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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An Anatomic Study to Determine the Optimal Entry Point, Medial Angles, and Effective Length for Safe Fixation using Posterior C1 Lateral Mass Screws.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Study Design. Anatomic study of the C1 lateral mass using fine-cut computed tomographic (CT) scans and Mimics software.Objective. To investigate the optimal entry point, medial angles and effective length for safe fixation using posterior C1 lateral mass screws.Summary of Background Data. Placing posterior C1 lateral mass screws is technically demanding, and a misplaced screw can result in injury to the vertebral artery, spinal cord, or internal carotid artery. Although various insertion angles have been proposed for posterior C1 lateral mass screw, no clear consensus has been reached on the ideal medial angle of the C1 lateral mass.Methods. The C1 lateral masses were evaluated using CT scans and Mimics software in 70 patients. The effective width (EW) and effective screw length (ESL) of posterior C1 lateral mass screws were measured at different medial angulations relative to the midline sagittal plane. The height (H) for screw entry point on the posterior surface of C1 lateral mass and the distance (D) between screw entry point and the intersection of the midline sagittal plane and the posterior arch of the atlas were also measured.Results. The mean height (H) for screw entry on the posterior surface of the lateral mass was 4.25mm, the mean distance (D) between screw entry point and the intersection of the mid-sagittal plane and the posterior arch of the atlas was 27.62mm. The optimal medial angle was 20.86º with a corresponding effective width of 10.56mm and effective screw length of 21.87mm.Conclusion. This study helps to define the specific anatomy related to C1 posterior lateral mass screw placement in an effort to facilitate instrumentation. However, variation is seen in lateral mass anatomy, and this study must be combined with customized surgical planning that includes advanced imaging for safe and effective instrumentation.
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Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Small- Cell Lung Cancer Patients: a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are believed to be particularly important and a reliable marker of malignancy. However, the prognostic significance of CTCs detected in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still unclear. We therefore aimed to assess the prognostic relevance of CTCs using a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed for relevant studies and statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed or random-effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. A total of 7 papers covering 440 SCLC patients were combined in the final analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that CTCs were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (HR=1.9; 95%CI: 1.19-3.04; Z=2.67; P<0.0001) and progression-free survival (HR=2.6; 95%CI: 1.9-3.54; Z=6.04; P<0.0001). The results thus suggest that the presence of CTCs indicates a poor prognosis in patients with SCLC. Further well-designed prospective studies are required to explore the clinical applications of CTCs in SCLC.
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Chlorogenic acid alters the voltage-gated potassium channel currents of trigeminal ganglion neurons.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CGA) is a phenolic compound that is found ubiquitously in plants, fruits and vegetables and is formed via the esterification of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In addition to its notable biological functions against cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and inflammatory conditions, CGA was recently hypothesized to be an alternative for the treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and neuropathic pain disorders. However, its mechanism of action is unclear. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) is a crucial factor in the electro-physiological processes of sensory neurons. Kv has also been identified as a potential therapeutic target for inflammation and neuropathic pain disorders. In this study, we analysed the effects of CGA on the two main subtypes of Kv in trigeminal ganglion neurons, namely, the IK,A and IK,V channels. Trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons were acutely disassociated from the rat TRG, and two different doses of CGA (0.2 and 1?mmol?L(-1)) were applied to the cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to observe alterations in the activation and inactivation properties of the IK,A and IK,V channels. The results demonstrated that 0.2?mmol?L(-1) CGA decreased the peak current density of IK,A. Both 0.2?mmol?L(-1) and 1?mmol?L(-1) CGA also caused a significant reduction in the activation and inactivation thresholds of IK,A and IK,V. CGA exhibited a strong effect on the activation and inactivation velocities of IK,A and IK,V. These findings provide novel evidence explaining the biological effects of CGA, especially regarding its neurological effects.International Journal of Oral Science (2014) 6, doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.58; published online 14 November 2014.
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[Consistency study of PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit and forensic application].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To ensure the consistency of genotype results for PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit.
