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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Chemical Tuned Strategy to Develop Novel Irreversible EGFR-TK Inhibitors with Improved Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent factor underlying acquired resistance. Acrylamide-bearing quinazoline derivatives are powerful irreversible inhibitors for overcoming resistance. Nevertheless, concerns about the risk of non-specific covalent modification have motivated the development of novel cysteine-targeting inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that fluoro-substituted olefins can be tuned to alter Michael addition reactivity. Incorporation of these olefins into the quinazoline templates produced potent EGFR inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic properties. A lead compound 5a was validated against EGFRWT, EGFR T790M as well as A431 and H1975 cancer cell lines. Additionally, compound 5a displayed a weaker inhibition against the EGFR-independent cancer cell line SW620 when compared withafatinib. Oral administration of 5a at a dose of 30mg/kg induced tumor regression in a murine-EGFRL858R/T790M driven H1975 xenograft model. Also, 5a exhibited improved oral bioavailability and safety, as well as favorable tissue distribution properties and enhanced brain uptake. These findings provide the basis of a promising strategy toward the treatment of NSCLC patients with drug resistance.
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Gene Therapy: Suppression of VEGF by Reversible-PEGylated Histidylated Polylysine in Cancer Therapy (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 11/2014).
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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On page 1818, Y. Y. Li, D. Shi, and co-workers show that reversible PEGylation and histidylation of polylysine catiomer critically function to facilitate the efficient delivery of siRNA-VEGF. The unique structural designs significantly affect the gene transfection efficiencies both in vitro and in vivo, and further result in effective inhibition of tumor growth on the murine xenograft models.
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Widely-pulsewidth-tunable ultrashort pulse generation from a birefringent carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We demonstrate the generation of soliton pulses covering a nearly one order-of-magnitude pulsewidth range from a simple carbon nanotube (CNT) mode-locked fiber laser with birefringence. A polarization-maintaining-fiber-pigtailed, inline polarization beam splitter and its associated birefringence is leveraged to either enable additional nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) mode-locking effect or result in a bandwidth-tunable Lyot filter, through adjusting the intracavity polarization settings. The large pulsewidth tuning range is achieved by exploiting both the nonlinear CNT-NPE hybrid mode-locking mechanism that narrows the pulses and the linear filtering effect that broadens them. Induced vector soliton pulses with pulsewidth from 360 fs to 3 ps can be generated, and their time-bandwidth products indicate they are close to transform-limited.
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Genetic variants of interleukin-4 gene in autoimmune thyroid diseases: An updated meta-analysis.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Abstract Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are common autoimmune endocrine disorders. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine secreted by T cells, plays a critical role in antigen-specific Th2 responses. The IL-4 gene is highly polymorphic and it has been reported that the polymorphism at -590 (T/C, rs2243250) in the promoter region of IL-4 may contribute to the development of AITDs. Recently, several case-control studies have examined the association of genetic variants of IL-4 with AITDs. However, the results of these studies remain conflicting. To systematically study the role of IL-4 in the pathogenesis of AITDs, we conducted a meta-analysis including 11 eligible studies (1847 cases and 2068 healthy controls). Fixed-effect or random-effect models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our results revealed a significant association between the IL-4 genetic variant (-590, T/C, rs2243250) and the risk of developing AITDs (TC?+?TT versus TT genotype: OR?=?1.83, 95% CI?=?1.083-3.091, p?=?0.024). These findings demonstrate that the IL-4 rs2243250 genetic variant might play a key role in the development of AITDs.
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The effects of bisphosphonate on the remodeling of different irregular bones in mice.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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We aimed to compare the effects of bisphosphonate on the remodeling of irregular bones (the jaw and ilium) in mice after trauma.
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Topological spin texture in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has been recently discovered in an experiment using a thin-film topological insulator with ferromagnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we investigate the spin degree of freedom of a QAH insulator and uncover the fundamental phenomenon that the edge states exhibit a topologically stable spin texture in the boundary when a chiral-like symmetry is present. This result shows that edge states are chiral in both the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, and the chiral edge spin texture corresponds to the bulk topological states of the QAH insulator. We also study the potential applications of the edge spin texture in designing topological-state-based spin devices, which might be applicable to future spintronic technologies.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Xenophysogobio nudicorpa (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobiobotinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Abstract Xenophysogobio nudicorpa is one member of the genus containing two species only, which is a specialized lineage of gobiobotine fishes. In this study, we provide the first mitochondrial genome of X. nudicorpa. The complete mitochondrial genome of X. nudicorpa is 16,616?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12 S and 16 S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes and a noncoding control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of X. nudicorpa is 30.5% A, 26.0% T, 16.8% C and 26.7% G, with a slight AT bias of 56.5%. The complete mitochondrial genome of X. nudicorpa would be useful for further studies on genetic diversity and molecular phylogenetic relationship of the subfamily Gobiobotinae.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Garra imberba (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Garra).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Abstract The beardless sucking bard, Garra imberba, is an important economic freshwater fish with very limited yield. In this study, we successfully sequenced the first mitochondrial genome of G. imberba by PCR. The mitogenome is 16,600?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 31.5% A, 26.7% T, 16.1% C, and 25.8% G, with a slight AT bias of 58.2%. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNAs (tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Ser), tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Pro)) and ND6 genes.
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[Application of multi-level model in study of relationship between soil cadmium contamination and people's urinary cadmium level].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Based on the characteristics of hierarchical data, a multilevel model was used to analysis possible influencing factors of urinary cadmium levels in one county population, and to discuss the advantages of multilevel model for processing hierarchical data in practical problems.
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Genome wide association studies using a new nonparametric model reveal the genetic architecture of 17 agronomic traits in an enlarged maize association panel.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Association mapping is a powerful approach for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits using high-density SNP markers in maize. Here, we expanded our association panel size from 368 to 513 inbred lines with 0.5 million high quality SNPs using a two-step data-imputation method which combines identity by descent (IBD) based projection and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were carried out for 17 agronomic traits with a panel of 513 inbred lines applying both mixed linear model (MLM) and a new method, the Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Ten loci for five traits were identified using the MLM method at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >5.74 (?=1). Many loci ranging from one to 34 loci (107 loci for plant height) were identified for 17 traits using the A-D test at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >7.05 (?=0.05) using 556809 SNPs. Many known loci and new candidate loci were only observed by the A-D test, a few of which were also detected in independent linkage analysis. This study indicates that combining IBD based projection and KNN algorithm is an efficient imputation method for inferring large missing genotype segments. In addition, we showed that the A-D test is a useful complement for GWAS analysis of complex quantitative traits. Especially for traits with abnormal phenotype distribution, controlled by moderate effect loci or rare variations, the A-D test balances false positives and statistical power. The candidate SNPs and associated genes also provide a rich resource for maize genetics and breeding.
