JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of a 2-Channel Portable Device and a Predictive Model to Screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Laboratory Environment.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various portable monitors for identifying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been investigated and reported to enable accurate recording of OSA severity. However, more information is needed from different populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a portable 2-channel sleep apnea device (SleepView) for screening OSA in the Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
[The significance of non invasive cardiac output monitoring system on evaluating circulatory and respiratory function in pig with acute respiratory distress syndrome].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of non invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICO) system in pig model with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and to provide experimental basis for clinical application.
Related JoVE Video
A CryoEM study identifies the complete H16.V5 epitope and reveals global conformational changes initiated by binding of the neutralizing antibody fragment.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a worldwide health threat and an etiologic agent of cervical cancer. To understand the antigenic properties of HPV16 we pursued a structural study to elucidate HPV capsids and antibody interactions. The cryo-EM structures of HPV16 mature and an altered capsid particles were solved individually and as complexes with fragment of antibody (Fab) from the neutralizing antibody H16.V5. Fitted crystal structures provided a pseudo-atomic model of the virus-Fab complex, which identified a precise footprint of H16.V5, including previously unrecognized residues. The altered capsid-Fab complex map showed that binding of the Fab induced significant conformational changes than were seen in the altered capsid structure alone. These changes included more ordered surface loops, consolidated invading arm structures, and tighter inter-capsomeric connections at the capsid floor. The H16.V5 Fab preferentially bound hexavalent capsomers likely with a stabilizing effect that directly correlated with the number of bound Fabs. Additional cryoEM reconstructions of the virus-Fab complex for different incubation times and structural analysis provide a model for a hyper-stabilization of the capsomer by H16.V5 Fab and showed that the Fab distinguishes subtle differences between antigenic sites.
Related JoVE Video
Intra-arterial delivery of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is a safe and effective way to treat cerebral ischemia in rats.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebral ischemic stroke is a very common condition that can cause death and disability. Studies have confirmed that stem cells have therapeutic effects if administered after stroke. There is still a great deal of debate regarding the best route for cell transplantation. Intravascular delivery is the most commonly used one. In this study, the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) delivered by intra-arterial (IA) and intravenous (IV) injection in a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) are compared. Histological analysis demonstrated that the IA route bypasses the pulmonary system and directs the cells to the ischemic parts of the brain more efficiently. The BMSCs delivered via the IA route promoted angiogenesis and improved functional recovery. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the rats was monitored during the IA injection process. No reduction in CBF or microstrokes was detected. Brain perfusion and metabolism, as evaluated by SPECT and PET, were better in rats treated with cells delivered via IA. Results showed that the IA route is a safe and effective way to transplant hBMSCs.This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Lysosomal dysfunction and impaired autophagy underlie the pathogenesis of amyloidogenic light chain-mediated cardiotoxicity.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AL amyloidosis is the consequence of clonal production of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain (LC) proteins, often resulting in a rapidly progressive and fatal amyloid cardiomyopathy. Recent work has found that amyloidogenic LC directly initiate a cardio-toxic response underlying the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy; however, the mechanisms that contribute to this proteotoxicity remain unknown. Using human amyloidogenic LC isolated from patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy, we reveal that dysregulation of autophagic flux is critical for mediating amyloidogenic LC proteotoxicity. Restoration of autophagic flux by pharmacological intervention using rapamycin protected against amyloidogenic light chain protein-induced pathologies including contractile dysfunction and cell death at the cellular and organ level and also prolonged survival in an in vivo zebrafish model of amyloid cardiotoxicity. Mechanistically, we identify impaired lysosomal function to be the major cause of defective autophagy and amyloidogenic LC-induced proteotoxicity. Collectively, these findings detail the downstream molecular mechanisms underlying AL amyloid cardiomyopathy and highlight potential targeting of autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction in patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Probiotics' preventive effect on pediatric food allergy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the preventive effect of probiotics on pediatric food allergy.
Related JoVE Video
CARD9 mediates Dectin-1-induced ERK activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras for antifungal immunity.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dectin-1 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for sensing fungal infection. It has been well-established that Dectin-1 induces innate immune responses through caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9)-mediated NF-?B activation. In this study, we find that CARD9 is dispensable for NF-?B activation induced by Dectin-1 ligands, such as curdlan or Candida albicans yeast. In contrast, we find that CARD9 regulates H-Ras activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras, which mediates Dectin-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation and proinflammatory responses when stimulated by their ligands. Mechanistically, Dectin-1 engagement initiates spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent Ras-GRF1 phosphorylation, and the phosphorylated Ras-GRF1 recruits and activates H-Ras through forming a complex with CARD9, which leads to activation of ERK downstream. Finally, we show that inhibiting ERK activation significantly accelerates the death of C. albicans-infected mice, and this inhibitory effect is dependent on CARD9. Together, our studies reveal a molecular mechanism by which Dectin-1 induces H-Ras activation that leads to ERK activation for host innate immune responses against fungal infection.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Kaixin Powder () on melatonin receptor expression and (125)I-Mel binding affinity in a rat model of depression.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of Kaixin Powder (, KXP) on melatonin receptor (MR) expression and (125)I-Mel binding affinity in a depression rat model.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of 29 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the experience of clinical features and treatment of deep cervical necrotizing fasciitis.
Related JoVE Video
Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery by Collagen-Binding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in an Intracerebral Hemorrhage Model.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts therapeutic effects following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, it is difficult to maintain sufficient concentrations in the hemorrhage hemisphere. We demonstrated previously that BDNF fused to a collagen-binding domain (CBD) could bind to collagen in the ventricular ependyma and stimulate cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). In this study, we verified the therapeutic effects of CBD-BDNF in the rat ICH model induced by bacterial collagenase by injecting CBD-BDNF into the lateral ventricle of ICH rats. The results demonstrated that CBD-BDNF was retained at high levels in the hemorrhage hemisphere, where it promoted neural regeneration and angiogenesis, reduced tissue loss, and improved functional recovery.
