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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Safety of intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke in Asian octogenarians and nonagenarians.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a major concern of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for ischaemic stroke. Asians are considered more vulnerable to ICH than non-Asians. Reports on safety of IVT for Asian octogenarians and nonagenarians are limited.
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Prognostic value of intrathecal heme oxygenase-1 concentration in patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Object Experimental studies have demonstrated the crucial role of posthemorrhagic erythrocyte catabolism in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors of this study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a series of CSF biomarkers linked to heme metabolism in SAH patients. Methods Patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal SAH undergoing early aneurysm obliteration were enrolled. The levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), oxyhemoglobin, ferritin, and bilirubin in intrathecal CSF were measured on the 7th day posthemorrhage. The associations of functional outcome with clinical and CSF parameters were analyzed. Results The study included 41 patients (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 16 male, 25 female), 17 (41.5%) of whom had an unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ? 3) 3 months after SAH. In terms of the clinical data, age > 60 years, admission World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade ? III, and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent factors associated with an unfavorable outcome. After adjusting for clinical parameters, a higher level of HO-1 appeared to be the most significant CSF parameter related to an unfavorable outcome among all tested CSF molecules (OR 0.934, 95% CI 0.883-0.989, p = 0.018). Further analysis using a generalized additive model identified a cutoff HO-1 value of 81.2 ?M, with higher values predicting unfavorable outcome (82.4% accuracy). Conclusions The authors propose that the level of intrathecal CSF HO-1 at Day 7 post-SAH can be an effective outcome indicator in patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal SAH.
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Anthracene/Phenothiazine ?-Conjugated Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Redox Mediator in Organic and Water-based Solvents.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13?%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85?% of the N719-based standard cell (8.47?%). The cell efficiency (8.42?%) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96?% with an excellent Voc of 0.77?V.
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Association between mutations in the gap junction ?4 gene and nonsyndromic hearing loss: Genotype?phenotype correlation patterns.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Numerous studies have confirmed that gap junctions, composed of connexin (Cx) protein, are essential for auditory function. However, few studies have investigated the correlation between variants in the gap junction ?4 (GJB4) gene and phenotype in patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss. Our previous study identified 11 patients with GJB4 gene variants in 253 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss. In the present study, the phenotype?genotype correlation was examined in the 11 deaf patients with the different variants of GJB4. Analytical results revealed that the majority of probands had congenital hearing loss, which was bilateral, stable and without associated dermatological manifestations or morphological changes of the inner ear. An audiometric profile, including the observed consistency with severe?profound and flat shape dominance, may enable screening for variants of GJB4. On the basis of the above results, it was hypothesized that GJB4 may be a genetic risk factor for the development of nonsyndromic hearing loss and the data from the present study can be used to direct the clinical evaluation and effectively manage the care of families of children with GJB4.
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Mutual Effect of rs688 and rs5925 in Regulating Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Splicing.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Analysis of the LDLR gene based on the rs688 and rs5925 genetic polymorphisms has provided evidence suggesting that haplotypes related to rs688 and rs5925 are associated with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Both rs688 and rs5925 have been empirically identified as exon-splicing enhancers in silico, and rs688 has been shown to be a functional polymorphism that modulates LDLR exon 12 splicing efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rs688 and rs5925 and their haplotypes may alter the splicing efficiency of exons 12 and 13 both in vivo and in vitro. When the minigenes were evaluated for splicing efficiency, we found that converting rs688C to the T allele reduced exon 12 splicing efficiency. In parallel, converting rs688T to the C allele increased the efficiency of exon 12 inclusion. The apparent difference in splicing efficiency was 9.36%±2.58% between the C and T alleles. When rs688C existed in the minigene, the major and minor rs5925 alleles were also sufficient to account for the differences in splicing efficiency of LDLR involving exon 13. The apparent splicing efficiency difference was 5.43%±2.87%. Sequential mutations of rs688 and rs5925 were performed to generate four different haplotypes in the LDLR minigene system. The splicing efficiencies for the haplotypes CC, CT, TC, and TT were 79.60%±1.38%, 76.68%±0.85%, 69.02%±1.79%, and 68.54%±1.38%, respectively. The splicing efficiency of the four haplotype groups differed significantly. In vivo analysis of human leukocyte samples was also compatible with in vitro analysis, indicating a mutual effect between rs688 and rs5925 in regulating LDLR splicing efficiency.
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Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.
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Stroke code improves intravenous thrombolysis administration in acute ischemic stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Timely intravenous (IV) thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is associated with better clinical outcomes. Acute stroke care implemented with "Stroke Code" (SC) may increase IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of SC on thrombolysis.
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Complexity of heart rate variability predicts outcome in intensive care unit admitted patients with acute stroke 
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a predictor of acute stroke outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of a novel non-linear method for analysis of HRV, multiscale entropy (MSE) and outcome of patients with acute stroke who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
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Pathogenetical subtypes of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage: designations by SMASH-U classification system.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Pathogenetic classification of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), using systems such as SMASH-U (structural vascular lesions, medication, cerebral amyloid angiopathy [CAA], systemic disease, hypertension, or undetermined), is important in predicting functional outcomes and mortality in patients with ICH. This study aimed to compare pathogenetic subtypes between the first and recurrent ICH.
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Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (Beriplex P/N)-related Renal and Cerebral Infarctions in a Patient with Warfarin-associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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A 45-year-old man receiving warfarin treatment suffered from an intracerebral hemorrhage. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was administered to correct coagulopathy. However, bilateral renal infarcts and a cerebral infarct developed on day 5 and 7, respectively after PCC administration. Although the occurrence of PCC-related thromboembolism is low, health care practitioners should closely follow-up the symptoms and signs of thrombosis after PCC administration.