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Interleukin-21 Responses in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Interleukin (IL)-21 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in controlling chronic viral infections. However, little is known about the regulatory role of IL-21 in T cell immunity during the process of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In the present study, the levels of serum IL-21 in 77 patients with various degrees of CHB in immune clearance phase (IC), 25 patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in immune tolerance phase (IT), and 25 healthy controls (HC) were measured and their potential association with major clinic indexes was examined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CHB patients were stimulated with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in the presence or absence of anti-IL-21 antibody or recombinant IL-21, and the frequency of HBcAg-specific IL-21(+)CD4(+) and interferon (IFN)-?(+)CD8(+) T cells was characterized by flow cytometry. Our data indicated that the levels of serum IL-21 were significantly higher in the IC CHB patients than that in the other groups and were positively correlated with the levels of serum HBV DNA and HBeAg in the IC patients. There was a low frequency of HBcAg-specific IL-21(+)CD4(+) T cells in IC CHB patients. Further, IL-21 enhanced HBcAg-specific IFN-?(+)CD8(+) T cell proliferation, while treatment with anti-IL-21 inhibited antigen-specific IFN-?(+)CD8(+) T cell expansion in vitro. Our findings imply that IL-21 positively regulates proinflammatory IFN-?(+)CD8(+) T cell responses during the process of chronic HBV infection in humans.
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Notolutesins A-J, dolabrane-type diterpenoids from the Chinese liverwort Notoscyphus lutescens.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Ten new dolabrane-type diterpenoids, notolutesins A-J (1-10), were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Notoscyphus lutescens, along with four known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data, and that of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by comparing its experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. All of the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against a small panel of human cancer cell lines, and compound 1 exhibited an IC50 value of 6.2 ?M against the PC3 human prostate cancer cell line.
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Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC) Progressing From Conventional Prostatic Adenocarcinoma: Factors Associated With Time to Development of NEPC and Survival From NEPC Diagnosis-A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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An often under-recognized late manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is the development of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors related to survival after NEPC diagnosis (NEPCS) and time from initial diagnosis of PCa to development of NEPC (TTNEPC).
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Halorussus ruber sp. nov., isolated from an inland salt lake of China.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Halophilic archaeal strain YC25(T) was isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells of strain YC25(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YC25(T) was found to be able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 1.7 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.01 M), and at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 8 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1), galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), and an unknown diglycosyl diether (DGD-2) chromatographically identical to those of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain YC25(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122(T) (94.3-95.4 and 91.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain YC25(T) was determined to be 63.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YC25(T) (=CGMCC 1.12122(T) = JCM 18363(T)) represents a new species of Halorussus, for which the name Halorussus ruber sp. nov. is proposed.
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Comparative genomics of the marine bacterial genus Glaciecola reveals the high degree of genomic diversity and genomic characteristic for cold adaptation.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To what extent the genomes of different species belonging to one genus can be diverse and the relationship between genomic differentiation and environmental factor remain unclear for oceanic bacteria. With many new bacterial genera and species being isolated from marine environments, this question warrants attention. In this study, we sequenced all the type strains of the published species of Glaciecola, a recently defined cold-adapted genus with species from diverse marine locations, to study the genomic diversity and cold-adaptation strategy in this genus.The genome size diverged widely from 3.08 to 5.96 Mb, which can be explained by massive gene gain and loss events. Horizontal gene transfer and new gene emergence contributed substantially to the genome size expansion. The genus Glaciecola had an open pan-genome. Comparative genomic research indicated that species of the genus Glaciecola had high diversity in genome size, gene content and genetic relatedness. This may be prevalent in marine bacterial genera considering the dynamic and complex environments of the ocean. Species of Glaciecola had some common genomic features related to cold adaptation, which enable them to thrive and play a role in biogeochemical cycle in the cold marine environments.
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[The curative effect analysis of combined medical therapy for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of combined medical treatment on auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and the effect of related factors on the prognosis.
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[Identification of coupling relationship between urbanization and ecological environment in Jilin from entropy change perspective].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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By using the entropy change equation of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy method and PSE model, this article made an analysis on coupling relationship between urbanization and ecological environment in Jilin Province from 2001 to 2011. In the study period, the urbanization development had been out of normal evolution track: The economic urbanization and space urbanization dominated the whole urbanization process, while population urbanization was neglected too seriously, with an apparent characteristic of extensive and inefficient input of resources (especially land resource). According to the levels of ecological environment on the basis of PSE model, not only the pressure index, sensitivity index and the elasticity index, but also the comprehensive index showed considerable growth with obvious stage characteristics: ascending-descending-ascending. The total entropy values of the urbanization were less than zero during the time, which meant an unstable rising curve. While the total trophy values of the ecological environment varied below and above zero, and 2003, 2006, 2010 and 2011 were the "turning points", reflecting the instability of the ecological environment. The coupling total entropy values between urbanization and ecological environment had the same characteristics with the ecological environment: the same "turning points" and shape of the curve, in which, the "turning points" corresponded to the type of antagonistic evolution pattern, while the rest of years responded to the type of coordination evolution pattern.