Related JoVE Video
Daidzein and genistein fail to improve glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in Chinese women with impaired glucose regulation: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effect of isolated daidzein and genistein on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in 165 Chinese women aged 30-70 years with impaired glucose regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27) induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Putting a terbium-monometallic cyanide cluster into the C82 fullerene cage: TbCN@C2(5)-C82.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The first terbium (Tb)-monometallic cyanide clusterfullerene (CYCF), TbCN@C82, has been successfully synthesized and isolated, whose molecular structure was determined unambiguously as TbCN@C2(5)-C82 by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The C2(5)-C82 isomeric cage represents a new cage capable of encapsulating a monometallic cyanide cluster. The C-N bond length within the encaged TbCN cluster is determined to be 0.94(5) Å, which is smaller by at least 0.17 Å than those of the reported C-N triplet bonds in traditional cyanide/nitrile compounds and cyano coordination complexes. An electronic configuration of [Tb(3+)(CN)(-)](2+)@[C82](2-) was proposed for TbCN@C82.
Related JoVE Video
Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The phylogeny of Allotheria, including Multituberculata and Haramiyida, remains unsolved and has generated contentious views on the origin and earliest evolution of mammals. Here we report three new species of a new clade, Euharamiyida, based on six well-preserved fossils from the Jurassic period of China. These fossils reveal many craniodental and postcranial features of euharamiyidans and clarify several ambiguous structures that are currently the topic of debate. Our phylogenetic analyses recognize Euharamiyida as the sister group of Multituberculata, and place Allotheria within the Mammalia. The phylogeny suggests that allotherian mammals evolved from a Late Triassic (approximately 208 million years ago) Haramiyavia-like ancestor and diversified into euharamiyidans and multituberculates with a cosmopolitan distribution, implying homologous acquisition of many craniodental and postcranial features in the two groups. Our findings also favour a Late Triassic origin of mammals in Laurasia and two independent detachment events of the middle ear bones during mammalian evolution.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation and solidification of redispersible nanosuspensions.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To test the feasibility of preparing redispersible powders from nanosuspensions without further addition of drying protectants, Lovastatin was processed into nanosuspensions and subsequently converted into a powder form using a spray-drying process. The effects of spray-drying process parameters and stabilizers on the properties of the spray-dried powders were evaluated. The inlet air temperature was found to have the most pronounced impact; a low-inlet air temperature consistently yielded dried powders with improved redispersibility. This was attributed to the low Peclet number associated with a low-inlet air temperature, making nanoparticles less prone to aggregation and coalescence during spray drying, as evidenced by the well-defined boundary shown between nanoparticles in the SEM photomicrographs of the spray-dried microparticles. The influence of atomization pressure is significant particularly at a low-inlet air temperature. The redispersibility index value of the powder is dependent on the type of stabilizers used in the nanosuspension formulation. Spray-dried powders with acceptable redispersibility were prepared with drug concentration as high as 3%. In conclusion, with optimized process parameters and selected stabilizers, spray drying is a feasible process in the solidification of nanosuspensions with high drug loading and acceptable redispersibility.
Related JoVE Video
Genes involved in the WNT and vesicular trafficking pathways are associated with melanoma predisposition.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multifactorial predisposition to melanoma includes genes involved in pigmentation, immunity and DNA repair. Nonetheless, missing heritability in melanoma is still important. We studied the role of 335 candidate SNPs in melanoma susceptibility by using a dedicated chip and investigating 110 genes involved in different pathways. A discovery set was comprised of 1069 melanoma patients and 925 controls from France. Data were replicated using validation phases II (1085 cases and 801 controls from Spain) and III (1808 cases and 1894 controls from Germany and a second set of Spanish samples). In addition, an exome sequencing study was performed in three high-risk French melanoma families. Nineteen SNPs in 17 genes were initially associated with melanoma in the French population. Six SNPs were replicated in phase II, including two new SNPs in the WNT3 (rs199524) and VPS41 (rs11773094) genes. The role of VPS41 and WNT3 was confirmed in a meta-analysis (3940 melanoma cases and 3620 controls) with two-side p values of 0.002, (OR?=?0.86) and 4.07?×?10(-10) (OR?=?0.80), respectively. Exome sequencing revealed a non-synonymous VPS41 variant in one family that was shown to be strongly associated with familial melanoma (OR?=?4.46, p?=?0.001) in an independent sample of 178 melanoma families. WNT3 belongs to WNT pathway known to play a crucial role in melanoma, whereas VPS41 regulates vesicular trafficking and is thought to play a role in pigmentation. Our work identified two new pathways involved in melanoma predisposition. These results may be useful in the future for identifying individuals highly predisposed to melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
[Comprehensive application of CT and PET/CT in diagnosing colorectal mucinous and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the value of comprehensive application of CT and PET/CT in differential diagnosing mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on lipid profile in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for OSAS. However, it is unclear whether CPAP improves lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 polymorphisms in patients with Behçet disease: a meta-analysis.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association between the Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) Polymorphisms and Behçet's disease.
Related JoVE Video
Microstructural impact of ischemia and bone marrow-derived cell therapy revealed with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography of the heart in vivo.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The arrangement of myofibers in the heart is highly complex and must be replicated by injected cells to produce functional myocardium. A novel approach to characterize the microstructural response of the myocardium to ischemia and cell therapy, with the use of serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography of the heart in vivo, is presented.
Related JoVE Video
Inherited variation in the PARP1 gene and survival from melanoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the association of an inherited variant located upstream of the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) gene (rs2249844), with survival in 11 BioGenoMEL melanoma cohorts. The gene encodes a protein involved in a number of cellular processes including single-strand DNA repair. Survival analysis was conducted for each cohort using proportional hazards regression adjusting for factors known to be associated with survival. Survival was measured as overall survival (OS) and, where available, melanoma-specific survival (MSS). Results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Evidence for a role of the PARP1 protein in melanoma ulceration and survival was investigated by testing gene expression levels taken from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors. A significant association was seen for inheritance of the rarer variant of PARP1, rs2249844 with OS (hazard ratio (HR)?= 1.16 per allele, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28, p = 0.005, eleven cohorts) and MSS (HR = 1.20 per allele, 95% CI 1.01-1.39, p = 0.03, eight cohorts). We report bioinformatic data supportive of a functional effect for rs2249844. Higher levels of PARP1 gene expression in tumors were shown to be associated with tumor ulceration and poorer OS.