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Different doses of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute stroke in Chinese patients.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The relationship between the dose of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) and its safety/efficacy for ischemic stroke has not been well evaluated in the East Asian population. We assessed the safety/efficacy of different doses of r-tPA for acute ischemic stroke in Chinese patients.
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Investigation of temporal vascular effects induced by focused ultrasound treatment with speckle-variance optical coherence tomography.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Focused ultrasound (FUS) can be used to locally and temporally enhance vascular permeability, improving the efficiency of drug delivery from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue. However, it is difficult to evaluate in real time the effect induced by FUS and to noninvasively observe the permeability enhancement. In this study, speckle-variance optical coherence tomography (SVOCT) was implemented for the investigation of temporal effects on vessels induced by FUS treatment. With OCT scanning, the dynamic change in vessels during FUS exposure can be observed and studied. Moreover, the vascular effects induced by FUS treatment with and without the presence of microbubbles were investigated and quantitatively compared. Additionally, 2D and 3D speckle-variance images were used for quantitative observation of blood leakage from vessels due to the permeability enhancement caused by FUS, which could be an indicator that can be used to determine the influence of FUS power exposure. In conclusion, SVOCT can be a useful tool for monitoring FUS treatment in real time, facilitating the dynamic observation of temporal effects and helping to determine the optimal FUS power.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Biological effect of ketamine in urothelial cell lines and global gene expression analysis in the bladders of ketamine?injected mice.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Ketamine is used clinically for anesthesia but is also abused as a recreational drug. Previously, it has been established that ketamine?induced bladder interstitial cystitis is a common syndrome in ketamine?abusing individuals. As the mechanisms underlying ketamine?induced cystitis have yet to be revealed, the present study investigated the effect of ketamine on human urothelial cell lines and utilized a ketamine?injected mouse model to identify ketamine?induced changes in gene expression in mice bladders. In the in vitro bladder cell line assay, ketamine induced cytotoxicity in a dose? and time?dependent manner. Ketamine arrested the cells in G1 phase and increased the sub?G1 population, and also increased the barrier permeability of these cell lines. In the ketamine?injected mouse model, ketamine did not change the body weight and bladder histology of the animals at the dose of 30 mg/kg/day for 60 days. Global gene expression analysis of the animals' bladders following data screening identified ten upregulated genes and 36 downregulated genes induced by ketamine. A total of 52% of keratin family genes were downregulated, particularly keratin 6a, 13 and 14, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Keratin 14 protein, one of the 36 ketamine?induced downregulated genes, was also reduced in the ketamine?treated mouse bladder, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis. This suggested that cytotoxicity and keratin gene downregulation may have a critical role in ketamine?induced cystitis.
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Hypotension, bedridden, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and elevated serum creatinine predict mortality in geriatric patients with fever.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The geriatric population (aged ?65 years) accounts for 12-24% of all emergency department (ED) visits. Of them, 10% have a fever, 70-90% will be admitted and 7-10% of will die within a month. Therefore, mortality prediction and appropriate disposition after ED treatment are of great concern for geriatric patients with fever. We tried to identify independent mortality predictors of geriatric patients with fever, and combine these predictors to predict their mortality.
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Reactive postural control deficits in patients with posterior parietal cortex lesions after stroke and the influence of auditory cueing.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways in which stroke-induced posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions affect reactive postural responses and whether providing auditory cues modulates these responses.
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Incorporating a new 2H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine moiety to construct D-A-?-A organic sensitizers for high performance solar cells.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Two new organic dyes (PTN1 and NPT1) of the configuration D-A-?-A, based on 2H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine (PT) as a central linker, have been synthesized and used as the sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Compared with pyridal[2,1,3]thiadiazole-containing congeners, the new dyes have conversion efficiencies nearly 1 order higher due to alleviation of charge trapping. The best conversion efficiency of the cell reaches 6.05% (under AM 1.5G irradiation). Upon addition of the coadsorbent CDCA, the efficiency is boosted to 6.76%, which reaches ?90% of the standard based on N719.
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Pin-Point Pupils with Drowsiness as a Presentation of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Mimicking Pontine Infarction.
Acta Neurol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Purpose: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy with various manifestations. Pupil size change has never been previously reported as a presentation of HE. Case Report: A 65-year-old woman without previous known thyroid disease presented with acute onset of drowsiness and blurred vision. Neurologically, she was drowsy and had bilateral pinpoint-sized pupils without a light reflex, which probably indicated a bilateral pontine lesion. Brain MRI showed two tiny infarctions at the left midbrain and left thalamus, but did not show a pontine lesion, and demonstrated patent vertebral/basilar arteries. Electroencephalography showed intermittent diffuse slowing. She had an elevated protein level (123 mg/dl) in cerebrospinal fluid without pleocytosis. Of note, she had elevated serum levels of anti-TG antibody (282 IU/mL) and anti-TPO antibody (117 IU/mL). Her symptoms improved spontaneously including gradually normalization of her pupil size in 3 days and clear consciousness in 6 days; therefore, corticosteroid was not administered. Conclusion: This case illustrates that physicians should be aware of the treatable condition of HE as a possible diagnosis in patients with bilateral pinpoint pupils and drowsiness but without corresponding MRI lesions.