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Two new cadinane-type sesquiterpenes from the Chinese liverwort Frullania serrata.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Two new cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, frullanic acid (1) and frullanic acid methyl ester (2), together with four known bibenzyls, brittonin B (3), 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,5-methylenedioxybibenzyl (4), 3,4,5,3',4'-penlamethoxybibenzyl (5) and (±)-3-(4'-methoxybenzyl)-5,6-dimethoxyphtbalide (6), were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Frullania serrata. The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by analysing the spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and IR). The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra predicted by using time-dependent density functional theory as well as the CD exciton chirality method.
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Halovenus rubra sp. nov., Isolated from Salted Brown Alga Laminaria.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Halophilic archaeal strain R28(T) was isolated from the brown alga Laminaria produced at Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. The cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain R28(T) was able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 42 °C), in the presence of 3.1-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M NaCl), with 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.01 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 15 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were identified as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, and two glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Halovenus aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain R28(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Hvn. aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T) (91.9-97.2 and 82.9 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain R28(T) was determined to be 56.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain R28(T) (=CGMCC 1.10592(T) = JCM 17269(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halovenus, for which the name Halovenus rubra sp. nov. is proposed.
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MicroRNA-581 promotes hepatitis B virus surface antigen expression by targeting Dicer and EDEM1.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is downregulated during hepatocarcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently deregulated in HCC tissues. However, whether the deregulation of certain miRNAs in HCC has an impact on HBsAg expression remains unclear. We found here that microRNA-581 (miR-581), which is deregulated during hepatocarcinogenesis, promoted HBsAg expression. Additionally, miR-581 targeted Dicer and endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein 1 (EDEM1) and repressed their expression. Although Dicer cannot process HBV transcripts, Dicer knockdown led to increased HBsAg secretion, most likely due to a reduction in the levels of Dicer-processed 7SL RNA fragments. Moreover, Dicer-processed 7SL RNA fragments partially inhibited the ability of miR-581 to stimulate HBsAg expression. Furthermore, we found that forced EDEM1 expression inhibited miR-581-mediated induction of HBsAg. Finally, transfection of miR-581 into HepG2.2.15 cells promoted cell proliferation and led to upregulation of genes involved in development, cell proliferation and protein secretion. Altogether, we conclude that miR-581 promotes HBsAg expression by targeting Dicer and EDEM1. Our findings suggest that downregulation of miR-581 during hepatocarcinogenesis may lead to a reduction in HBsAg expression and impede HCC development.
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Different biomechanical design and ecophysiological strategies in juveniles of two liana species with contrasting growth habit.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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• Premise of the study: Lianas constitute a major functional type in tropical zones. While some liana species start climbing immediately after germination (shade-avoidance), others have a long self-supporting phase (shade-tolerance). The morphophysiological characteristics of these two growth habits are unknown.• Methods: We quantified growth traits, biomass allocation, mechanics, anatomy, and hydraulics for saplings of Ventilago calyculata (an immediate obligate climber) and Ziziphus attopensis (having a long self-supporting phase), both in the family Rhamnaceae. The mechanics, anatomy, and hydraulics for the mature individuals of the two species were also evaluated.• Key results: In the juvenile stage, V. calyculata had a higher slenderness ratio, height growth rate, and photosynthetic rate but similar biomass growth rate compared with Z. attopensis. In contrast, Z. attopensis had a higher leaf area growth rate, specific leaf area, and leaf mass fraction. Ziziphus attopensis had stiffer, but less conductive stems than V. calyculata. Stem rigidity of saplings decreased from base to apex in Z. attopensis, but increased in V. calyculata. Both species had similar resistance to xylem embolism. However, the leaves of V. calyculata were able to resist greater water deficits. At the mature stage, wider and longer vessels emerged in the xylem, and both species increased stem specific conductivity and drought resistance in stems and leaves. Ventilago calyculata had significantly higher specific conductivity and was more drought tolerant than Z. attopensis.• Conclusions: The two lianas differed significantly in growth, biomass allocation, anatomy, mechanics, ecophysiology, and hydraulic properties in line with their growth habits and shade adaptation strategies.