Related JoVE Video
Cyclic glycine-proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for metabolism, development and survival. Insufficient IGF-1 is associated with poor recovery from wounds whereas excessive IGF-1 contributes to growth of tumours. We have shown that cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, can normalise IGF-1 function by showing its efficacy in improving the recovery from ischemic brain injury in rats and inhibiting the growth of lymphomic tumours in mice. Further investigation in cell culture suggested that cGP promoted the activity of IGF-1 when it was insufficient, but inhibited the activity of IGF-1 when it was excessive. Mathematical modelling revealed that the efficacy of cGP was a modulated IGF-1 effect via changing the binding of IGF-1 to its binding proteins, which dynamically regulates the balance between bioavailable and non-bioavailable IGF-1. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of auto-regulation of IGF-1, which has physiological and pathophysiological consequences and potential pharmacological utility.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary levels of bisphenol analogues in residents living near a manufacturing plant in south China.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of bisphenol A (BPA) has been restricted in many countries because of its potential health effects. As a result of these restrictions, a group of bisphenol analogues that are structurally similar to BPA have been developed as the alternatives for industrial applications. However, latest researches indicated that these chemicals have similar endocrine-disrupting effects as BPA in humans. Moreover, only a limited number of studies have attempted to monitor the exposure level in humans of other bisphenol analogues. In the present study, the concentrations of seven bisphenols, including bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), in human urine samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronidase/arylsulfatase and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Under the optimised conditions, high recoveries (81.6-116.8%) were obtained for all the analytes, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, %) were less than 16.4% (n=6). The isotopic internal standard calibration curves for each of the target compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r(2)>0.99) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the analytes in urine ranged from 0.024 to 0.310 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to investigate the urinary levels of these seven bisphenols in a cohort of residents living near a BPAF manufacturing plant in south China. BPS, BPF, BPA and BPAF were detected in urine samples at concentrations ranging from
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of right ventricular structure and function in mouse model of pulmonary artery constriction by transthoracic echocardiography.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging clinical data support the notion that RV dysfunction is critical to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and heart failure(1-3). Moreover, the RV is significantly affected in pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). In addition, the RV is remarkably sensitive to cardiac pathologies, including left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, valvular disease or RV infarction(4). To understand the role of RV in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases, a reliable and noninvasive method to access the RV structurally and functionally is essential. A noninvasive trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) based methodology was established and validated for monitoring dynamic changes in RV structure and function in adult mice. To impose RV stress, we employed a surgical model of pulmonary artery constriction (PAC) and measured the RV response over a 7-day period using a high-frequency ultrasound microimaging system. Sham operated mice were used as controls. Images were acquired in lightly anesthetized mice at baseline (before surgery), day 0 (immediately post-surgery), day 3, and day 7 (post-surgery). Data was analyzed offline using software. Several acoustic windows (B, M, and Color Doppler modes), which can be consistently obtained in mice, allowed for reliable and reproducible measurement of RV structure (including RV wall thickness, end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions), and function (fractional area change, fractional shortening, PA peak velocity, and peak pressure gradient) in normal mice and following PAC. Using this method, the pressure-gradient resulting from PAC was accurately measured in real-time using Color Doppler mode and was comparable to direct pressure measurements performed with a Millar high-fidelity microtip catheter. Taken together, these data demonstrate that RV measurements obtained from various complimentary views using echocardiography are reliable, reproducible and can provide insights regarding RV structure and function. This method will enable a better understanding of the role of RV cardiac dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Uptake, transport and peroral absorption of fatty glyceride grafted chitosan copolymer-enoxaparin nanocomplexes: influence of glyceride chain length.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this paper is to elucidate the influence of fatty glyceride chain length in chitosan copolymers on the peroral absorption of enoxaparin. First of all, a series of chitosan copolymers with glyceryl monocaprylate (GM8), glyceryl monolaurate (GM12) and glyceryl monostearate (GM18) as the hydrophobic part were synthesized. The structure of the copolymers was characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay demonstrated that all the copolymers were non-toxic. Enoxaparin nanocomplexes were prepared by self-assembly. Mucoadhesion of the nanocomplexes was characterized using the mucin particle method. Nanocomplex uptake and transport were quantified in Caco-2 cells and cellular localization was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Enoxaparin uptake was enhanced by nanocomplex formation, and was dependent on incubation time, concentration, temperature and glyceride chain length. The GM8 grafted chitosan-enoxaparin nanocomplex exhibited the strongest bioadhesion and the best uptake and transport in both cell culture and in vivo absorption in rats. The uptake mechanism was assumed to be adsorptive endocytosis via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes. In conclusion, oral absorption of enoxaparin can be further enhanced by using GM8 grafted chitosan copolymer as the carrier to form nanocomplexes.
Related JoVE Video
Phytochemical profiles and biological activity evaluation of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed against asthma in murine models.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed (ZBMS) has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as an ingredient of polyherbal formulations for the treatment of inflammation and asthma. The aim of this study was to analyze the major composition and to evaluate the anti-asthma activity of ZBMS.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA sequence polymorphisms and the risk of different types of cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in diverse biological pathways and may act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs (MirSNPs) might promote carcinogenesis by affecting miRNA function and/or maturation; however, the association between MirSNPs reported and cancer risk remain inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association between nine common MirSNPs and cancer risk using data from large scale case-control studies. Eight precursor-miRNA (pre-miRNA) SNPs (rs2043556/miR-605, rs3746444/miR-499a/b, rs4919510/miR-608, rs2910164/miR-146a, rs11614913/miR-196a2, rs895819/miR-27a, rs2292832/miR-149, rs6505162/miR-423) and one primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA) SNP (rs1834306/miR-100) were analyzed in 16399 cases and 21779 controls from seven published studies in eight common cancers. With a novel statistic, Cross phenotype meta-analysis (CPMA) of the association of MirSNPs with multiple phenotypes indicated rs2910164 C (P = 1.11E-03), rs2043556 C (P = 0.0165), rs6505162 C (P = 2.05E-03) and rs895819 (P = 0.0284) were associated with a significant overall risk of cancer. In conclusion, MirSNPs might affect an individual's susceptibility to various types of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Intracranial hypotension as a complication of lumbar puncture prior to elective aneurysm clipping.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lumbar dural defects are an uncommon but important cause of persistent intracranial hypotension in the neurosurgical population. We present a case of intracranial hypotension after elective craniotomy due to a lumbar puncture performed 3 weeks earlier.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-141 suppresses the migration and invasion of HCC cells by targeting Tiam1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have demonstrated that T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) gene is associated with the poor prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and we used a computational approach to identify miR-141 as a Tiam1-targeting microRNA (miRNA). Here, we explored the function of miR-141 and the relationship between miR-141 and Tiam1 gene in HCC.