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[Short-term curative effect of ribavirin combination therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a vs.interferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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To perform a retrospective cohort study in order to determine the differences in short-term curative effect of ribavirin in combination with interferon alfa (IFNa)-2a vs.pegylated (Peg)-IFNa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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A follow-up study of up to 5 years of metal-ceramic crowns in maxillary central incisors for different gingival biotypes.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The objective of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the outcomes of metal-ceramic crown restorations in maxillary central incisors for different gingival biotypes in a Chinese population. One hundred single metal-ceramic crowns were fabricated for 100 patients (50 for thin gingival type and 50 for thick gingival type) from April 2007 to October 2007 and evaluated according to the World Dental Federation criteria at baseline and annually at all follow-up examinations for 5 years. Gingival recession was recorded at the same time, as well. The failure-free rate over the 5-year clinical trial for thin gingival type (78.0%) was significantly lower than that for thick gingival type (94.0%; P = .02). Seven crowns were ranked as failures because of esthetic problems in patients with a thin gingival type. The restored teeth with a thin gingival type exhibited more gingival recession (1.09 ± 0.22 mm) than the control teeth (0.31 ± 0.16 mm; P = .01). Gingival biotype had a significant effect on the outcomes of metal-ceramic crown restorations in maxillary central incisors.
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The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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According to unconscious thought theory (UTT), unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.
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Origination of asexual plantlets in three species of Crassulaceae.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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During asexual plant reproduction, cells from different organs can be reprogrammed to produce new individuals, a process that requires the coordination of cell cycle reactivation with the acquisition of other cellular morphological characteristics. However, the factors that influence the variety of asexual reproduction have not yet been determined. Here, we report on plantlet formation in Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Graptopetalum paraguayense, and Crassula portulacea (Crassulaceae) and analyse the effect of initiating cells on asexual reproduction in these three species. Additionally, the roles of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1) in the asexual reproduction of these species were analysed through qRT-PCR. Our results indicated that pre-existing stem cell-like cells at the sites of asexual reproduction were responsible for the formation of plantlets. These cells were arrested in different phases of the cell cycle and showed different cell morphological characteristics and cell counts. The accumulation of auxin and cytokinin at the sites of asexual plantlet formation indicated their important functions, particularly for cell cycle reactivation. These differences may influence the pattern and complexity of asexual reproduction in these Crassulaceae species. Additionally, the dynamic expression levels of CUC1 and WUS may indicate that CUC1 functions in the formation of callus and shoot meristems; whereas, WUS was only associated with shoot induction.
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[A novel mutation in GCH1 gene causes dopa-responsive dystonia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To identify potential mutation of the GCH1 gene in a Chinese family affected with dopa-responsive dystonia.
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Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis in an "immortalized F?" maize population.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis relies on the cumulative effects of dominance, overdominance, and epistasis in maize hybrid Yuyu22. Heterosis, i.e., when F1 hybrid phenotypes are superior to those of the parents, continues to play a critical role in boosting global grain yield. Notwithstanding our limited insight into the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis, it has been exploited extensively using different breeding approaches. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of grain yield and its components using "immortalized F2" and recombinant inbred line populations derived from the elite hybrid Yuyu22. A high-density linkage map consisting of 3,184 bins was used to assess (1) the additive and additive-by-additive effects determined using recombinant inbred lines; (2) the dominance and dominance-by-dominance effects from a mid-parent heterosis dataset; and (3) the various genetic effects in the "immortalized F2" population. Compared with a low-density simple sequence repeat map, the bin map identified more quantitative trait loci, with higher LOD scores and better accuracy of detecting quantitative trait loci. The bin map showed that, among all traits, dominance was more important to heterosis than other genetic effects. The importance of overdominance/pseudo-overdominance was proportional to the amount of heterosis. In addition, epistasis contributed to heterosis as well. Phenotypic variances explained by the QTLs detected were close to the broad-sense heritabilities of the observed traits. Comparison of the analyzed results obtained for the "immortalized F2" population with those for the mid-parent heterosis dataset indicated identical genetic modes of action for mid-parent heterosis and grain yield performance of the hybrid.
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Maslinic acid activates mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway in cardiac carcinoma.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Cardiac carcinoma is the most common subtype of gastric cancer and its incidence has increased in recent years. The current chemotherapeutic drugs exhibit limited effectiveness and significant side effects in patients. Maslinic acid (MA) exerts an anti-tumor activity on a wide range of cancers and has no significant side effect; however, the anti-tumor effect of MA on cardiac carcinoma has not yet been explored.
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Removal of phosphate from wastewater using alkaline residue.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Alkaline residue (AR) was found to be an efficient adsorbent for phosphate removal from wastewater. The kinetic and equilibrium of phosphate removal were investigated to evaluate the performance of modified alkaline residue. After treatment by NaOH (AR-NaOH), removal performance was significantly improved, while removal performance was almost completely lost after treatment by HCl (AR-HCl). The kinetics of the removal process by all adsorbents was well characterized by the pseudo second-order model. The Langmuir model exhibited the best correlation for AR-HCl, while AR was effectively described by Freundlich model. Both models were well fitted to AR-NaOH. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir equation were in following manner: AR-NaOH > AR > AR-HCl. Phosphate removal by alkaline residue was pH dependent process. Mechanisms for phosphate removal mainly involved adsorption and precipitation, varied with equilibrium pH of solution. For AR-HCl, the acid equilibrium pH (< 6.0) was unfavorable for the formation of Ca-P precipitate, with adsorption as the key mechanism for phosphate removal. In contrast, for AR and AR-NaOH, precipitation was the dominant mechanism for phosphate removal, due to the incrase on pH (> 8.0) after phosphate removal. The results of both XRD and SEM analysis confirmed CaHPO4·2H2O formation after phosphate removal by AR and AR-NaOH.
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Yolk-shell Fe(0)@SiO2 nanoparticles as nanoreactors for fenton-like catalytic reaction.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Yolk-shell nanoparticles (YSNs) with active metal cores have shown promising applications in nanoreactors with excellent catalytic performance. In this work, Fe(0)@SiO2 YSNs were synthesized by a sequential "two-solvents" impregnation-reduction approach. Specifically, FeSO4 aqueous solution was introduced into the preformed hollow mesoporous silica spheres (HMSS), dispersed in n-hexane, via a "two-solvent" impregnation way. Subsequently, aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was introduced into the cavity of HMSS by the same way, leading to the formation of Fe core inside the HMSS through the reaction between Fe(2+) and NaBH4. The resulting Fe(0)@SiO2 YSNs possess distinctive structures, including active cores, accessible mesoporous channels, protective shells, and hollow cavities. To present the catalytic performance of YSNs nanoreactors, Fenton-like catalytic oxidation of phenol was chosen as the model catalysis reaction. In addition to the Fe(0)@SiO2 YSNs, two other materials were also applied to the catalytic system for comparison, including Fe@SiO2 composites with iron nanoparticles sticking on the outer shells of HMSS (Fe@SiO2-DI) and bare iron nanoparticles without HMSS (bare Fe(0)), respectively. The catalytic results show that Fe(0)@SiO2 YSNs exhibit higher catalytic rate toward phenol removal at 2-fold and 4-fold as compared to that of Fe@SiO2-DI and bare Fe(0), indicating the outstanding catalytic property of YSNs nanoreactors. To further clarify the relationship between catalytic properties and structural characteristics, the adsorption experiments of the three samples were also performed in the absence of H2O2. Other than catalytic results, Fe(0)@SiO2 YSNs show slightly higher adsorption efficiency than the other two samples, indicating the accessibility of nanoreactors. This result demonstrates that the removal of phenol in the oxidation system of Fe(0)@SiO2 YSNs may have contributed to the structure-enhanced effect of YSNs as nanoreactors.
