 years; 18 males), the severity index of EA calculated from echocardiographic data and clinical arrhythmic events were analyzed. The extent of fQRS in each patient was measured by counting the number of ECG leads showing fQRS. There were 35 (68.6%) patients with fQRS (fQRS group) and 16 (31.4%) patients without fQRS (non-fQRS group). fQRS was observed more frequently in the inferior (n=26) and precordial (n=25) leads versus the lateral leads (n=5). The patients in the fQRS group had a worse functional class, greater cardiothoracic ratios, more severe tricuspid regurgitation, larger atrialized right ventricular areas, higher EA severity scores, and more frequent arrhythmic events compared with those in the non-fQRS group. The atrialized right ventricular area showed a positive correlation with the fQRS extent (r=0.51; P<0.001). In multivariable Cox regression models, the presence of fQRS was independently associated with arrhythmic events (P=0.036). Conclusions- Fragmented QRS on 12-lead ECG was associated with larger atrialized right ventricular area and an increased risk of arrhythmic events in adult patients with EA.
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Concurrent extraction and reaction for the production of biodiesel from wet microalgae.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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This work addresses a reliable in situ transesterification process which integrates lipid extraction from wet microalgae, and its conversion to biodiesel, with a yield higher than 90wt.%. This process enables single-step production of biodiesel from microalgae by mixing wet microalgal cells with solvent, methanol, and acid catalyst; and then heating them in one pot. The effects of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, wet cell weight, reaction time, and catalyst volume on the conversion yield are investigated. This simultaneous extraction and transesterification of wet microalgae may enable a significant reduction in energy consumption by eliminating the drying process of algal cells and realize the economic production of biodiesel using wet microalgae.
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Measurement of calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNA refines the management of patients with medullary thyroid cancer and may replace calcitonin-stimulation tests.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Serum calcitonin (sCT) is the main tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), but it has certain limitations. Various sCT assays may have important intra-assay or interassay variation and may yield different and sometimes conflicting results. A pentagastrin- or calcium-stimulation calcitonin (CT) test may be desirable in some situations. Alternatively, or in the absence of the stimulation test, mRNA detection offers the advantages of being more comfortable and less invasive; it only requires blood collection and has no side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of measuring calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (CALCA) gene transcripts (CT-CALCA and calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP]-CALCA) in patients with MTC and in relatives diagnosed with a RET mutation and to test mRNA as an alternative diagnostic tool for the calcitonin-stimulation test.
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Disarming bacterial virulence through chemical inhibition of the DNA binding domain of an AraC-like transcriptional activator protein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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The misuse of antibiotics during past decades has led to pervasive antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of new and alternative approaches to combat bacterial infections. In most bacterial pathogens the expression of virulence is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, targeting pathogens with drugs that interfere with virulence gene expression offers an effective alternative to conventional antimicrobial chemotherapy. Many Gram-negative intestinal pathogens produce AraC-like proteins that control the expression of genes required for infection. In this study we investigated the prototypical AraC-like virulence regulator, RegA, from the mouse attaching and effacing pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, as a potential drug target. By screening a small molecule chemical library and chemical optimization, we identified two compounds that specifically inhibited the ability of RegA to activate its target promoters and thus reduced expression of a number of proteins required for virulence. Biophysical, biochemical, genetic, and computational analyses indicated that the more potent of these two compounds, which we named regacin, disrupts the DNA binding capacity of RegA by interacting with amino acid residues within a conserved region of the DNA binding domain. Oral administration of regacin to mice, commencing 15 min before or 12 h after oral inoculation with C. rodentium, caused highly significant attenuation of intestinal colonization by the mouse pathogen comparable to that of an isogenic regA-deletion mutant. These findings demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the DNA binding domains of transcriptional regulators is a viable strategy for the development of antimicrobial agents that target bacterial pathogens.