Related JoVE Video
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between serotonergic gene polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR) and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The associations, derived from sporadic, inconsistent, small-sample-size studies, need to be evaluated further in a meta-analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Supplementation of complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) improved the memory of aged rats.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The socio-economic impact from age-related mental decline is escalating. Supplementation of functional foods for sustaining mental health is desirable. We examined the effect of long-term supplementation of complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc), mixed dairy phospholipids, on memory and associated vascular and neuronal changes in aged rats.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-1-related genes polymorphisms in turkish patients with behçet disease: a meta-analysis.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives. Polymorphisms in the Interleukin (IL)-1-related genes at the locations -889, -511, + 3962 and mspa1l 1100 have been investigated for possible association with Behçets disease (BD). Methods. A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Five independent studies from Turkish population met the included criteria. Results. IL-1? -889 CT [odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.95], IL-1? -889 TT (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.40-0.93), IL-1? + 3962 C (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.07-1.88), IL-1? + 3962 T (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53-0.94) IL-1? + 3962 CC (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.08-3.99), IL-1? + 3962 CT (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38-0.88), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra) mspa1l 1100 CT (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96), IL-1 Ra mspa1l 1100 TT (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.08-2.08) had a significant association with BD. The pooled estimates for IL-1? -889 C, IL-1? -889 CC, IL-1? -889 T had a non-significant association with BD. Conclusions. IL-1? -889 CT, IL-1? -889 TT, IL-1? + 3962 C, IL-1? + 3962 T, IL-1? + 3962 CC, IL-1? + 3962 CT, IL-1 Ra mspa1l 1100 CT, IL-1Ra mspa1l 1100 TT promoter polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to BD in Turkish population.
Related JoVE Video
Retinoic acid inhibits pancreatic cancer cell migration and EMT through the downregulation of IL-6 in cancer associated fibroblast cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinoic acid (RA) is a small molecular derivative of vitamin A that is stored in quiescent stellate cells in pancreas stroma. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblast cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor microenvironment. We treated CAFs with RA and found that these cells became static due to the low expression of ?-SMA, FAP, and IL-6 and decreased production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Furthermore, we verified that the low secretion of IL-6 from CAFs was related to RA-induced inhibition of migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. However, RA could not inhibit the migration and EMT of tumor cells directly. Therefore, our study showed that one of the therapeutic effects of RA on tumor cells is through its modulation of CAFs in tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in promoting tumor migration and might be a promising target of biological treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of apolipoprotein D as a cardioprotective gene using a mouse model of lethal atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mice with homozygous null mutations in the HDL receptor (scavenger receptor class B, type I, or SR-BI) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) genes [SR-BI/apoE double KO (SR-BI(-/-)/apoE(-/-) or dKO) mice] spontaneously develop occlusive, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) and die prematurely (50% mortality at 42 d of age). Using microarray mRNA expression profiling, we identified genes whose expression in the hearts of dKO mice changed substantially during disease progression [at 21 d of age (no CAD), 31 d of age (small myocardial infarctions), and 43 d of age (extensive myocardial infarctions) vs. CAD-free SR-BI(+/-)/apoE(-/-) controls]. Expression of most genes that increased >sixfold in dKO hearts at 43 d also increased after coronary artery ligation. We examined the influence and potential mechanism of action of apolipoprotein D (apoD) whose expression in dKO hearts increased 80-fold by 43 d. Analysis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial infarction in both apoD KO mice and wild-type mice with abnormally high plasma levels of apoD (adenovirus-mediated hepatic overexpression) established that apoD reduces myocardial infarction. There was a correlation of apoDs ability to protect primary cultured rat cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury with its potent ability to inhibit oxidation in a standard antioxidation assay in vitro. We conclude that dKO mice represent a useful mouse model of CAD and apoD may be part of an intrinsic cardioprotective system, possibly as a consequence of its antioxidation activity.
Related JoVE Video
[Efficacy and safety of vitamin D for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D (VD) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Related JoVE Video
[One-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy applied in diagnosis of the bone marrow metastatic cancer].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was aimed to explore the value of one-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy applied in diagnosis of the bone marrow metastatic cancer. The total of 46 cases of bone marrow metastatic cancer were analyzed retrospectively, and the results of the bone marrow smear and the bone marrow biopsies were compared. The results indicated that the success rate of one-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was 95.7%. Metastatic carcinoma cells in clumps or clusters with morphological changes were observed in the bone marrow biopsies of the 45 patients (97.8%), but the metastatic carcinoma cell clusters were observed only in bone marrow smears of the 25 patients (54.3%). There were mild to moderate hyperplasia of fibrous tissue in the patients with metastatic cancer. In addition to the 83.3% diagnostic rate of esophageal cancer, the rest diagnostic rate of bone marrow biopsy for metastatic carcinoma was 100%. The diagnostic rate of bone marrow smear for ovarian cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, thoracic tumor, sigmoid colon cancer, esophageal cancer and metastatic cancer of unknown primary cancers were 33.3%, 50%, 72.2%, 60%, 50%, 33.3% and 25%, respectively. The diagnostic rate of bone marrow biopsy was higher than that of bone marrow smear. It is concluded that the success rate of drawing specimen by one-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy is high. The bone marrow biopsy is better than that of aspiration in diagnosis of metastatic cancer. Combining biopsy with aspiration can improve the accuracy of diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between the microsatellite D2S388-5 and D2S2232 polymorphisms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Chinese Kazakh population.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The role of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of COPD has recently gained more attention. The surface lung surfactant protein B plays an important role in COPD pathogenesis. Microsatellite DNA has been characterized in the surfactant protein B alleles D2S388-5 and D2S2232. The aim of this research was to investigate the distribution of the D2S388-5 and D2S2232 microsatellite polymorphisms in smokers of the Kazakh ethnic group in Xinjiang, China, with and without COPD to assess whether such polymorphisms are associated with COPD susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
An inherited variant in the gene coding for vitamin D-binding protein and survival from cutaneous melanoma: a BioGenoMEL study.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An association between low serum vitamin D levels and poorer melanoma survival has been reported. We have studied inheritance of a polymorphism of the GC gene, rs2282679, coding for the vitamin D-binding protein, which is associated with lower serum levels of vitamin D, in a meta-analysis of 3137 melanoma patients. The aim was to investigate evidence for a causal relationship between vitamin D and outcome (Mendelian randomization). The variant was not associated with reduced overall survival (OS) in the UK cohort, per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for death 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93, 1.64). In the smaller cohorts, HR in OS analysis was 1.07 (95% CI 0.88, 1.3) and for all cohorts combined, HR for OS was 1.09 (95% CI 0.93, 1.29). There was evidence of increased melanoma-specific deaths in the seven cohorts for which these data were available. The lack of unequivocal findings despite the large sample size illustrates the difficulties of implementing Mendelian randomization.