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Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) Is Involved in the Induction of Phosphatidylserine Receptor (PSR) in Response to dsRNA Virus Infection and Contributes to Apoptotic Cell Clearance in CHSE-214 Cell.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) recognizes a surface marker on apoptotic cells and initiates engulfment. This receptor is important for effective apoptotic cell clearance and maintains normal tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune response. However, the regulation of PSR expression remains poorly understood. In this study, we determined that interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was dramatically upregulated upon viral infection in the fish cell. We observed apoptosis in virus-infected cells and found that both PSR and IRF-1 increased simultaneously. Based on a bioinformatics promoter assay, IRF-1 binding sites were identified in the PSR promoter. Compared to normal viral infection, we found that PSR expression was delayed, viral replication was increased and virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited following IRF-1 suppression with morpholino oligonucleotides. A luciferase assay to analyze promoter activity revealed a decreasing trend after the deletion of the IRF-1 binding site on PSR promoter. The results of this study indicated that infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection induced both the apoptotic and interferon (IFN) pathways, and IRF-1 was involved in regulating PSR expression to induce anti-viral effects. Therefore, this work suggests that PSR expression in salmonid cells during IPNV infection is activated when IRF-1 binds the PSR promoter. This is the first report to show the potential role of IRF-1 in triggering the induction of apoptotic cell clearance-related genes during viral infection and demonstrates the extensive crosstalk between the apoptotic and innate immune response pathways.
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Lower leg weakness as the presentation of infective endocarditis with septic emboli.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Lower leg weakness is a common and nonspecific complaint that encompasses a broad differential diagnosis at emergency department, which includes neurologic aspect and a wide range of nonneurologic conditions. Infective endocarditis usually presented with variable symptoms emphasizing constitutional complaints, or complaints that focus on primary cardiac effects or secondary embolic phenomena. Underdiagnosis of the disease can lead to clinical catastrophe and even death. By far, it is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of lower leg weakness. Herein, we present a case of a 56-year-old man who came to our emergency department with a chief concern of lower leg weakness, which was actually the result of L-spine osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis as complications of infective endocarditis with septic emboli.
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Bun/creatinine ratio-based hydration for preventing stroke-in-evolution after acute ischemic stroke.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio was recently reported to be an independent predictor of stroke-in-evolution (SIE) among patients who had suffered acute ischemic stroke. We aim to determine if providing hydration therapy to patients with a BUN/Cr ?15 reduces the occurrence of SIE after acute ischemic stroke.
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Magnolol protects neurons against ischemia injury via the downregulation of p38/MAPK, CHOP and nitrotyrosine.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Magnolol is isolated from the herb Magnolia officinalis, which has been demonstrated to exert pharmacological effects. Our aim was to investigate whether magnolol is able to act as an anti-inflammatory agent that brings about neuroprotection using a global ischemic stroke model and to determine the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with and without magnolol after ischemia reperfusion brain injury by occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The inflammatory cytokine production in serum and the volume of infarction in the brain were measured. The proteins present in the brains obtained from the stroke animal model (SAM) and control animal groups with and without magnolol treatment were compared. Magnolol reduces the total infarcted volume by 15% and 30% at dosages of 10 and 30mg/kg, respectively, compared to the untreated SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 were attenuated by magnolol. Magnolol was also able to suppress the production of nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), various phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and various C/EBP homologues. Furthermore, this modulation of ischemia injury factors in the SAM model group treated with magnolol seems to result from a suppression of reactive oxygen species production and the upregulation of p-Akt and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B). These findings confirm the anti-oxidative properties of magnolol, including the inhibition of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to involve changes in the in vivo activity of Akt, GSK3? and NF-?B.
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RNA Viruses: ROS-Mediated Cell Death.
Int J Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for being both beneficial and deleterious. The main thrust of this review is to investigate the role of ROS in ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus pathogenesis. Much evidences has accumulated over the past decade, suggesting that patients infected with RNA viruses are under chronic oxidative stress. Changes to the body's antioxidant defense system, in relation to SOD, ascorbic acid, selenium, carotenoids, and glutathione, have been reported in various tissues of RNA-virus infected patients. This review focuses on RNA viruses and retroviruses, giving particular attention to the human influenza virus, Hepatitis c virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the aquatic Betanodavirus. Oxidative stress via RNA virus infections can contribute to several aspects of viral disease pathogenesis including apoptosis, loss of immune function, viral replication, inflammatory response, and loss of body weight. We focus on how ROS production is correlated with host cell death. Moreover, ROS may play an important role as a signal molecule in the regulation of viral replication and organelle function, potentially providing new insights in the prevention and treatment of RNA viruses and retrovirus infections.
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Dye-sensitized solar cells based on (donor-?-acceptor)2 dyes with dithiafulvalene as the donor.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Dipolar metal-free sensitizers (D-?-A; D=donor, ?=conjugated bridge, A=acceptor) consisting of a dithiafulvalene (DTF) unit as the electron donor, a benzene, thiophene, or fluorene moiety as the conjugated spacer, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor have been synthesized. Dimeric congeners of these dyes, (D-?-A)(2), were also synthesized through iodine-induced dimerization of an appropriate DTF-containing segment. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the new dyes as the sensitizers have cell efficiencies that range from 2.11 to 5.24?%. In addition to better light harvesting, more effective suppression of the dark current than the D-?-A dyes is possible with the (D-?-A)(2) dyes.
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Phenothiazinedioxide-conjugated sensitizers and a dual-TEMPO/iodide redox mediator for dye-sensitized solar cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Metal-free dyes containing a phenothiazinedioxide entity in the spacer were synthesized. The best conversion efficiency (7.47%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by using new sensitizers with chenodeoxycholic acid as a co-adsorbent and the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte reached over 90% of that of the standard N719-based cell (8.10%). A new type of ionic liquid containing the nitroxide radical (N-O(.) ) and iodide was successfully synthesized and applied to the DSSCs. If the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte was replaced with a dual redox electrolyte, that is, a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) derivative with a dangling imidazolium iodide entity, the cell exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 0.85 V and a cell efficiency of 8.36%.