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Control of bacterial virulence by the RalR regulator of the rabbit-specific enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain E22.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) causes endemic diarrhea, diarrheal outbreaks, and persistent diarrhea in humans, but the mechanism by which aEPEC causes disease is incompletely understood. Virulence regulators and their associated regulons, which often include adhesins, play key roles in the expression of virulence factors in enteric pathogenic bacteria. In this study we identified a transcriptional regulator, RalR, in the rabbit-specific aEPEC strain, E22 (O103:H2) and examined its involvement in the regulation of virulence. Microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that RalR enhances the expression of a number of genes encoding virulence-associated factors, including the Ral fimbria, the Aap dispersin, and its associated transport system, and downregulates several housekeeping genes, including fliC. These observations were confirmed by proteomic analysis of secreted and heat-extracted surface-associated proteins and by adherence and motility assays. To investigate the mechanism of RalR-mediated activation, we focused on its most highly upregulated target operons, ralCDEFGHI and aap. By using primer extension, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and mutational analysis, we identified the promoter and operator sequences for these two operons. By employing promoter-lacZ reporter systems, we demonstrated that RalR activates the expression of its target genes by binding to one or more 8-bp palindromic sequences (with the consensus of TGTGCACA) located immediately upstream of the promoter core regions. Importantly, we also demonstrated that RalR is essential for virulence since infection of rabbits with E22 carrying a knockout mutation in the ralR gene completely abolished its ability to cause disease.
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Continuous harvest of marine microalgae using electrolysis: effect of pulse waveform of polarity exchange.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Advances in harvesting of microalgae are needed for the efficient and economical production of microalgal biodiesel. In addition to improvements in recovery efficiency, developments in harvest technology should focus on reducing the adverse impact of subsequent processes, and should also allow water recycling. We investigated a continuous electrochemical approach for microalgal biodiesel production. Instead of conventional DC, pulsed DC was applied as a method of polarity exchange and its performance was analyzed in terms of recovery efficiency, electricity consumption, and residual Al concentration. Under optimized pulsed-DC conditions, 32 % less electricity was required and 7 % less Al was remained after continuous harvesting and there was no decrease in recovery efficiency compared to the continuous harvesting by conventional DC. We also examined the effect of this new protocol on biodiesel quality and water reusability. There were no differences in the microalgal oil composition before and after electrolytic harvesting. In addition, the harvested oil quality, based on four key parameters, was superior to that produced by other terrestrial crops. Lastly, there was no retardation of growth in recycled medium relative to that in fresh medium.
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An integrated microfluidic device for the high-throughput screening of microalgal cell culture conditions that induce high growth rate and lipid content.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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This study describes the development of a microfluidic device for the high-throughput screening of culture conditions, such as the optimum sodium acetate concentration for promoting rapid growth and high lipid accumulation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. An analysis of the microalgal growth on the microfluidic device revealed an optimum sodium acetate concentration of 5.72 g L(-1). The lipid content, determined by the 4,4-Difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY® 505/515) staining method, increased with the sodium acetate concentration. The results were found to be statistically reproducible with respect to cell growth and lipid production. Other nutrient conditions, including the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, can also be optimized on the same microfluidic platform. The microfluidic device performance results agreed well with the results obtained from the flask-scale experiments, validating that the culture conditions were scalable. Finally, we, for the first time, established a method for the absolute quantification of the microalgal lipid content in the picoliter culture volumes by comparing the on-chip and off-chip data. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated the high-throughput screening of sodium acetate concentrations that induced high growth rates and high lipid contents in C. reinhardtii cells on the microfluidic device.
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Acaricidal potentials of active properties isolated from Cynanchum paniculatum and acaricidal changes by introducing functional radicals.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of acetophenone and its derivatives for their potentials as natural acaricides using an impregnated fumigant bioassay against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae . On the basis of the LD50 values against D. farinae, 3-methoxyacetophenone (0.41 ?g/cm(2)) was 89.9 times more toxic than DEET (36.87 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 4-methoxyacetophenone (0.52 ?g/cm(2)), 2-methoxyacetophenone (0.75 ?g/cm(2)), 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (1.03 ?g/cm(2)), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (1.29 ?g/cm(2)), acetophenone (1.48 ?g/cm(2)), 2-hydroxyacetophenone (1.74 ?g/cm(2)), 2,5-dimethoxyacetophenone (1.87 ?g/cm(2)), 2,4-dimethoxyacetophenone (2.10 ?g/cm(2)), and benzyl benzoate (9.92 ?g/cm(2)). In regard to structure-activity relationships between acaricidal activity and functional radicals (hydroxyl and methoxy groups) on the acetophenone skeleton, a monomethoxy group (2-, 3-, and 4-methoxyacetone) on the acetophenone skeleton was more toxic than were the other groups (2,4- and 2,5-dimethoxyacetophenone, 2- and 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone). These results indicated that acaricidal activity against three mite species changed with the introduction of functional radicals (hydroxyl and methoxy groups) onto the acetophenone skeleton.