Related JoVE Video
Cathepsin S-mediated fibroblast trans-differentiation contributes to left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover plays an important role in left ventricular (LV) remodelling following myocardial infarction (MI). Cysteinyl cathepsins contribute to ECM catabolism in arterial diseases, suggesting their participation in post-MI remodelling.
Related JoVE Video
[Pathological characteristics of leukemia patients with secondary myelofibrosis and their relationship with the prognosis of disease].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the pathological characteristics of leukemia patients with secondary myelofibrosis and their relationship with prognosis. The pathological characteristics of 29 leukemia patients with secondary myelofibrosis were observed, the degree of hyperplasia between bone marrow smear and biopsy, as well as the changes of myelofibrosis after treatment were compared, and their relationship with the prognosis was analysed. The results indicated that the myelofibrosis may cause the decrease of pseudoepitheliomatous in bone marrow smear, and the increase of reticulin could be observed except the primary pathological characteristics in the biopsy with Gomori staining ++ - +++, and the secondary myelofibrosis could be alleviated after treatment. The overall prognosis of these patients was poor. It is concluded that the bone marrow biopsy has the important diagnostic value for the leukemia patients with secondary myelofibrosis, and the myelofibrosis can be alleviated after treatment, but the overall prognosis of leukemia patients with secondary myelofibrosis is poor.
Related JoVE Video
Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Stanniocalcin1 is a key mediator of amyloidogenic light chain induced cardiotoxicity.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) results from overproduction of circulating amyloidogenic LC proteins and subsequent amyloid fibril deposition in organs. Mortality in AL amyloidosis patients is highly associated with a rapidly progressive AL cardiomyopathy, marked by profound impairment of diastolic and systolic cardiac function and significant early mortality. While myocardial fibril deposition contributes to the severe diastolic dysfunction seen in AL cardiomyopathy patients, the degree of fibril deposition has not been found to correlate with prognosis. Previously, we and others showed a direct cardiotoxic effect of amyloidogenic LC proteins (AL-LC), which may contribute to the pathophysiology and mortality observed in AL cardiomyopathy patients. However, the mechanisms underlying AL-LC related cardiotoxicity remain unknown. Mammalian stanniocalcin1 (STC1) is associated with a number of cellular processes including oxidative stress and cell death. Herein, we find that STC1 expression is elevated in cardiac tissue from AL cardiomyopathy patients, and is induced in isolated cardiomyocytes in response to AL-LC, but not non-amyloidogenic LC. STC1 overexpression in vitro recapitulates the pathophysiology of AL-LC mediated cardiotoxicity, with increased ROS production, contractile dysfunction and cell death. Overexpression of STC1 in vivo results in significant cardiac dysfunction and cell death. Genetic silencing of STC1 prevents AL-LC induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and protects against AL-LC induced cell death and early mortality in zebrafish. The cardiotoxic effects of STC1 appears to be mediated via mitochondrial dysfunction as indicated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and increased mitochondrial calcium levels. Collectively, this work identifies STC1 as a critical determinant of AL-LC cardiotoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Direct conversion of fibroblasts into neural progenitor-like cells by forced growth into 3D spheres on low attachment surfaces.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many stem cells grow into three-dimensional (3D) spheres or colonies, such as neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphere morphology helps maintaining the stemness of stem cells. Our previous study demonstrated that forced growth of RT4 and HEK293 cells into 3D sphere on low attachment surface could induce stem cell properties. The close relationship between 3D sphere morphology and stem cell stemness drives us to hypothesize that 3D sphere formation induces fibroblasts reprogramming. The key gene Sox2 for reprogramming fibroblasts into NPCs was found to be overexpressed in 3D sphere cultured mouse fibroblasts. These cells exhibited similar morphological and molecular features to NPCs in vitro, were capable of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and could generate long-term expandable neurospheres while maintaining differentiation capability. When engrafted into hippocampus of adult rat brain, the 3D sphere cells differentiated into neural cells. Thus, NPCs can be generated from fibroblasts directly through a physical approach without introducing exogenous reprogramming factors.