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Oral lovastatin attenuates airway inflammation and mucus secretion in ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Lovastatin is an effective inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. A previous study demonstrated that lovastatin can also suppress airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in murine model of asthma. We aimed to investigate the effect of lovastatin on mucus secretion and inflammation-associated gene expression in the lungs of murine model of asthma.
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Intracellular glutathione depletion by oridonin leads to apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Induction of HSC apoptosis by natural products is considered an effective strategy for treating liver fibrosis. Herein, the apoptotic effects of 7,20-epoxy-ent-kaurane (oridonin), a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in rat HSC cell line, HSC-T6. We found that oridonin inhibited cell viability of HSC-T6 in a concentration-dependent manner. Oridonin induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increases in caspase 3 activation, subG1 phase, and DNA fragmentation. These apoptotic effects of oridonin were completely reversed by thiol antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione monoethyl ester. Moreover, oridonin increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was also inhibited by NAC. Significantly, oridonin reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH) level in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. Additionally, oridonin induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). NAC prevented the activation of MAPKs in oridonin-induced cells. However, selective inhibitors of MAPKs failed to alter oridonin-induced cell death. In summary, these results demonstrate that induction of apoptosis in HSC-T6 by oridonin is associated with a decrease in cellular GSH level and increase in ROS production.
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RNA interference technology used for the study of aquatic virus infections.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Aquaculture is one of the most important economic activities in Asia and is presently the fastest growing sector of food production in the world. Explosive increases in global fish farming have been accompanied by an increase in viral diseases. Viral infections are responsible for huge economic losses in fish farming, and control of these viral diseases in aquaculture remains a serious challenge. Recent advances in biotechnology have had a significant impact on disease reduction in aquaculture. RNAi is one of the most important technological breakthroughs in modern biology, allowing us to directly observe the effects of the loss of specific genes in living systems. RNA interference technology has emerged as a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression in the laboratory. This technology represents a new therapeutic approach for treating aquatic diseases, including viral infections. RNAi technology is based on a naturally occurring post-transcriptional gene silencing process mediated by the formation of dsRNA. RNAi has been proven widely effective for gene knockdown in mammalian cultured cells, but its utility in fish remains unexplored. This review aims to highlight the RNAi technology that has made significant contributions toward the improvement of aquatic animal health and will also summarize the current status and future strategies concerning the therapeutic applications of RNAi to combat viral disease in aquacultured organisms.
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Association between plasma levels of hyaluronic acid and functional outcome in acute stroke patients.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Activation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and associated enzyme synthesis has been demonstrated in experimental stroke animal models. Our study aimed to investigate the plasma levels of HA in acute stroke patients and the associations between HA levels and functional outcome.
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Tract-based spatial statistics: application to mild cognitive impairment.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The primary objective of the current investigation was to characterize white matter integrity in different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using tract-based spatial statistics of diffusion tensor imaging.
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Exploring the effects of tert-butylhydroperoxide induced liver injury using proteomic approach.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), an organic lipid hydroperoxide analog, has been demonstrated to exert pro-oxidant effects to evaluate mechanisms involving oxidative stress in hepatocyte cells and rat liver. Herein, we present an investigation of the event of molecular mechanism of t-BHP related acute liver injury. A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins which are differentially expressed in liver cells following t-BHP treatment and the mechanism of its action in apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. Our results demonstrate that the t-BHP treatment of liver cells increased cell cytoxicity and apoptosis. t-BHP dose-dependent induction of cell apoptosis and stained liver sections relieved the acute rat liver injury were accompanied by sustained phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p65. In addition, there were 13 differentially displayed proteins between the t-BHP-induced and untreated were assayed and validated in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that t-BHP induced human Chang liver cell viability and apoptosis properties by up-regulating the levels of ETFA (electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha). This study demonstrated that there was an increase in the cellular levels of ETFA in the t-BHP induction in viability and apoptosis via the activation of JNK1/2 and NF?B signaling modules. NAC administration and shRNA ETFA conferred resistance to t-BHP-increased ETFA and CHOP expression via IRE1-alpha/TRAF2 complex formation, activation of JNK1/2 and p50. We concluded that the mechanism of t-BHP-induced an apoptosis cascade and endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocyte cells by up-regulation of ETFA, providing a new mechanism for liver injury.
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Geriatric Fever score: a new decision rule for geriatric care.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Evaluating geriatric patients with fever is time-consuming and challenging. We investigated independent mortality predictors of geriatric patients with fever and developed a prediction rule for emergency care, critical care, and geriatric care physicians to classify patients into mortality risk and disposition groups.
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Hemodynamic Factors May Play a Critical Role in Neurological Deterioration Occurring within 72 hrs after Lacunar Stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whether a perfusion defect exists in lacunar infarct and whether it is related to early neurological deterioration (END) is still under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether END in lacunar infarct is related to a perfusion defect using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and perfusion MR imaging.
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Effects of human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 unique region on tight junction of human airway epithelial A549 cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-? (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-? or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-?, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity.