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Interrogation of in vivo protein-protein interactions using transgenic mouse models and stable isotope labeling.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Methods in mass spectrometry have evolved in recent years, facilitating proteomic analyses that were previously beyond the limits of the technology. Transgenic mouse models, coupled with mass spectrometry proteomics, have served as valuable platform for elucidating the in vivo function of individual genes and proteins. Here we discuss the methods we have recently employed to characterize protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications in tagged knock-in mouse models. These methods can be broadly applied to other systems for various applications in both basic and translational science.
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Autophagy inhibition sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to the multikinase inhibitor linifanib.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Autophagy is a critical survival pathway for cancer cells under conditions of stress. Thus, induction of autophagy has emerged as a drug resistance mechanism. This study is to determine whether autophagy is activated by a novel multikinase inhibitor linifanib, thereby impairing the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to this targeted therapy. Here, we found that linifanib induced a high level of autophagy in HCC cells, which was accompanied by suppression of phosphorylation of PDGFR-? and its downstream Akt/mTOR and Mek/Erk signaling pathways. Cell death induced by linifanib was greatly enhanced after autophagy inhibition by the pharmacological inhibitors or siRNAs against autophagy related genes, ATG5 and ATG7, in vitro. Moreover, HCQ, an FDA-approved drug used to inhibit autophagy, could significantly augment the anti-HCC effect of linifanib in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, linifanib can induce cytoprotective autophagy by suppression of PDGFR-? activities in HCC cells. Thus, autophagy inhibition represents a promising approach to improve the efficacy of linifanib in the treatment of HCC patients.
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Interaction of autophagy with microRNAs and their potential therapeutic implications in human cancers.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Autophagy is a tightly regulated intracellular self-digestive process involving the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic organelles and proteins. A number of studies have shown that autophagy is dysregulated in cancer initiation and progression, or cancer cells under various stress conditions. As a catabolic pathway conserved among eukaryotes, autophagy is regulated by the autophagy related genes and pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding endogenous RNAs that may regulate almost every cellular process including autophagy. And autophagy is also involved in the regulation of miRNAs expression and homeostasis. Here we reviewed some literatures on the interaction of miRNAs with autophagy and the application of miRNAs-mediated autophagic networks as a promising target in pre-clinical cancer models. Furthermore, strategies of miRNAs delivery for miRNAs-based anti-cancer therapy will also be summarized and discussed.
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Fabrication of photo-crosslinked chitosan- gelatin scaffold in sodium alginate hydrogel for chondrocyte culture.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Photo-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were fabricated and applied for chondrocyte culture in vitro. Photocurable methacryloyl chitosan was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR, respectively. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the chitosan-gelatin scaffold treated with or without EDC as crosslinking agent were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), compression and viscoelastic measurement. It is demonstrated that EDC-treated chitosan-gelatin scaffold possesses better porous structure and improved mechanical properties. Photo-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin scaffold could be further integrated in sodium alginate hydrogel using calcium chloride to support proliferation of chondrocytes for over 21 days and maintain spherical phenotype, as evaluated by AlamarBlue assay and SEM, respectively, implying that the chitosan-gelatin-hydrogel system exhibits great cyto-biocompatibility. Results of this study show that photo-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin scaffold in sodium alginate hydrogel is suited as a scaffold candidate for cartilage tissue engineering.
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High-level expression of LMW-GS and ?-gliadin genes promoted by the expressed tag sequence of 5' end in Escherichia coli.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Wheat storage protein genes, especially low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) and gliadin genes are difficult to be expressed in Escherichiacoli, mainly due to the presence of highly repetitive sequences. In order to establish a high efficiency expression system for these genes, five different expression plasmids combining with 9 genes, viz. 6 LMW-GS and 3 ?-gliadin genes isolated from common wheat and related species, were studied for heterologous expression in E. coli. In this study, when an expressed tag sequence encoding signal peptide, His-S or GST-tag was fused to the 5' end of LMW-GS or gliadin gene as the leading sequence, all recombination genes could be stably expressed at a high level. On the contrast, as expected, the inserted genes encoding mature protein failed without an expressed tag sequence. This result indicated that using expressed tag sequences as leading sequences could promote LMW-GS and gliadin genes to be well expressed in E. coli. Further transcriptional analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed transcription levels of recombination genes (e.g. GST-Glutenin, His-S-Glutenin and SP(?)-His-Glutenin) were 4-fold to 33-fold higher than those of the LMW-GS genes, which suggested these expressed tag sequences might play an important role in stimulating transcription. The possible molecular mechanism under this phenomenon was discussed.
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[Genetic analysis for a family with Cockayne syndrome].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To identify potential mutations among three sisters from a Chinese family suspected with Cockayne syndrome for growth and psychomotor retardation, and to offer genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the family.
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[Genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of two Chinese families with split hand foot malformation].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To identify genomic aberrations underlying pathogenesis of split hand foot malformation (SHFM) in two Chinese families, and to provide genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for them.
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Cleavable PEGylation and hydrophobic histidylation of polylysine for siRNA delivery and tumor gene therapy.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Polylysine with cleavable PEGylation and hydrophobic histidylation (mPEG-SS-Lysn-r-Hism) was designed and developed for efficient siRNA delivery and tumor therapy. mPEG-SS-Lysn-r-Hism was used to carry and deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) for silencing endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and inhibiting tumor growth in HepG2 tumor-bearing mice. In this gene vector, histidine(Bzl) was selected for hydrophobic histidylation for the proton sponge ability of the imidazole ring and hydrophobic benzyl group. Cleavable PEGylation was introduced for in vivo circulation as well as selective PEG detachment in response to intracellular reduction condition in order to release the genetic payload. PEG detachment induced gene release was supported by agarose gel electrophoresis retardation assay, undertaken in the intracellular relevant reduction condition. In vitro transfection evaluation of histidylated copolymers, using pEGFP as genetic model, indicated significantly higher GFP expression than unmodified counterparts, comparable to the gold standard PEI. The efficacy of hydrophobic histidylation was found to be pronounced in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In vivo application of the VEGF-siRNA package by tailored mPEG-SS-Lysn-r-Hism showed distinct tumor suppression in terms of macroscopic tumor volume and molecular analysis.