Related JoVE Video
A series of inorganic solid nitrogen sources for the synthesis of metal nitride clusterfullerenes: the dependence of production yield on the oxidation state of nitrogen and counter ion.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of nitrogen-containing inorganic solid compounds with variable oxidation states of nitrogen and counter ions have been successfully applied as new inorganic solid nitrogen sources toward the synthesis of Sc-based metal nitride clusterfullerenes (Sc-NCFs), including ammonium salts [(NH4)xH(3-x)PO4 (x = 0-2), (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2CO3, NH4X (X = F, Cl), NH4SCN], thiocyanate (KSCN), nitrates (Cu(NO3)2, NaNO3), and nitrite (NaNO2). Among them, ammonium phosphates ((NH4)xH(3-x)PO4, x = 1-3) and ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) are revealed to behave as better nitrogen sources than others, and the highest yield of Sc-NCFs is achieved when NH4SCN was used as a nitrogen source. The optimum molar ratio of Sc2O3:(NH4)3PO4·3H2O:C and Sc2O3:NH4SCN:C has been determined to be 1:2:15 and 1:3:15, respectively. The thermal decomposition products of these 12 inorganic compounds have been discussed in order to understand their different performances toward the synthesis of Sc-NCFs, and accordingly the dependence of the production yield of Sc-NCFs on the oxidation state of nitrogen and counter ion is interpreted. The yield of Sc3N@C80 (I(h) + D(5h)) per gram Sc2O3 by using the N2-based group of nitrogen sources (thiocyanate, nitrates, and nitrite) is overall much lower than those by using gaseous N2 and NH4SCN, indicating the strong dependence of the yield of Sc-NCFs on the oxidation state of nitrogen, which is attributed to the "in-situ" redox reaction taking place for the N2-based group of nitrogen sources during discharging. For NH3-based group of nitrogen sources (ammonium salts) which exhibits a (-3) oxidation states of nitrogen, their performance as nitrogen sources is found to be sensitively dependent on the anion, and this is understood by considering their difference on the thermal stability and/or decomposition rate. Contrarily, for the N2-based group of nitrogen sources, the formation of Sc-NCFs is independent to both the oxidation state of nitrogen (+3 or +5) and the cation.
Related JoVE Video
Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells loaded on collagen scaffolds for the treatment of traumatic brain injury in rats.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies have suggested that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic effects following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, cell distribution and survival rate are two major barriers to their success as therapeutic treatment. The improvement of cell therapy using collagen delivery matrices had been reported. However, we know very little about the mechanisms. We labeled human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). hMSCs were transplanted with or without collagen scaffolds into rats with experimental TBI and the whole-body nuclear images were compared. Collagen scaffolds increased the retention of hBMSC in the lesion site and limited its distribution at the transplanted region. Significantly more hMSCs were detected in the brain when transplanted with collagen scaffolds. The results showed collagen scaffolds also efficiently improved cell survival and neurite outgrowth in vivo, resulting in better neural functional recovery. In addition, brain metabolism also improved in the collagen scaffold implanted group, as evaluated by PET. We speculated that collagen scaffolds would improve early engraftment and support the survival of grafted cells post-transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Associated predictors of therapeutic response to uvulopharyngopalatoplasty for severe obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the associated factors affecting the outcome of uvulopharyngopalatoplasty (UPPP) in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and to investigate whether cephalometric measurements were predictive of the therapeutic response to UPPP in patients with severe OSAHS. We retrospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who underwent revised UPPP with uvula preservation (H-UPPP), or Z-palatopharyngoplasty (ZPPP) for severe OSAHS [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >30]. All patients were evaluated using physical examination, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), cephalometry, and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) before surgery and at 6-12 months after surgery. Based on the success criteria defined as an AHI of <20 and a decrease >50 %, the overall success rate was 45.1 %. The preoperative distance from the posterior border of the uvula to the middle pharyngeal wall (U-MPW) was significantly longer in the responder group than in the nonresponder group, when considering the whole group or the H-UPPP group alone. Among all study subjects, U-MPW and change in body mass index (?BMI) were the significant predictors of surgical success. U-MPW was the key predictor for H-UPPP surgical success, whereas mandibular plane angle (MPA) and Friedman stage were the key predictors for ZPPP surgical success. In conclusion, U-MPW was a significant predictor of UPPP surgical success. Patients with U-MPW >10 mm who are unwilling to receive nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy might be suitable candidates for UPPP surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Insulin-like growth factor-1 and its derivatives: potential pharmaceutical application for treating neurological conditions.
Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ischemic brain damage remains a major cause of disability at all ages. This review examines the efficacy, mode of action and mechanisms of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and its derivatives in animal models of acute brain injury and neurodegenerative conditions, their potential in pharmaceutical developments. IGF-1 reduces cell loss and improves long-term neurological function in animal models. IGF-1 needs to be given within a few hours of the insult. However, the therapeutic window can be extended by mild hypothermia, likely by delaying apoptosis. Nevertheless, the poor central uptake of IGF-1 and its mitogenic potential limit clinical translation. Thus, recent studies have examined related compounds. For example, intravenous infusion of the N-terminal tripeptide of IGF-1 (glycine- proline-glutamate, GPE) can alleviate brain injury and improve long-term function in rats, with a broad effective dose range and a 3-7 hour therapeutic window, but has a short half-life. G-2meth-PE(G-2mPE), a GPE analogue with a longer half-life, is also neuroprotective. GPE/G-2mPE do not interact with IGF receptors and may act by modulating postinjury inflammation, astrogliosis and vascular remodeling. Cyclo-glycyl-proline (cGP), an endogenous diketopiperazine possibly derived from GPE is also neuroprotective. An analogue, cyclo-L-glycyl-L-2-allylproline (NNZ-2591) improves long-term somatosensory-motor function and histology after ischemic injury. Treatment with NNZ-2591 after 6-hypdroxydopamine injection in adult rats improves neurogenesis and long-term motor function. Further, oral administration of NNZ-2591 also prevents scopolamine-induced acute memory impairment. These beneficial effects may mediated by improved neuroplasticity. This review is an updated version of a previous publication in Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
PGC1? plays a critical role in TWEAK-induced cardiac dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We have recently found the cytokine TWEAK (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis), a member of the TNF superfamily, to be increased in patients with cardiomyopathy and result in the development of heart failure when overexpressed in mice. The molecular mechanisms underlying TWEAK-induced cardiac pathology, however, remain unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of direct Renin inhibition on myocardial fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast function.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myocardial fibrosis, a major pathophysiologic substrate of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is modulated by multiple pathways including the renin-angiotensin system. Direct renin inhibition is a promising anti-fibrotic therapy since it attenuates the pro-fibrotic effects of renin in addition to that of other effectors of the renin-angiotensin cascade. Here we show that the oral renin inhibitor aliskiren has direct effects on collagen metabolism in cardiac fibroblasts and prevented myocardial collagen deposition in a non-hypertrophic mouse model of myocardial fibrosis. Adult mice were fed hyperhomocysteinemia-inducing diet to induce myocardial fibrosis and treated concomitantly with either vehicle or aliskiren for 12 weeks. Blood pressure and plasma angiotensin II levels were normal in control and hyperhomocysteinemic mice and reduced to levels lower than observed in the control group in the groups treated with aliskiren. Homocysteine-induced myocardial matrix gene expression and fibrosis were also prevented by aliskiren. In vitro studies using adult rat cardiac fibroblasts also showed that aliskiren attenuated the pro-fibrotic pattern of matrix gene and protein expression induced by D,L, homocysteine. Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the Akt pathway was activated by homocysteine, and that treatment with aliskiren attenuated Akt activation. In conclusion, aliskiren as mono-therapy has potent and direct effects on myocardial matrix turnover and beneficial effects on diastolic function.