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An extra power saving scheme for prolonging lifetime of mobile handset in the 4G mobile networks.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the fourth generation or next generation networks, services of non-real-time variable bit rate (NRT-VBR) and best effort (BE) will dominate over 85% of the total traffic in the networks. In this paper, we study the power saving mechanism of NRT-VBR and BE services for mobile handsets (MHs) to prolong their battery lifetime (i.e., the sustained operation duration) in the fourth generation networks. Because the priority of NRT-VBR and BE is lower than that of real-time VBR (RT-VBR) or guaranteed bit rate (GBR) services, we investigate an extended sleep mode for lower priority services (e.g., NRT-VBR and BE) in an MH to conserve the energy. The extended sleep mode is used when the MH wakes up from the sleep mode but it cannot obtain the bandwidth from base station (BS). The proposed mechanism, named extra power saving scheme (EPSS), uses the M/M/k/k Markovian queuing model to estimate the extended sleep duration to let MHs conserve their battery energy when the networks traffic is congested. To study the performance of EPSS, an accurate analysis model of energy is presented and validated by taking a series of simulations. Numerical experiments show that EPSS can achieve 43% extra energy conservation at most when downlink resource is saturated. We conclude that the energy of MHs can be conserved further by applying EPSS when the traffic load is saturated. The effect of energy saving becomes more obvious when the portion of NRT-VBR and BE services is greater than that of RT-VBR and GBR services.
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A downlink and uplink alignment scheme for power saving in IEEE 802.16 protocol.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study shows the problem of power saving mechanism (PSM) that sleep intervals of uplink (UL) connections do not synchronize with sleep intervals of downlink (DL) connections. That is, the energy of a mobile station (MS) is not really saved if the DL connections are in the sleep mode while the UL connections are in normal mode, and vice versa. To avoid the asynchronism of power saving (PS) between UL and DL connections, we invent a mechanism of DL connections regulating UL connections, called DL and UL Alignment (DUAL) scheme, to improve the energy efficiency for PS. Considering that the buffer size of MS is limited, DUAL uses the mean packet arrival rate of UL ? u and a relatively safe threshold of buffer size Q T as the parameters to estimate the maximum allowable waiting time to align the UL with the DL connections. To analyze the performance of DUAL, a system model of PS is proposed to evaluate the performance of DUAL under different conditions. The correctness of performance analysis of DUAL is validated by using simulation with realistic parameters. Numerical experiments show that DUAL improves the energy conservation significantly when UL traffic is greater than DL traffic.
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Toothbrushing versus toothbrushing plus tongue cleaning in reducing halitosis and tongue coating: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Halitosis affects people of all ages. Among hospitalized patients, oral care includes toothbrushing and mouth rinses. Tongue cleaning is not included in most guidelines or nursing education curricula.
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Optimized Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Polygonum cuspidatum.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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In this study the phenolic compounds piceid, resveratrol and emodin were extracted from P. cuspidatum roots using ultrasound-assisted extraction. Multiple response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions of these phenolic compounds. A three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to evaluate the effects of the operation parameters, including extraction temperature (30-70 °C), ethanol concentration (40%-80%), and ultrasonic power (90-150 W), on the extraction yields of piceid, resveratrol, and emodin. The statistical models built from multiple response surface methodology were developed for the estimation of the extraction yields of multi-phenolic components. Based on the model, the extraction yields of piceid, resveratrol, and emodin can be improved by controlling the extraction parameters. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yields of piceid, resveratrol and emodin were 10.77 mg/g, 3.82 mg/g and 11.72 mg/g, respectively.
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Ionic Liquid with a Dual-Redox Couple for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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A new type of ionic liquid that contains a nitroxide radical (N?O(.) ) and iodide as two redox couples, JC-IL, has been successfully synthesized for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both of the redox couples exhibit distinct redox potentials and attractive electrochemical characteristics. The UV/Vis absorption spectra of JC-IL shows a low-intensity peak compared to the strong absorption of I2 in the wavelength region of 350-500?nm. The high open-circuit voltage of DSSCs with JC-IL is over 850?mV, which is approximately 150?mV higher than that of the DSSCs with a standard iodide electrolyte. The dramatic increase in the standard heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant leads to an increase in the short-circuit current for JC-IL compared to that of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl (TEMPO). DSSCs with the JC-IL electrolyte show promising cell efficiencies if coupled with dyes CR147 (8.12?%) or D149 (6.76?%). The efficiencies of the DSSCs based on the JC-IL electrolyte are higher than those of DSSCs based on either TEMPO electrolyte or standard iodide electrolyte alone.
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High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on phenothiazine dyes containing double anchors and thiophene spacers.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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A series of new push-pull phenothiazine-based dyes (HL1-HL4) featuring various ? spacers (thiophene, 3-hexylthiophene, 4-hexyl-2,2-bithiophene) and double acceptors/anchors have been synthesized, characterized, and used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among them, the best conversion efficiency (7.31?%) reaches approximately 99?% of the N719-based (7.38?%) DSSCs fabricated and measured under similar conditions. The dyes with two anchors have more efficient interfacial charge generation and transport compared with their congeners with only single anchor. Incorporation of hexyl chains into the ?-conjugated spacer of these double-anchoring dyes can efficiently suppress dye aggregation and reduce charge recombination.
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Matrine attenuates allergic airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration by suppressing eotaxin and Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Matrine has been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and found to show anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-cachectic effects in hepatomas. The present study investigated whether matrine suppressed eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice, and decreased the inflammatory response of tracheal epithelial cells.
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Thrombolytic Therapy Is an Only Determinant Factor for Stroke Evolution in Large Anterior Choroidal Artery Infarcts.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Large anterior choroidal artery (AChA) infarcts are frequently associated with stroke evolution. This study aimed to investigate the major determinants for stroke evolution in patients with large AChA infarcts.