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Sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in males, smokers, and non-adenocarcinoma lung cancer in patients with EGFR mutations.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Introduction: The demographical/clinical characteristics of being Asian, having an adenocarcinoma, being female, and being a "never-smoker" are regarded as favorable predictors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with unknown EGFR gene status. In this study, we examined the effects of the supposedly unfavorable clinical variables in EGFR-mutant patients.

Method: In total, 159 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients clinical features were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis of clinical characteristics was performed using the Cox and logistic regression methods.

Result: There were 90 females (56.6%), 112 never-smokers (70.4%), and 153 patients with adenocarcinomas (96.2%). All patients were treated with EGFR-TKI, and 52.8% received TKI in a first-line setting. The median PFS of patients receiving first-line TKI was similar, regardless of gender (males vs females: 9.1 vs 9.7 months, p=0.793), smoking status (never-smokers vs smokers: 9.9 vs 9.1 months, p=0.570), or histology (adenocarcinoma vs non-adenocarcinoma: 9.7 vs 9.2 months, p=0.644). OS curves of first-line TKI-treated patients were also not associated with gender (p=0.722), smoking status (p=0.579), or histology (p=0.480). Similar results of PFS and OS were obtained for patients who received TKI beyond first-line. Multivariate analysis indicated that none of these clinical factors was an independent predictor of survival.

Conclusions: The supposedly favorable clinical factors of female gender, non-smoking status, and adenocarcinoma were not independent predictive factors for PFS or OS in this population of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients.

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Predicting time to ovarian carcinoma recurrence using protein markers.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Patients with ovarian cancer are at high risk of tumor recurrence. Prediction of therapy outcome may provide therapeutic avenues to improve patient outcomes. Using reverse-phase protein arrays, we generated ovarian carcinoma protein expression profiles on 412 cases from TCGA and constructed a PRotein-driven index of OVARian cancer (PROVAR). PROVAR significantly discriminated an independent cohort of 226 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas into groups of high risk and low risk of tumor recurrence as well as short-term and long-term survivors. Comparison with gene expression-based outcome classification models showed a significantly improved capacity of the protein-based PROVAR to predict tumor progression. Identification of protein markers linked to disease recurrence may yield insights into tumor biology. When combined with features known to be associated with outcome, such as BRCA mutation, PROVAR may provide clinically useful predictions of time to tumor recurrence.
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Acaricidal toxicities of 1-hydroxynaphthalene from Scutellaria barbata and its derivatives against house dust and storage mites.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The essential oil of Scutellaria barbata was extracted using a steam distillation and then evaluated via fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. The acaricidal toxicities of 1-hydroxynaphthalene from S. barbata oil and its derivatives were determined and compared with those of benzyl benzoate. Based on the LD50 values of 1-hydroxynaphthalene derivatives against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae, obtained using a fumigant toxicity bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1-hydroxynaphthalene (2.11, 2.37, and 4.50 µg/cm2) was 4.76, 6.00, and 2.68 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate (10.05, 9.50, and 12.50 µg/cm2) in the corresponding order, which was followed by that of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (9.50, 9.00, and 11.50 µg/cm2). On the contact toxicity bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1-hydroxynaphthalene (0.79, 0.92, and 2.50 µg/cm2) was 9.49, 6.52, and 3.76 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate (7.50, 6.00, and 9.41 µg/cm2), which was followed by that of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (4.21, 4.80, and 6.50 µg/cm2). In conclusion, our results indicate that S. barbata oil and 1-hydroxynaphthalene derivatives might be effective natural agents for the management of house dust and storage mites.
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Fate of functional tricuspid regurgitation in aortic stenosis after aortic valve replacement.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is found not infrequently in conjunction with aortic stenosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in TR and to identify the predictors of late progression after aortic valve replacement.