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Aberrant expression and potential therapeutic target of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 in triple-negative breast cancers.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Triple receptor-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) generally have poor prognoses because of the loss of therapeutic targets. As lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling has been shown to affect breast cancer initiation and progression, we try to evaluate the potential roles of LPA receptors in TNBCs. We examined mRNA and protein expressions of LPA receptors 1-3, using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses in normal (n = 37), benign disease (n = 55), and breast cancer tissues (n = 82). Carcinomas expressed higher levels of LPA2 and LPA3 mRNAs (0.17 ± 0.070 and 0.05 ± 0.023, respectively) than did normal breast tissue (0.13 ± 0.072 and 0.02 ± 0.002, respectively). Enhanced immunohistochemical staining for LPA2 and LPA3 protein was also consistently observed in carcinomas. The LPA3 overexpression was associated with lymph node metastases, and absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression. TNBC tissues and cell lines showed the highest LPA3 expression compared with luminal-type A and B breast cancers. Suppression of LPA3 by shRNA did not influence cell growth in breast cancer cells. However, the migration and invasion of TNBC cells were significantly inhibited by LPA3-shRNA or inhibitor, which had no or less effect on normal and non-TNBC breast cells. In conclusion, our data indicated that the expression of LPA receptor 3 was increased in human TNBCs and is associated with tumor metastatic ability, and this implies that LPA3 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of TNBCs.
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Coupling of a bioelectrochemical system for p-nitrophenol removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Coupling of a bioelectrochemical system (BES) into the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was developed for enhanced p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal in this study. Compared to the control UASB reactor, both PNP removal and the formation of its final reductive product p-aminophenol (PAP) were notably improved in the UASB-BES system. With the increase of current density from 0 to 4.71 A m(-3), the rates of PNP removal and PAP formation increased from 6.16 ± 0.11 and 4.21 ± 0.29 to 6.77 ± 0.00 and 6.11 ± 0.28 mol m(-3) d(-1), respectively. More importantly, the required dosage of organic cosubstrate was significantly reduced in the UASB-BES system than that in the UASB reactor. Organic carbon flux analysis suggested that biogas production from organic cosubstrate was seriously suppressed while direct anaerobic reduction of PNP was not remarkably affected by current input in the UASB-BES system. This study demonstrated that the UASB-BES coupling system had a promising potential for the removal of nitrophenol-containing wastewaters especially without adequate organic cosubstrates inside.
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[Genomic characteristics of coxsackievirus B5 A210/KM/09 strain isolated in Yunnan, China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To characterize the complete genome sequence of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5)A210/KM/09 strain which was isolated from Yunnan, China, 2009.
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Natriuretic peptide receptor A as a novel target for cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The receptor for the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A), has been reported to be expressed in lung cancer, prostate cancer and ovarian cancer. NPR-A expression and signaling is important for tumor growth; its deficiency protects C57BL/6 mice from lung, skin and ovarian cancers. This suggests that NPR-A is a new marker and a new target for cancer therapy. Recently, NPR-A has been demonstrated to be expressed in pre-implantation embryos and in embryonic stem cells, which has a novel role in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. A nanoparticle-formulated interfering RNA for NPR-A attenuated B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Ectopic expression of a plasmid encoding NP73-102, the NH2-terminal peptide of the ANP prohormone which downregulates NPR-A expression, also suppressed lung metastasis of A549 cells in nude mice and tumorigenesis of Line 1 cells in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. These results suggest that NPR-A is involved in tumorigenesis and a new target for cancer therapy. This review focuses on structure, abnormal functions and carcinogenic mechanisms of NPR-A to investigate its role in tumorigenesis.
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Expression of natriuretic peptide receptor-A in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and the relationship with tumor invasion and migration.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) has been investigated as a receptor of natriuretic peptides in the cardiovascular system. In this study, however, we analyze the expression status of NPRA and the relationship with tumor invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for the first time.
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[Expression of Nodal in hepatocellular carcinoma and its relationship with angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To detect the expression of Nodal in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and explore its relationship with angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
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AMH and AMHR2 genetic variants in Chinese women with primary ovarian insufficiency and normal age at natural menopause.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signalling pathway in the pathophysiology of idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and age at natural menopause (ANM) using a genetic approach. DNA sequencing was used to detect the genotype distribution and allele frequency of the genes AMH and AMH receptor II (AMHR2) in 120 cases of idiopathic POI and 120 normal-ANM women. Fourteen sequence variants of AMHR2, including 10 novel variants, were identified. Two novel exonic missense variants were p.I209N and p.L354F. The missense variant p.I209N, which is conserved in different species, was predicted to have functional and structural impacts on the AMHR2 protein. The clinical significance of one additional variant (p.L354F) remains arguable pending functional studies. The genotype frequencies of AMH and AMHR2 were similar in distribution for POI patients and normal-ANM women. These findings suggest that POI patients and normal-ANM women in China share AMH and AMHR2 genetic variants. The AMH signalling pathway associated with ANM also may contribute to POI.
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A novel carboxyethyltin functionalized sandwich-type germanotungstate: synthesis, crystal structure, photosensitivity, and application in dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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A novel sandwich-type germanotungstate [C(NH2)3]10[Mn2{Sn(CH2)2COOH}2(B-?-GeW9O34)2]·8H2O (1) represents the first single crystalline polyoxometalate (POM) functionalized by open chain carboxyethyltin, which was designed and synthesized in aqueous solution and applied to a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) for the first time. Its photosensitivity was explored through a fluorescence spectrum (FL), surface photovoltage spectrum (SPV), electrochemical method, and solid diffuse spectrum. 1 displays the primary features of sensitizers in DSSCs, and the efficiency of the solar cell is 0.22%. Delightedly, when 1 was employed to assemble a cosensitized solar cell configuration by preparing a 1-doped TiO2 electrode and additionally adsorbing N719 dyes, a considerably improved efficiency was achieved through increasing spectral absorption and accelerating electron transport, which is 19.4% higher than that of single N719 sensitization. This result opens up a new way to position different dyes on a single TiO2 film for cosensitization.
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Effects of comprehensive therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine patterns on older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a subgroup analysis from a four-center, randomized, controlled study.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) patterns on older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a fourcenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Patients were divided into the trial group treated using conventional western medicine and Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granules, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granules, and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granules based on TCM patterns respectively; and the control group treated using conventional western medicine. A total of 136 patients ? 65 years completed the study, with 63 patients comprising the trial group and 73 comprising the control group. After the six-month treatment and the 12-month follow-up period, significant differences were observed between the trial and control groups in the following aspects: frequency of acute exacerbation (P ? 0.040), duration of acute exacerbation (P = 0.034), symptoms (P ? 0.034), 6-min walking distance (6MWD) (P ? 0.039), dyspnea scale (P ? 0.036); physical domain (P ? 0.019), psychological domain (P ? 0.033), social domain (P ? 0.020), and environmental domain (P ? 0.044) of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire; and daily living ability domain (P ? 0.007), social activity domain (P ? 0.018), depression symptoms domain (P ? 0.025), and anxiety symptoms domain (P ? 0.037) of the COPD-QOL. No differences were observed between the trial and control groups with regard to FVC, FEV1, and FEV1%.