Related JoVE Video
An effective model for screening obstructive sleep apnea: a large-scale diagnostic study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes high morbidity and mortality and is independently associated with an increased likelihood of multiple complications. The diagnosis of OSA is presently time-consuming, labor-intensive and inaccessible.
Related JoVE Video
The cooperative effect of p53 and Rb in local nanotherapy in a rabbit VX2 model of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A local nanotherapy (LNT) combining the therapeutic efficacy of trans-arterial embolization, nanoparticles, and p53 gene therapy has been previously presented. The study presented here aimed to further improve the incomplete tumor eradication and limited survival enhancement and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the LNT.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of ECM1 expression level with the pathogenesis and metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) in benign laryngeal lesions, precancerous lesions and malignant laryngeal lesions and analyze the clinical significance of ECM1 changes in the pathogenesis and metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of gemcitabine in enhancing the radiosensitivity of HepG2 hepatoma cells and the possible mechanism].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effect of gemcitabine in enhancing the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell line HepG2 and explore its mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
[The standard operating procedure of the standardization breeding for Poecilobdella manillensis].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To prepare Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the artificial breeding technology of Poecilobdella manillensi.
Related JoVE Video
Current perspectives on cardiac amyloidosis.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amyloidosis represents a group of diseases in which proteins undergo misfolding to form insoluble fibrils with subsequent tissue deposition. While almost all deposited amyloid fibers share a common nonbranched morphology, the affected end organs, clinical presentation, treatment strategies, and prognosis vary greatly among this group of diseases and are largely dependent on the specific amyloid precursor protein. To date, at least 27 precursor proteins have been identified to result in either local tissue or systemic amyloidosis, with nine of them manifesting in cardiac deposition and resulting in a syndrome termed "cardiac amyloidosis" or "amyloid cardiomyopathy." Although cardiac amyloidosis has been traditionally considered to be a rare disorder, as clinical appreciation and understanding continues to grow, so too has the prevalence, suggesting that this disease may be greatly underdiagnosed. The most common form of cardiac amyloidosis is associated with circulating amyloidogenic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain proteins. Other major cardiac amyloidoses result from a misfolding of products of mutated or wild-type transthyretin protein. While the various cardiac amyloidoses share a common functional consequence, namely, an infiltrative cardiomyopathy with restrictive pathophysiology leading to progressive heart failure, the underlying pathophysiology and clinical syndrome varies with each precursor protein. Herein, we aim to provide an up-to-date overview of cardiac amyloidosis from nomenclature to molecular mechanisms and treatment options, with a particular focus on amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain protein cardiac amyloidosis.
Related JoVE Video
Translational research and its effects on medicine in China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Translational research has become a globally recognized model of medical research. Chinese government and doctors have begun to discuss the plan for its development. But most articles are focusing on the advantages rather than its pros and cons. In this essay, the authors discuss the disadvantages of translational research, its effects on clinical work and medical education, highlighting some potential problems and risks in theory and practice on case basis. Some important research management requirements are summarized in this essay to help bring the therapy from the research laboratory to the patients bedside.
Related JoVE Video
Wnt signaling exerts an antiproliferative effect on adult cardiac progenitor cells through IGFBP3.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent work in animal models and humans has demonstrated the presence of organ-specific progenitor cells required for the regenerative capacity of the adult heart. In response to tissue injury, progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cells, while their numbers are maintained through mechanisms of self-renewal. The molecular cues that dictate the self-renewal of adult progenitor cells in the heart, however, remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Doxycycline reduces fibril formation in a transgenic mouse model of AL amyloidosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic AL amyloidosis results from the aggregation of an amyloidogenic immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain (LC) usually produced by a plasma cell clone in the bone marrow. AL is the most rapidly fatal of the systemic amyloidoses, as amyloid fibrils can rapidly accumulate in tissues including the heart, kidneys, autonomic or peripheral nervous systems, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. Chemotherapy is used to eradicate the cellular source of the amyloidogenic precursor. Currently, there are no therapies that target the process of LC aggregation, fibril formation, or organ damage. We developed transgenic mice expressing an amyloidogenic ?6 LC using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to circumvent the disruption of B cell development by premature expression of recombined LC. The CMV-?6 transgenic mice develop neurologic dysfunction and Congophilic amyloid deposits in the stomach. Amyloid deposition was inhibited in vivo by the antibiotic doxycycline. In vitro studies demonstrated that doxycycline directly disrupted the formation of recombinant LC fibrils. Furthermore, treatment of ex vivo LC amyloid fibrils with doxycycline reduced the number of intact fibrils and led to the formation of large disordered aggregates. The CMV-?6 transgenic model replicates the process of AL amyloidosis and is useful for testing the antifibril potential of orally available agents.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of AKT is associated with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although radiotherapy results of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at an early stage are better than other tumors, there is still a portion of patients with NPC who die before 5 years after the treatment; the underlying mechanism remains to be further understood. This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which NPC cells escape from irradiation. Patients with NPC at stage I was included in this study. All the patients were treated with irradiation. NPC biopsies were obtained from each patient before and 1 week after the start of radiotherapy. Expression of AKT in NPC tissue was assessed by Western blotting. NPC cell line, SUNE-1 cells, was treated with irradiation. The levels of AKT in SUNE-1 cells were also assessed. The frequency of apoptotic SUNE-1 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The levels of AKT were markedly increased in NPC tissue after treatment with irradiation, which was significantly correlated with NPC metastasis and mortality. After irradiation, NPC cell line, SUNE-1 cells, expressed higher levels of AKT than control cells. The knockdown of AKT in SUNE-1 cells markedly increased apoptotic cell rate. Radiotherapy can increase the levels of AKT in NPC cells that are associated with NPC metastasis and increase in mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of surgical outcomes of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate predictors of surgical outcomes of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).