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Exposure assessment and health risk of poly-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in the indoor environment of elementary school students in Korea.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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This study assessed the health risks of elementary school students exposure to PBDEs via different possible pathways in childrens facilities. After PBDE contamination was measured, exposure was demonstrated to occur through multiple routes, including inhalation of indoor dust, dermal contact with products surfaces and childrens hands, and incidental dust ingestion. Samples were collected from various childrens facilities (30 elementary schools, 31 private academies, 12 living rooms and bedrooms in houses, 5 public libraries of childrens literature, and 3 large hypermalls) in summer (Jul-Sep, 2008) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2009). The hazard index (HI) was estimated for non-carcinogens and PBDEs, such as TeBDE, PeBDE, HxBDE, OcBDE, and DeBDE. PBDEs were detected in all floor dust samples, 99% of indoor air samples, 94% of product-wipe samples, and 86% of hand wipe samples. The average levels of PBDEs ranged from 0.19 to 1.06ng/m(3) in indoor air, 4623 to 6650ng/g-dust in floor dust, 0.012 to 0.103ng/cm(2) on product surfaces, and 7.89 to 25.38ng/hand on the surface of childrens hands. The HI for school children via multimedia and multipathway exposure to PBDEs did not exceed 1.0. The exposure to PBDEs at home (approximately 80%) was dominant. The contribution rates of PBDE risk were 77% and 15% via dust ingestion at home and at elementary school, respectively; thus, intake of floor dust was determined to be the primary route of exposure.
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The hybrid perventricular closure of apical muscular ventricular septal defect with Amplatzer duct occluder.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Apical muscular ventricular septal defects (MVSDs), especially in small infants, can be difficult to manage using surgical and percutaneous closure. An intraoperative perventricular procedure is a good option for closing apical MVSDs in small children with or without associated cardiac anomalies. We evaluated the results of hybrid perventricular closure of apical MVSDs performed using an Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO).
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Efficacy of the maze procedure for atrial fibrillation associated with atrial septal defect.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication in elderly patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the maze procedure in these patients.
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Disease flare after EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor cessation predicts poor survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Available study revealed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients faced a risk of disease flare after cessation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. There was no data concerning the prognostic value of disease flare. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of disease flare in a Chinese cohort, and analyzed its prediction to survival. A cohort of 227 NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI was retrospectively analyzed. Prevalence and clinical features of disease flare after TKI cessation were reviewed. Survival data were analyzed between patients with flare and those without flare. EGFR gene mutations in tumors were detected. Twenty of 227 (8.8 %) patients were determined with disease flare after TKI cessation. The median interval from TKI cessation to disease flare was 7 days (range 3-18). Forty percent of patients complained of deteriorated dyspnea attributable to malignant effusion. Thirty percent of patients had progressive lesions in the brain. After TKI cessation 35 % of flare patients died before challenge of subsequent treatment. No response was observed in 30 % of flare patients undergoing subsequent chemotherapy. When compared with the non-flare group, patients with disease flare demonstrated comparable progression-free survival (10.1 vs. 9.9 months; P = 0.973), shorter post-TKI survival (4.1 vs. 6.1 months; P < 0.001), and a significantly poor overall survival (16.6 vs. 21.6 months; P = 0.002). Disease flare after cessation of EGFR TKI occurred in Chinese NSCLC population and predicted a poor survival.
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Baicalin inhibits IL-17-mediated joint inflammation in murine adjuvant-induced arthritis.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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T-helper-17 (Th17) cells are implicated in a number of inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Antagonism of Th17 cells is a treatment option for arthritis. Here, we report that Baicalin, a compound isolated from the Chinese herb Huangqin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), relieved ankle swelling and protected the joint against inflammatory destruction in a murine adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Baicalin inhibited splenic Th17 cell population expansion in vivo. Baicalin prevented interleukin- (IL-) 17-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to cultured synoviocytes. Baicalin also blocked IL-17-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression in cultured synoviocytes. Collectively, these findings suggest that Baicalin downregulates the joint inflammation caused by IL-17, which is likely produced by an expanded population of splenic Th17 cells in experimental arthritis. Baicalin might be a promising novel therapeutic agent for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.