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[4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction to approach diazatwistpentacenes: synthesis, structures, physical properties, and self-assembly.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Three novel diazatwistpentacenes (1,4,6,13-tetraphenyl-7:8,11:12-bisbenzo-2,3-diazatwistpentacene (1, IUPAC name: 9,11,14,16-tetraphenyl-1,6-dihydrobenzo[8,9]triphenyleno[2,3-g]phthalazine); 1,4-di(pyridin-2-yl)-6,13-diphenyl-7:8,11:12-bisbenzo-2,3-diazatwistpentacene (2, IUPAC name: 9,16-diphenyl-11,14-di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,6-dihydrobenzo[8,9]triphenyleno[2,3-g]phthalazine); and 1,4-di(thien-2-yl)-6,13-diphenyl-7:8,11:12-bisbenzo-2,3-diazatwistpentacene (3, IUPAC name: 9,16-diphenyl-11,14-di(thien-2-yl)-1,6-dihydrobenzo[8,9]triphenyleno[2,3-g]phthalazine)) have been successfully synthesized through [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction involving in situ arynes as dienophiles and substituted 1,2,4,5-tetrazines as dienes. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, confirming that all compounds have twisted configurations with torsion angles between the pyrene unit and the 2,3-diazaanthrance part as high as 21.52° (for 1), 24.74° (for 2), and 21.14° (for 3). The optical bandgaps for all compounds corroborate the values derived from CV. The calculation done by DFT shows that the HOMO-LUMO bandgaps are in good agreement with experimental data. Interestingly, the substituted groups (phenyl, pyridyl, thienyl) in the 1,4-positions did affect their self-assembly and the optical properties of as-resulted nanostructures. Under the same conditions, compounds 1-3 could self-assemble into different morphologies such as microrods (for 1), nanoprisms (for 2), and nanobelts (for 3). Moreover, the UV-vis absorption and emission spectra of as-prepared nanostructures were largely red-shifted, indicating J-type aggregation for all materials. Surprisingly, both 1 and 2 showed aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect, while compound 3 showed aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect. Our method to approach novel twisted azaacenes through [4 + 2] reaction could offer a new tool to develop unusual twisted conjugated materials for future optoelectronic applications.
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[Comparison of ¹?F-FDG PET/CT and large-scale DWI for evaluation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma bone marrow infiltration].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To compare the diagnostic value of ¹?F-flurodeoxyglueose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (¹?F-FDG PET/CT) and large-scale diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for evaluation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) bone marrow (BM) infiltration.
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Fatty acid synthase is required for mammary gland development and milk production during lactation.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The mammary gland is one of the few adult tissues that strongly induce de novo fatty acid synthesis upon physiological stimulation, suggesting that fatty acid is important for milk production during lactation. The committed enzyme to perform this function is fatty acid synthase (FASN). To determine whether de novo fatty acid synthesis is obligatory or dietary fat is sufficient for mammary gland development and function during lactation, Fasn was specifically knocked out in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We found that deletion of Fasn hindered the development and induced the premature involution of the lactating mammary gland and significantly decreased medium- and long-chain fatty acids and total fatty acid contents in the milk. Consequently, pups nursing from Fasn knockout mothers experienced growth retardation and preweanling death, which was rescued by cross-fostering pups to a lactating wild-type mother. These results demonstrate that FASN is essential for the development, functional competence, and maintenance of the lactating mammary gland.
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Thermo-sensitive polymer-grafted carbon nanotubes with temperature-controlled phase transfer behavior between water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Thermo-sensitive polymer-grafted carbon nanotubes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and carefully characterized. A reversible, temperature-induced phase transfer behavior of these organic-inorganic hybrids between water (with a decrease in temperature to 20 °C) and a hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim]NTf2) (with an increase in temperature to 90 °C), was observed. Mechanism analysis suggests that this reversible phase transfer between water and [Emim]NTf2 is due to the relative affinity of the two solvents for the poly(ethylene oxide) units grafted on the carbon nanotubes. Our results pave the way for further design of carbon nanotube-based, recyclable phase transfer vehicles as well as heterogeneous catalysts suited for a water-hydrophobic ionic liquid biphasic system.
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Average gait differential image based human recognition.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.
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Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize.
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Response mechanism for surface acoustic wave gas sensors based on surface-adsorption.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A theoretical model is established to describe the response mechanism of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors based on physical adsorption on the detector surface. Wohljent's method is utilized to describe the relationship of sensor output (frequency shift of SAW oscillator) and the mass loaded on the detector surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) formula and its improved form are introduced to depict the adsorption behavior of gas on the detector surface. By combining the two methods, we obtain a theoretical model for the response mechanism of SAW gas sensors. By using a commercial SAW gas chromatography (GC) analyzer, an experiment is performed to measure the frequency shifts caused by different concentration of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The parameters in the model are given by fitting the experimental results and the theoretical curve agrees well with the experimental data.
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Metabolomics study on model rats of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with Bu?Fei Jian?Pi.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The therapeutic effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been know for numerous years; however, the mechanism of action of the beneficial effects of TCM remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of COPD through metabolomic analysis as well as explore the targets and intervention mechanisms of TCM therapy using the common TCM granules Bu?Fei Jian?Pi. COPD rat models were established using smoke inhalations and recurrent bacterial infections. Rats were then divided into three groups as follows: A1, control healthy rats; B1, COPD model; and D1, Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated COPD rats. Following administration of the medicine, the metabolomic pro?le of the lung tissue of rats in each group was assessed using high?performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole?time?of?flight mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that there was a significanlty different spectrum of metabolites in the lung tissue of the model group compared to that of the control group as well as the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated COPD group; in addition, following treatment with Bu?Fei Jian?Pi, the metabolites of COPD rats were comparable with those of the control. Notable changes were observed in 31 metabolites between the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated group and the model group; however, there were 13 comparable metabolites between the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi and control groups as well as the model and control groups. Eleven metabolites showed a negative fold change in the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated groups compared to concentrations in the model group; however, minimal changes were observed in phenylpyruvic acid and ??D?fucose expression. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Bu?Fei Jian?Pi granules had beneficial effects on measured outcomes in a rat model of stable COPD, indicated by a significantly different spectrum of metabolites. This therefore indicated that the metabolites which had significantly altered expression in the model group compared with that of the control and Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated groups may be potential biomarkers of COPD.