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Efficient halftoning based on multiple look-up tables.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Look-up table (LUT) halftoning is an efficient way to construct halftone images and approximately simulate the dot distribution of the learned halftone image set. In this paper, a general mechanism named multiple look-up table (MLUT) halftoning is proposed to generate the halftones of direct binary search (DBS), whereas the high efficient characteristic of the LUT is still preserved. In the MLUT, the standard deviation is adopted as an important feature to classify various tables. In addition, the proposed quick standard deviation evaluation is employed to yield an extremely low computational complexity in calculating the standard deviation. In the parameter optimization, the autocorrelation is adopted because it can fully characterize the periodicity of dot distribution. Experimental results demonstrate that the dot distribution generated by the proposed method approximates to that of the DBS, which enables the proposed scheme as a very competitive candidate in the copying and printing industry.
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Effect of mannitol on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in patients with intracranial hypertension.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Mannitol is commonly used in patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP), but its effect on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (CVPR) is uncertain. We analyzed the changes of pressure reactivity index (PRx) during the course of mannitol treatment.
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Guideline-adherent therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Aggressive and persistent control of risk factors is recommended for prevention of secondary comorbidities in patients with cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to evaluate guideline recommendations for achieving targets for lipid and blood pressure (BP) control in patients with cardiovascular diseases in Taiwan.
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Quantitative observation of focused-ultrasound-induced vascular leakage and deformation via fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a recently discovered noninvasive technique for local and temporal enhancement of vascular permeability, which facilitates drug delivery from the vessels into the surrounding tissue. However, exposure to FUS at a high intensity may cause permanent damage. To investigate the effects of the FUS treatment on blood vessels, we propose to use fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time observation of the diffusion of fluorescence dye from blood vessels and to evaluate the morphological changes of the vessels in vivo. With time-resolved FA imaging, the relationship between the exposed power and the improved permeability of the vessels can be assessed according to the enhancement of the fluorescent intensity due to the dye leakage. Furthermore, the variation of the time-resolved fluorescent intensities can be used to identify the occurrence of dye leakage. In contrast, OCT can be implemented for the reconstruction of tissue microstructures. To quantitatively evaluate the morphological changes of the vessels after the FUS exposure with OCT, a new algorithm was proposed to estimate the vessel area based on the comparison of backscattering properties resulting from the tissue and vascular structures. Results showed that the vessel area increased as the exposed power increased, and the area became significantly larger at a higher FUS exposure power of 10 W. In conclusion, integrated FA and OCT observation can be potentially effective for monitoring the outcome and investigating the effects of FUS treatment.
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Evidence for a detrimental role of TLR8 in ischemic stroke.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane pattern-recognition receptors that initiate signals in response to diverse pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Several groups have recently reported a role for TLR2 and TLR4 in ischemic stroke-induced brain injury. However, relatively little is known about the role of TLR8 in ischemic stroke. Here we provide the first evidence that TLR8 activation plays a detrimental role in stroke outcome by promoting neuronal apoptosis and T cell-mediated post-stroke inflammation. TLR8 is expressed in cerebral cortical neurons, where its levels and downstream signaling via JNK are increased in response to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Treatment with a TLR8 agonist activated pro-apoptotic JNK and increased neuronal cell death during OGD. Furthermore, selective knockdown of TLR8 using siRNA protected SH-SY5Y cells following OGD, and TLR8 agonist administration in vivo increased mortality, neurological deficit and T cell infiltration following stroke. Taken together, our findings indicate a detrimental role for neuronal TLR8 signaling in the triggering of post-stroke inflammation and neuronal death.
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Utilization of emergency medical service increases chance of thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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To determine whether utilization of emergency medical service (EMS) can increase use and expedite delivery of the thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients.
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Isolated basilar artery dissection--a rare cause of stroke in young adult.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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Syncope accounts for approximately 1% to 2% of emergency department visits each year and up to 6% of hospital admissions [1,2]. The causes of syncope are numerous, from common benign disorders to life-threatening processes including transient ischemic attack and even stroke. Although cervicocerebral artery dissection is an uncommon etiology in ischemic stroke, it is the second leading cause in patients younger than 45 years, and most of them predominantly involved the extracranial artery [3-5]. Dissections of intracranial arteries are increasingly being recognized with advanced imaging study; however, isolated basilar artery dissection (IBAD) is rarely reported. Here, we present a case of a 32-year-old man who presented to our emergency department with the chief complaint of syncope and finally diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke resulted from IBAD.
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Molecular-level dengue fever diagnostic devices made out of paper.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This paper describes the development of nucleic acid detection in paper using a combination of commercial fluorescent probes and DNA ladders, and provides us with a better understanding of the interactions between double-stranded DNA (the amplified products in this study), fiber structures in paper, and fluorescent probes. The amplified products (the reverse-transcription and amplification of dengue virus serotype-2 RNA via RT-LAMP) in this study were subsequently fluorescently labeled in paper-based test zones (on our paper-based diagnostic device), thus fluorescent probes were used to perform the diagnosis of dengue fever, specific to serotype-2.
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Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in mouse.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Th2 cells are overexpressed in the skin and serum of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Previously, we found that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreased eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice through the suppression of Th2-associated cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that DHEA might improve the symptoms of AD syndrome.
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A reduction in anti-tuberculosis drug resistance after the implementation of the national "STOP TB" program in central Taiwan, 2003-2007.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the national "STOP TB" program in central Taiwan during 2003-2007 by examining trends in the combined drug resistance to first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Using 4,819 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from two mycobacteriology referral laboratories, the resistance to drugs was measured and analyzed along with the treatment outcomes in notified TB patients. The proportion of isolates showing total resistance and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates were 17.7% and 3.67%, respectively. More number of MDR-TB isolates showed high-level resistance to isoniazid (84.18%) and streptomycin (SM) (30.51%); low-level resistance to ethambutol (EMB) (61.58%), SM (41.81%), and pyrazinamide (66.1%); and resistance to ofloxacin (30.4%). However, fewer isolates showed high-level resistance to EMB (19.77%), levofloxacin (17.9%), moxifloxacin (19.6%), kanamycin (8.9%), amikacin (8.9%), and capreomycin (8.9%). Of these MDR-TB isolates, 7.1% were extensively drug-resistant. Trends in combined drug resistance to all the first-line anti-TB drugs and the incidence of MDR-TB were stable during the 2 years (2003-2004) before the implementation of the national "STOP TB" program. After the "STOP TB" program, there were significant declines in the incidence of MDR-TB during 2005-2007 in central Taiwan as well as improved TB-treatment outcomes. Thus, the national "STOP TB" program had a significant positive impact on TB control in central Taiwan.