Related JoVE Video
Neuronal regeneration and protection by collagen-binding BDNF in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been well confirmed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has therapeutic effects following stroke. However, it is difficult to be maintained at a sufficient concentration of BDNF in the infarcted hemisphere. We have shown in our previous work that BDNF fused with a collagen-binding domain (CBD-BDNF) could specifically bind to collagen. The ventricular ependyma of the brain is rich in collagen. Therefore, we have speculated that in the infarcted hemisphere, CBD-BDNF will bind to the collagen of the ventricular ependyma and stimulate the cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO), we injected CBD-BDNF into the lateral ventricle of MCAO rats. The results demonstrated that CBD-BDNF was retained at high levels in the infarcted hemisphere, promoted neural regeneration and angiogenesis, reduced cell loss, decreased apoptosis, and improved functional recovery. In addition, brain perfusion and metabolism, as evaluated by SPECT and PET, were improved in the CBD-BDNF treated group.
Related JoVE Video
Tamoxifen treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage.
Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In this study we investigated whether or not tamoxifen reduces intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. In all experiments, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received an injection of 100 ?L autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. In the first set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 2 and 24 h after ICH and were killed at day 3 for brain edema measurement. In the second set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (5 mg/kg) or vehicle and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavior tests were performed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28. Rats were killed at day 28 for brain histology. We found that tamoxifen at 5 but not at 2.5 mg/kg reduced perihematomal brain edema at day 3 (p<0.05). Brain histology showed that tamoxifen reduced caudate atrophy at day 28 (p<0.01). Tamoxifen also improved functional outcome (p<0.05). MRI demonstrated a tendency to smaller T2* lesions in tamoxifen-treated rats. However, two out of five rats treated with tamoxifen developed hydrocephalus. These results suggest that tamoxifen has neuroprotective effects in ICH, but the cause of hydrocephalus development following tamoxifen treatment needs to be examined further.
Related JoVE Video
Tiam1, overexpressed in most malignancies, is a novel tumor biomarker.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GNEF) family member, and is considered to be involved in many important cellular processes and oncogenesis. In this study, we investigated Tiam1 expression differences between normal tissue and malignant tissue using tissue microarray (TMA), and further studied the Tiam1 mRNA and protein level in 9 hepatoma lines. Forty-nine tumor tissue and 47 normal tissue samples were detected via TMA by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibody. Tiam1 expression in 9 human hepatoma cell lines, namely Huh-7, HepG2, Hep3B, SMMC-7721, QGy-7701, QGy-7703, BEL-7402, BEL-7404 and BEL-7405, and 1 normal primary human hepatocyte, HL-7702, was compared by means of fluorescence quantitative PCR, immunocytochemistry assay and Western blotting. We found that Tiam1 was significantly expressed in various malignancies. Tiam1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in the 9 human hepatoma cell lines compared to the normal primary human hepatocyte. Our results suggest that Tiam1 overexpression in malignant neoplasms could be a novel effective supplementary biomarker for tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
[Surgical management of sinonasal and adjacent skull base benign fibro-osseous lesions].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the use of transnasal endoscopy and open surgical approaches for management of sinonasal and adjacent skull base benign fibro-osseous lesions, the surgical methods, precautions, clinical efficacies were also described.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of formin-like 2 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The formin-like 2 protein is a member of the diaphanous-related formin family that controls actin-dependent processes such as cell motility and invasion. This study aimed at clarifying formin-like 2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathologic features and also exploring the effects of formin-like 2 transfection on cell motility and invasion in vitro. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting showed that expression of formin-like 2 was lower in 4 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines than those in normal hepatic epithelial cells (P < .05). Surgical hepatocellular carcinoma samples were taken from patients who had been followed for 5 years. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed down-expression of formin-like 2 in 86 (71.7%) of 120 cases. The expression of formin-like 2 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than in adjacent cirrhotic or normal livers (P < .01). Statistical analysis showed that formin-like 2 expression correlated positively with tumor differentiation (P = .046) and vascular invasion (P = .008). Patients whose tumors had lower formin-like 2 expression had shorter overall survival times (P = .040). Multivariate analysis suggested that formin-like 2 expression was a significant and independent prognostic indicator (P = .041). Transient transfection of formin-like 2 suppressed motility and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. Our results suggest that formin-like 2 is a valuable marker for the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Down-regulation is associated with poor overall survival.
Related JoVE Video
Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemopreventive effects of Allium vegetables (onions, garlic, shallots, leeks, chives, and so forth) have been studied extensively, although their effect on gastric cancer risk is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies to analyze this association.
Related JoVE Video
Department of Defense influenza and other respiratory disease surveillance during the 2009 pandemic.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Centers Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supports and oversees surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, including respiratory diseases, of importance to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). AFHSC-GEIS accomplishes this mission by providing funding and oversight to a global network of partners for respiratory disease surveillance. This report details the systems surveillance activities during 2009, with a focus on efforts in responding to the novel H1N1 Influenza A (A/H1N1) pandemic and contributions to global public health. Active surveillance networks established by AFHSC-GEIS partners resulted in the initial detection of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the U.S. and several other countries, and viruses isolated from these activities were used as seed strains for the 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine. Partners also provided diagnostic laboratory training and capacity building to host nations to assist with the novel A/H1N1 pandemic global response, adapted a Food and Drug Administration-approved assay for use on a ruggedized polymerase chain reaction platform for diagnosing novel A/H1N1 in remote settings, and provided estimates of seasonal vaccine effectiveness against novel A/H1N1 illness. Regular reporting of the systems worldwide surveillance findings to the global public health community enabled leaders to make informed decisions on disease mitigation measures and controls for the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. AFHSC-GEISs support of a global network contributes to DoDs force health protection, while supporting global public health.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.