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Rhodamine-modified upconversion nanophosphors for ratiometric detection of hypochlorous acid in aqueous solution and living cells.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, acts as a key microbicidal agent in immune systems. However, misregulated production of HOCl could damage host tissues and cause many inflammation-related diseases. Due to its biological importance, many efforts have been focused on developing fluorescent probes to image HOCl in living system. Compared with those conventional fluorescent probes, up-conversion luminescence (UCL) detection system has been proven to exhibit a lot of advantages including no photo-bleaching, higher light penetration depth, no autofluorescence and less damage to biosamples. Herein, we report a novel water-soluble organic-nano detection system based on rhodamine-modified UCNPs for UCL-sensing HOCl. Upon the interaction with HOCl, the green UCL emission intensity in the detection system were gradually decreased, but the emissions in the NIR region almost have no change, which is very important for the ratiometric UCL detection of HOCl in aqueous solution. More importantly, RBH1-UCNPs could be used for the ratiometric UCL visualization of HOCl released by MPO-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions in living cells. This organic-nano system could be further developed into a novel next-generation imaging technique for bio-imaging HOCl in living system without background noise.
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Beyond Warburg effect--dual metabolic nature of cancer cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Warburg effect is a dominant phenotype of most cancer cells. Here we show that this phenotype depends on its environment. When cancer cells are under regular culture condition, they show Warburg effect; whereas under lactic acidosis, they show a nonglycolytic phenotype, characterized by a high ratio of oxygen consumption rate over glycolytic rate, negligible lactate production and efficient incorporation of glucose carbon(s) into cellular mass. These two metabolic modes are intimately interrelated, for Warburg effect generates lactic acidosis that promotes a transition to a nonglycolytic mode. This dual metabolic nature confers growth advantage to cancer cells adapting to ever changing microenvironment.
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Suppression of VEGF by Reversible-PEGylated Histidylated Polylysine in Cancer Therapy.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A reversible-PEGylated polylysine is designed and developed for efficient delivery of siRNA. In this unique structure, the ?-amino groups of disulfide linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polylysine (mPEG-SS-PLL) are partially replaced by histidine groups, in order to develop the histidylated reversible-PEGylated polylysine (mPEG-SS-PLH), for enhanced endosome escape ability. The transfection efficacy of mPEG-SS-PLH is found to closely correlate with histidine substitution. Its maximum transfection efficiencies are determined, respectively, to be 75%, 42%, and 24%, against 293T, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells. These data indicate that the transfection efficiencies can equal or even outweigh PEI-25k in the corresponding cells (80%, 38.5%, and 20%). The in vivo circulation and biodistribution of the polyplexes are monitored by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo gene transfection is carried out by intravenous injection of pEGFP to BALB/c mice using the xenograft models. The in vivo experimental results show effective inhibition of tumor growth by mPEG-SS-PLH/siRNA-VEGF, indicating its high potential for clinical applications.
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Bias or equality? Unconscious thought equally integrates temporally scattered information.
Conscious Cogn
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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In previous experiments on unconscious thought, information was presented to participants in one continuous session; however, in daily life, information is delivered in a temporally partitioned way. We examined whether unconscious thought could equally integrate temporally scattered information when making overall evaluations. When presenting participants with information in two temporally partitioned sessions, participants' overall evaluation was based on neither the information in the first session (Experiment 1) nor that in the second session (Experiment 2); instead, information in both sessions were equally integrated to reach a final judgment. Conscious thought, however, overemphasized information in the second session. Experiments 3 and 4 further ruled out possible influencing factors including differences in the distributions of positive/negative attributes in the first and second sessions and on-line judgment. These findings suggested that unconscious thought can integrate information from a wider range of periods during an evaluation, while conscious thought cannot.
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Effects and mechanism of bufei yishen formula in a rat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease model.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Bufei Yishen Formula (BYF) has been used for centuries in Asia to effectively treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study established a COPD animal model in rats, wherein three groups (control, COPD, and BYF) were used to evaluate the mechanism(s) and curative effect of BYF. Pulmonary function and histomorphology demonstrated that BYF had an evident effect on COPD. Gene microarray was then exploited to analyze the effects of BYF on COPD. ClueGO analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that BYF improved COPD by regulating expression of interleukins, myosin filament assembly components, and mitochondrial electron transport-related molecules. Moreover, ELISA revealed that expression of several interleukins (IL1 ? , IL6, IL8, and IL10) was reduced in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by BYF treatment. It was concluded that BYF has therapeutic effects on COPD in rats through its effects on interleukin expression and/or secretion. Furthermore, pharmacological or targeted expression of two differentially expressed genes, ? F2R and ? ?Sprik1, might be useful in novel COPD therapies. This study provides the basis for mechanisms of BYF on COPD and new therapeutic drug targets.
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Kinetics study of pyridine biodegradation by a novel bacterial strain, Rhizobium sp. NJUST18.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Biodegradation of pyridine by a novel bacterial strain, Rhizobium sp. NJUST18, was studied in batch experiments over a wide concentration range (from 100 to 1,000 mg l(-1)). Pyridine inhibited both growth of Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 and biodegradation of pyridine. The Haldane model could be fitted to the growth kinetics data well with the kinetic constants ?* = 0.1473 h(-1), K s = 793.97 mg l(-1), K i = 268.60 mg l(-1) and S m = 461.80 mg l(-1). The true ? max, calculated from ?*, was found to be 0.0332 h(-1). Yield coefficient Y X/S depended on S i and reached a maximum of 0.51 g g(-1) at S i of 600 mg l(-1). V max was calculated by fitting the pyridine consumption data with the Gompertz model. V max increased with initial pyridine concentration up to 14.809 mg l(-1) h(-1). The q S values, calculated from [Formula: see text], were fitted with the Haldane equation, yielding q Smax = 0.1212 g g(-1) h(-1) and q* = 0.3874 g g(-1) h(-1) at S m' = 507.83 mg l(-1), K s' = 558.03 mg l(-1), and K i' = 462.15 mg l(-1). Inhibition constants for growth and degradation rate value were in the same range. Compared with other pyridine degraders, ? max and S m obtained for Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 were relatively high. High K i and K i' values and extremely high K s and K s' values indicated that NJUST18 was able to grow on pyridine within a wide concentration range, especially at relatively high concentrations.