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Clinical features and outcomes of spinal cord infarction following vertebral artery dissection: a systematic review of the literature.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare complication of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Its clinical features and outcomes have not yet been well documented.
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Prophylactic vaccination with adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid a prevents Th2-mediated murine asthmatic responses.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic infiltration, high titer of allergen-specific IgE, and overproduction of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. Antigen combined with an appropriate adjuvant and administrated through the proper route can elicit suitable immunological responses to protect humans and animals from diseases. Antigen formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) can produce priming of Th1-mediated immune responses. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of MPLA as an adjuvant to prevent asthma.
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Discrimination between Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment using SOM and PSO-SVM.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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In this study, an MRI-based classification framework was proposed to distinguish the patients with AD and MCI from normal participants by using multiple features and different classifiers. First, we extracted features (volume and shape) from MRI data by using a series of image processing steps. Subsequently, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to convert a set of features of possibly correlated variables into a smaller set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables, decreasing the dimensions of feature space. Finally, we developed a novel data mining framework in combination with support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the AD/MCI classification. In order to compare the hybrid method with traditional classifier, two kinds of classifiers, that is, SVM and a self-organizing map (SOM), were trained for patient classification. With the proposed framework, the classification accuracy is improved up to 82.35% and 77.78% in patients with AD and MCI. The result achieved up to 94.12% and 88.89% in AD and MCI by combining the volumetric features and shape features and using PCA. The present results suggest that novel multivariate methods of pattern matching reach a clinically relevant accuracy for the a priori prediction of the progression from MCI to AD.
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The impact of intracranial carotid artery calcification on the development of thrombolysis-induced intracerebral hemorrhage.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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We aimed to assess whether intracranial carotid artery calcification (ICAC) evident on head computed tomography is a risk factor for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) following tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for acute stroke.
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Benzotriazole-containing D-?-A conjugated organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A series of metal-free benzotriazole-based dipolar dyes have been developed as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Different heteroaromatic rings such as furan, thiophene, and selenophene, were used in combination with benzotriazole as the conjugated spacer group. Light harvesting, charge recombination, and electron injection of the cells fabricated are affected by the heteroaromatic ring used in the spacer. The DSSC with the thiophene-containing dye has the highest conversion efficiency of 6.20%, which reaches 85% of the standard cell based on N719.
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Production of D-hydantoinase via surface display and self-cleavage system.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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In this study, the cell surface expression system was the first time used to directly produce extracellular enzyme. In the plasmid construction, the truncated ice nucleation protein (INP) was fused with intein (INT) and target protein, D-hydantoinase (DHTase), to form the INP-INT-DHTase gene. The plasmid containing this gene was transformed into Escherichia coli ER2566 cells. The gene construct enables the expression of INP-INT-DHTase fusion protein, which might anchor on cell membrane surface. The induction conditions were studied and optimal conditions were as follows: E. coli ER2566 was incubated at 37°C and 200 rpm till OD??? reached 0.6. Then, 0.05 mM IPTG was added and the induction was conducted at 15°C for 24 h. The cell was harvested and resuspended in the cleavage buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 6). The cleavage reaction was carried out at 25°C, and 100 rpm for 24 h. The DHTase with an activity of 0.225 U/ml and a purity of 63.2% was obtained via centrifugation. This study demonstrated the feasibility of direct extracellular enzyme production using E. coli via only two steps of centrifugation.
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Predicting the hyperglycemic crisis death (PHD) score: a new decision rule for emergency and critical care.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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We investigated independent mortality predictors of hyperglycemic crises and developed a prediction rule for emergency and critical care physicians to classify patients into mortality risk and disposition groups.
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Betanodavirus: Mitochondrial disruption and necrotic cell death.
World J Virol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Betanodaviruses cause viral nervous necrosis, an infectious neuropathological condition in fish that is characterized by necrosis of the central nervous system, including the brain and retina. This disease can cause mass mortality in larval and juvenile populations of several teleost species and is of global economic importance. The mechanism of brain and retina damage during betanodavirus infection is poorly understood. In this review, we will focus recent results that highlight betanodavirus infection-induced molecular death mechanisms in vitro. Betanodavirus can induce host cellular death and post-apoptotic necrosis in fish cells. Betanodavirus-induced necrotic cell death is also correlated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in fish cells, as this necrotic cell death is blocked by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore inhibitor bongkrekic acid and the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member zfBcl-xL. Moreover, this mitochondria-mediated necrotic cell death may require a caspase-independent pathway. A possible cellular death pathway involving mitochondrial function and the modulator zfBcl-xs is discussed which may provide new insights into the necrotic pathogenesis of betanodavirus.