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Conversion of waste FGD gypsum into hydroxyapatite for removal of Pb²? and Cd²? from wastewater.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a familiar waste generated from coal-fired power plants, was successfully transformed to hydroxyapatite (FGD-HAP) by hydrothermal method. The obtained FGD-HAP was characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM and BET methods and investigated as adsorbent for removal of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) from wastewater. Batch experiments were performed by varying the pH values, contact time and initial metal concentration. The result of pH impact showed that the adsorption of two ions was pH dependent process, and the pH 5.0-6.0 was found to be the optimum condition. The achieved experimental data were analyzed with various kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic studies displayed that the pseudo-second order kinetic model could describe adsorption processes well with high correlation coefficient, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit to the equilibrium experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir equation were 277.8 and 43.10mg/g for Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively, which can compete with other adsorbents. The thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption processes were endothermic and spontaneous in nature. In binary adsorption, the amount of Cd(2+) adsorbed on FGD-HAP decreased by 46.0% with increasing concentration of Pb(2+), which was higher than that of Pb(2+)(21.7%), demonstrating the stronger affinity between FGD-HAP and Pb(2+). The highest amount of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) desorbed from saturated FGD-HAP by EDTA solution confirmed the FGD-HAP was a promising alternative adsorbent in treatment of toxic Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) wastewater.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhinogobio cylindricus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract Rhinogobio cylindricus, a bottom-dwelling fish, is the one of two endemic species of genus Rhinogobio in the upper Yangtze River. Its phylogenetic status remains controversial. In this study, we sequenced the complete mito-genome of R. cylindricus. The genome is 16,610?bp in length, containing 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide composition is 31.03% A, 26.91% C, 16.20% G and 25.86% T, with a slight AT bias of 56.89%, which is similar to that of most other fishes.
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Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70-140?kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas.
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Correlated spin currents generated by resonant-crossed Andreev reflections in topological superconductors.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Topological superconductors, which support Majorana fermion excitations, have been the subject of intense studies due to their novel transport properties and their potential applications in fault-tolerant quantum computations. Here we propose a new type of topological superconductors that can be used as a novel source of correlated spin currents. We show that inducing superconductivity on a AIII class topological insulator wire, which respects a chiral symmetry and supports protected fermionic end states, will result in a topological superconductor. This topological superconductor supports two topological phases with one or two Majorana fermion end states, respectively. In the phase with two Majorana fermions, the superconductor can split Cooper pairs efficiently into electrons in two spatially separated leads due to Majorana-induced resonant-crossed Andreev reflections. The resulting currents in the leads are correlated and spin-polarized. Importantly, the proposed topological superconductors can be realized using quantum anomalous Hall insulators in proximity to superconductors.
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A Transcriptome Analysis Suggests Apoptosis-Related Signaling Pathways in Hemocytes of Spodoptera litura After Parasitization by Microplitis bicoloratus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism induction of apoptotic DNA fragmentation of host Spodoptera litura hemocytes has been reported. However, how M. bicoloratus parasitism regulates the host signaling pathways to induce DNA fragmentation during apoptosis remains unclear. To address this question, we performed a new RNAseq-based comparative analysis of the hemocytes transcriptomes of non-parasitized and parasitized S. litura. We were able to assemble a total of more than 11.63 Gbp sequence, to yield 20,571 unigenes. At least six main protein families encoded by M. bicoloratus bracovirus are expressed in the parasitized host hemocytes: Ankyrin-repeat, Ben domain, C-type lectin, Egf-like and Mucin-like, protein tyrosine phosphatase. The analysis indicated that during DNA fragmentation and cell death, 299 genes were up-regulated and 2,441 genes were down-regulated. Data on five signaling pathways related with cell death, the gap junctions, Ca2+, PI3K/Akt, NF-?B, ATM/p53 revealed that CypD, which is involved in forming a Permeability Transition Pore Complex (PTPC) to alter mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), was dramatically up-regulated. The qRT-PCR also provided that the key genes for cell survival were down-regulated under M. bicoloratus parasitism, including those encoding Inx1, Inx2 and Inx3 of the gap junction signaling pathway, p110 subunit of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the p50 and p65 subunit of the NF-?B signaling pathway. These findings suggest that M. bicoloratus parasitism may regulate host mitochondria to trigger internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. This study will facilitate the identification of immunosuppression-related genes and also improves our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying polydnavirus-parasitoid-host interaction.
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Structural Basis for Resistance to Diverse Classes of NAMPT Inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inhibiting NAD biosynthesis by blocking the function of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is an attractive therapeutic strategy for targeting tumor metabolism. However, the development of drug resistance commonly limits the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. This study identifies mutations in NAMPT that confer resistance to a novel NAMPT inhibitor, GNE-618, in cell culture and in vivo, thus demonstrating that the cytotoxicity of GNE-618 is on target. We determine the crystal structures of six NAMPT mutants in the apo form and in complex with various inhibitors and use cellular, biochemical and structural data to elucidate two resistance mechanisms. One is the surprising finding of allosteric modulation by mutation of residue Ser165, resulting in unwinding of an ?-helix that binds the NAMPT substrate 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). The other mechanism is orthosteric blocking of inhibitor binding by mutations of Gly217. Furthermore, by evaluating a panel of diverse small molecule inhibitors, we unravel inhibitor structure activity relationships on the mutant enzymes. These results provide valuable insights into the design of next generation NAMPT inhibitors that offer improved therapeutic potential by evading certain mechanisms of resistance.
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Application of butterfly Clos-network in network-on-chip.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper studied the topology of NoC (Network-on-Chip). By combining the characteristics of the Clos network and butterfly network, a new topology named BFC (Butterfly Clos-network) network was proposed. This topology integrates several modules, which belongs to the same layer but different dimensions, into a new module. In the BFC network, a bidirectional link is used to complete information exchange, instead of information exchange between different layers in the original network. During the routing period, other nondestination nodes can be used as middle stages to transfer data packets to complete the routing mission. Therefore, this topology has the characteristic of multistage. Simulation analyses show that BFC inherits the rich path diversity of Clos network, and it has a better performance than butterfly network in throughput and delay in a quite congested traffic pattern.
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An automatic image inpainting algorithm based on FCM.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There are many existing image inpainting algorithms in which the repaired area should be manually determined by users. Aiming at this drawback of the traditional image inpainting algorithms, this paper proposes an automatic image inpainting algorithm which automatically identifies the repaired area by fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm. FCM algorithm classifies the image pixels into a number of categories according to the similarity principle, making the similar pixels clustering into the same category as possible. According to the provided gray value of the pixels to be inpainted, we calculate the category whose distance is the nearest to the inpainting area and this category is to be inpainting area, and then the inpainting area is restored by the TV model to realize image automatic inpainting.
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[Anti-diatom compounds from marine bacterium Pseudomonas putida].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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In order to provide more natural antifouling compounds, marine bacterium Pseudomonas putida isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. was explored to test its anti-diatom compounds.
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Dual leucine zipper kinase is required for excitotoxicity-induced neuronal degeneration.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Excessive glutamate signaling is thought to underlie neurodegeneration in multiple contexts, yet the pro-degenerative signaling pathways downstream of glutamate receptor activation are not well defined. We show that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is essential for excitotoxicity-induced degeneration of neurons in vivo. In mature neurons, DLK is present in the synapse and interacts with multiple known postsynaptic density proteins including the scaffolding protein PSD-95. To examine DLK function in the adult, DLK-inducible knockout mice were generated through Tamoxifen-induced activation of Cre-ERT in mice containing a floxed DLK allele, which circumvents the neonatal lethality associated with germline deletion. DLK-inducible knockouts displayed a modest increase in basal synaptic transmission but had an attenuation of the JNK/c-Jun stress response pathway activation and significantly reduced neuronal degeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures. Together, these data demonstrate that DLK is a critical upstream regulator of JNK-mediated neurodegeneration downstream of glutamate receptor hyper-activation and represents an attractive target for the treatment of indications where excitotoxicity is a primary driver of neuronal loss.