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Spontaneous dissection of the celiac artery: a case report and literature review.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Epigastralgia is a common chief compliant in the emergency department. Most of them are not fetal events, but some are life threatening such as aortic dissection or abdominal aneurysm rupture. Spontaneous visceral artery dissection is an uncommon occurrence with an unpredictable natural history and is rarely considered in the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain; however, it is as critical as aortic dissection and even easier to be ignored because of its rarity. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who presented to our emergency department with the chief concern of epigastric pain and diagnosed as having isolated spontaneous celiac artery dissection involving the hepatic artery, gastroduodenal artery, and splenic artery. Most cases required surgical intervention in previous reports; there are some, as in this case, managed well nonoperatively.
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Cardioembolic stroke related to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1B.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Cardioembolic stroke is an under-recognized complication in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1B. Here we present a young stroke patient who had a novel lamin A/C gene (LMNA) mutation.
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Anti-Bladder-Tumor Effect of Baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Its Application In Vivo.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Some phytochemicals with the characteristics of cytotoxicity and/or antimetastasis have generated intense interest among the anticancer studies. In this study, a natural flavonoid baicalein was evaluated in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Baicalein inhibits 5637 cell proliferation. It arrests cells in G1 phase at 100? ? M and in S phase below 75? ? M. The protein expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 is reduced by baicalein. Baicalein-induced p-ERK plays a minor role in cyclin B1 reduction. Baicalein-inhibited p65NF- ? B results in reduction of cell growth. Baicalein-induced pGSK(ser9) has a little effect in increasing cyclin B1/D1 expression instead. The translation inhibitor cycloheximide blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin B1, suggesting that the reduction is caused by protein synthesis inhibition. On the other hand, neither cycloheximide nor proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin D1, suggesting that baicalein reduces cyclin D1 through protein synthesis inhibition and proteasomal degradation activation. In addition, baicalein also inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity. In mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, baicalein slightly reduces tumor size but with some hepatic toxicity. In summary, these results demonstrate the anti-bladder-tumor properties of the natural compound baicalein which shows a slight anti-bladder-tumor effect in vivo.
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Factors associated with use of emergency medical services in patients with acute stroke.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with use of emergency medical services (EMS) in patients with acute stroke.
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Cancer History, Bandemia, and Serum Creatinine Are Independent Mortality Predictors in Patients with Infection-Precipitated Hyperglycemic Crises.
BMC Endocr Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Infection is the most common precipitating factor and cause of death in patients with hyperglycemic crises. Treating infection-precipitated hyperglycemic crises includes using empiric antibiotics early; correcting dehydration, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalances; and frequent monitoring. Intensive care unit admission, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and even novel therapy for infection may be beneficial for patients with a high risk of mortality. However, these management options are costly and not beneficial for every patient. Selecting high-risk patients who would most likely benefit is more appropriate. We investigated the independent mortality predictors of patients with infection-precipitated hyperglycemic crises to facilitate clinical decision making.
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Synergistic activities of tigecycline with clarithromycin or amikacin against rapidly growing mycobacteria in Taiwan.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The occurrence of diseases caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) is increasing in Taiwan. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tigecycline, minocycline, tetracycline and doxycycline were evaluated against 160 clinical RGM isolates, including 34 Mycobacterium abscessus sensu stricto (s.s.), 44 Mycobacterium massiliense, 1 Mycobacterium bolletii, 58 Mycobacterium fortuitum and 23 Mycobacterium chelonae. Clarithromycin and amikacin were tested alone as well as for synergistic effect with tigecycline. Both amikacin and tigecycline showed excellent activities against the RGM. More than 85% of each of the five RGM species isolates showed susceptibility to the two drugs. The MIC?? and MIC?? values (drug concentrations at which 50% and 90%, respectively, of the tested isolates did not show any visible growth) of amikacin were 1-4 mg/L and 2-8 mg/L, respectively, whilst those of tigecycline were 0.125-1 mg/L and 0.5-2.0 mg/L. Clarithromycin had only moderate activity, with ?42.9% but ?87.5% of each RGM species isolates showing susceptibility. The other three drugs had limited or no antimicrobial activity, with <40% of each RGM species isolates showing susceptibility. Combined with clarithromycin, tigecycline had synergistic activity against 92.9%, 68.8%, 100%, 35.7% and 46.2% of M. abscessus s.s., M. massiliense, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum and M. chelonae isolates, respectively. However, tigecycline combined with amikacin had synergistic activity against <25% but antagonistic activity against >18% of each RGM species. Thus, tigecycline alone may be an alternative for treating RGM diseases in patients who are intolerant to cefoxitin, imipenem or amikacin. However, it should be used with caution or not used in combination with amikacin for RGM diseases.
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Materials for the active layer of organic photovoltaics: ternary solar cell approach.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 7% have been achieved with bulk heterojunction (BHJ)-type organic solar cells using two components: p- and n-doped materials. The energy level and absorption profile of the active layer can be tuned by introduction of an additional component. Careful design of the additional component is required to achieve optimal panchromatic absorption, suitable energy-level offset, balanced electron and hole mobility, and good light-harvesting efficiency. This article reviews the recent progress on ternary organic photovoltaic systems, including polymer/small molecule/functional fullerene, polymer/polymer/functional fullerene, small molecule/small molecule/functional fullerene, polymer/functional fullerene I/functional fullerene II, and polymer/quantum dot or metal/functional fullerene systems.
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Functional role of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in stroke.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Little is known about the involvement of the soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in acute ischemic stroke (IS). Here, we aim to identify the role of plasma sRAGE and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in imaging-confirmed IS patients, as well as mice subjected to focal ischemic stroke.
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Transglutaminase 2 Contributes to Apoptosis Induction in Jurkat T Cells by Modulating Ca(2+) Homeostasis via Cross-Linking RAP1GDS1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a protein cross-linking enzyme known to be associated with the in vivo apoptosis program of T cells. However, its role in the T cell apoptosis program was not investigated yet.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.