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CACTA-like transposable element in ZmCCT attenuated photoperiod sensitivity and accelerated the postdomestication spread of maize.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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The postdomestication adaptation of maize to longer days required reduced photoperiod sensitivity to optimize flowering time. We performed a genome-wide association study and confirmed that ZmCCT, encoding a CCT domain-containing protein, is associated with the photoperiod response. In early-flowering maize we detected a CACTA-like transposable element (TE) within the ZmCCT promoter that dramatically reduced flowering time. TE insertion likely occurred after domestication and was selected as maize adapted to temperate zones. This process resulted in a strong selective sweep within the TE-related block of linkage disequilibrium. Functional validations indicated that the TE represses ZmCCT expression to reduce photoperiod sensitivity, thus accelerating maize spread to long-day environments.
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The whole mitochondrial genome of the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Abstract Macaca fascicularis, known as the long-tailed macaque, is widely distributed in southern of East Asia and Southeast Asia. It was one of the most commonly used non-human primates in biomedical research. Thus, to illustrate the maternal phylogenetic status of M. fascicularis in primates based on the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome and determine a reference sequence for future population genetic studies by taking mtDNA as molecular marker, in this study, the high quality whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis was amplified and sequenced. Our data showed that the whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis includes 16,571 base pairs (bps). Further phylogenetic analyses of M. fascicularis were performed by incorporating the 83 available whole mtDNA genomes belonging to 77 primate species with Tupaia belangeri as out-group. Our result supported that M. fascicularis belongs to Macaca. Cercopithecinae. Cercopithecidae. Anthropoidea. Primates, which has the closest genetic affinity with Macaca mulatta. In addition, the ancestral divergence between the tarsier and other primate species was supported with evidence from the whole mtDNA genomes.
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Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation.
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Genome-wide analysis of ZmDREB genes and their association with natural variation in drought tolerance at seedling stage of Zea mays L.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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The worldwide production of maize (Zea mays L.) is frequently impacted by water scarcity and as a result, increased drought tolerance is a priority target in maize breeding programs. While DREB transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a central role in desiccation tolerance, whether or not natural sequence variations in these genes are associated with the phenotypic variability of this trait is largely unknown. In the present study, eighteen ZmDREB genes present in the maize B73 genome were cloned and systematically analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationship, synteny with rice, maize and sorghum genomes; pattern of drought-responsive gene expression, and protein transactivation activity. Importantly, the association between the nucleic acid variation of each ZmDREB gene with drought tolerance was evaluated using a diverse population of maize consisting of 368 varieties from tropical and temperate regions. A significant association between the genetic variation of ZmDREB2.7 and drought tolerance at seedling stage was identified. Further analysis found that the DNA polymorphisms in the promoter region of ZmDREB2.7, but not the protein coding region itself, was associated with different levels of drought tolerance among maize varieties, likely due to distinct patterns of gene expression in response to drought stress. In vitro, protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that ZmDREB2.7 protein could specifically interact with the target DNA sequences. The transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDREB2.7 displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Moreover, a favorable allele of ZmDREB2.7, identified in the drought-tolerant maize varieties, was effective in imparting plant tolerance to drought stress. Based upon these findings, we conclude that natural variation in the promoter of ZmDREB2.7 contributes to maize drought tolerance, and that the gene and its favorable allele may be an important genetic resource for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in maize.
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SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: Mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a "two solvents" reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe2O3, FeO(OH), Fe3O4 and Cr2FeO4. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the kobs from 0.600 to 0.024min(-1). Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater.
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Identification of amides derived from 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid as potent inhibitors of human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT).
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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Potent, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-containing inhibitors of the human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) enzyme were identified using structure-based design techniques. Many of these compounds exhibited nanomolar antiproliferation activities against human tumor lines in in vitro cell culture experiments, and a representative example (compound 26) demonstrated encouraging in vivo efficacy in a mouse xenograft tumor model derived from the A2780 cell line. This molecule also exhibited reduced rat retinal exposures relative to a previously studied imidazo-pyridine-containing NAMPT inhibitor. Somewhat surprisingly, compound 26 was only weakly active in vitro against mouse and monkey tumor cell lines even though it was a potent inhibitor of NAMPT enzymes derived from these species. The compound also exhibited only minimal effects on in vivo NAD levels in mice, and these changes were considerably less profound than those produced by an imidazo-pyridine-containing NAMPT inhibitor. The crystal structures of compound 26 and the corresponding PRPP-derived ribose adduct in complex with NAMPT were also obtained.
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Pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater using a combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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A combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process was tested for the pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater. Operating conditions were optimized and overall performance of the combined process was evaluated. For ZVI process, almost complete reduction of nitroaromatic compounds was observed at empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8h. For Fenton process, the optimal pH, H?O? to Fe(II) molar ratio, H?O? dosage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were found to be 3.0, 15, 0.216 mol/L and 5h, respectively. After pretreatment by the combined ZVI-Fenton process under the optimal conditions, aromatic organic compound removal was as high as 77.2%, while the majority of COD remained to be further treated by sequent biological process. The combined anaerobic-aerobic process consisted of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was operated for 3 months, fed with ZVI-Fenton effluent. The results revealed that the coupled ZVI-Fenton-ABR-MBBR system was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluents main parameters of relevance, mainly aromatic compounds concentration, COD concentration, color and acute toxicity. These results indicate that the combined ZVI-Fenton process offers bright prospects for the pretreatment of wastewater containing nitroaromatic compounds.
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Ibuprofen rescues abnormalities in periodontal tissues in conditional presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 double knockout mice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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We used forebrain-specific conditional presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) double knockout mice (dKO mice) that exhibit symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimers disease, to investigate whether ibuprofen can rescue brain and periodontal tissue abnormalities by attenuating the inflammatory response. Mandibles were dissected for alveolar bone-height analysis. Maxillae were fixed and decalcified for histological observation and osteoclast detection. ELISA measurements from the hippocampus, cortex, and gingiva of the mandibular incisor teeth were used to assay inflammatory mediators. We confirmed periodontal tissue abnormalities and inflammatory responses in brain and periodontal tissues in naive nine- and 12-month-old dKO mice. The other two groups of age-matched dKO mice that received 375-ppm ibuprofen treatment for six consecutive months exhibited significantly attenuated damage in periodontal tissues and reduction in several inflammation-related factors in brain and periodontal tissues. Our findings showed that the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen significantly decreased inflammation through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway in brain and periodontal tissues in dKO mice, and then attenuated abnormalities in periodontal tissues. This suggests that ibuprofen could be an ideal drug for preventing both nervous system and periodontal tissue damage caused by inflammatory responses.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.