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[Effects of different iron oxides on methane emission in paddy soil as related to drying/wetting cycles].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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This study investigated the effects of iron oxides with different crystallinities, ferrihydrite (SF) and hematite (SH), on the methane emission in paddy soil of South China under different water conditions, alternative drying/wetting cycles (DW) and continuous flooding (CF). The rates of methane emission, methane production potential and concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined. Results showed that compared with CF, the average methane emission rate was greatly inhibited by DW over 61%, and the addition of iron oxides reduced methane emission rates by 53%. Under the circumstance of DW and iron oxides addition, the combined inhibition effect on the average methane emission (65%-94%) and methane production potential (57%-93%) was significantly higher than the single effect caused by DW or iron oxides. Interestingly, DW coupling poorly crystalline ferrihydrite (SF-DW, 94%) posed a more significantly inhibitory effect on the methane emission than coupling crystalline hematite (SH-DW, 65%). Statistical analysis showed that there was a significantly negative correlation between the Fe(III) concentrations and the methane emission rates (R2 = -0.98, P < 0.01). Experimental results showed that DW facilitated the cyclic regeneration of Fe(III), and the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle in poorly crystalline ferrihydrite was more susceptible to DW than hematite. This study suggested that alternative drying/wetting cycles can remarkably enhance the inhibitory effect of iron oxides on methane emission from paddy soil, and the coupled suppression effect of DW and poorly crystalline ferrihydrite is more obvious than the coupled effect of DW and crystalline hematite.
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[Effect of different acupoint prescriptions on prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcer].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To investigate the effects of different acupoint combination on prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcer and to search for a better acupoint combination.
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Water-use advantage for lianas over trees in tropical seasonal forests.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Lianas exhibit peak abundance in tropical forests with strong seasonal droughts, the eco-physiological mechanisms associated with lianas coping with water deficits are poorly understood. We examined soil water partitioning, sap flow, and canopy eco-physiological properties for 99 individuals of 15 liana and 34 co-occurring tree species in three tropical forests that differed in soil water availability. In the dry season, lianas used a higher proportion of deep soil water in the karst forest (KF; an area with severe seasonal soil water deficit (SSWD)) and in the tropical seasonal forest (TSF, moderate SSWD), permitting them to maintain a comparable leaf water status than trees in the TSF or a better status than trees in the KF. Lianas exhibited strong stomatal control to maximize carbon fixation while minimizing dry season water loss. During the dry period, lianas significantly decreased water consumption in the TSF and the KF. Additionally, lianas had a much higher maximum photosynthetic rates and sap flux density in the wet season and a lower proportional decline in photosynthesis in the dry season compared with those of trees. Our results indicated that access to deep soil water and strong physiological adjustments in the dry season together with active wet-season photosynthesis may explain the high abundance of lianas in seasonally dry forests.
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Upregulated dynamin 1 in an acute seizure model and in epileptic patients.
Synapse
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Dynamin 1 is a neuron-specific guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that is an essential component of membrane fission during synaptic vesicle recycling and endocytosis. This study evaluated the dynamin 1 expression pattern in the acute lithium-pilocarpine rat model and in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated whether altering the dynamin 1 expression pattern affects epileptic seizures in vivo and in vitro. The immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR results show that the dynamin 1 expression level increased significantly in experimental rats from day 1 to day 7 after the onset of seizures and was significantly higher in TLE patients. The behavioral study revealed that inhibiting dynamin 1 increased the latency time of the first seizure and decreased the frequency and severity of the seizures. In addition, electrophysiological recordings from brain slices showed that inhibiting dynamin 1 reduces the frequency of Mg-free induced seizure-like activity. The anticonvulsant effect of dynasore was more effective at 10 µM than at 1 µM or 160 µM. These results indicate that the altered level of dynamin 1 may contribute to the development of epileptic seizures and that the targeted regulation of dynamin 1 activity may control epileptic seizures. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Effects of moderate static magnetic fields on the voltage-gated sodium and calcium channel currents in trigeminal ganglion neurons.
Electromagn Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Abstract Aim: To study the effects of static magnetic fields (SMF) on the electrophysiological properties of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels on trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons. Methods: Acutely dissociated TRG neurons of neonatal SD rats were exposed to 125-mT and 12.5-mT SMF in exposure devices and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out to observe the changes of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and calcium channels (VGCC) currents, while laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to detect intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration in TRG neurons, respectively. Results: (1) No obvious change of current-voltage (I-V) relationship and the peak current densities of VGSC and VGCC currents were found when TRG neurons were exposed to 125-mT and 12.5-mT SMF. However, the activation threshold, inactivation threshold and velocity of the channel currents above were significantly altered by 125-mT and 12.5-mT SMF. (2) The fluctuation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration within TRG neurons were slowed by 125-mT and 12.5-mT SMF. When SMF was removed, the Ca(2+) concentration level showed partial recovery in the TRG neurons previously exposed by 125-mT SMF, while there was a full recovery found in 12.5-mT-SMF-exposed neurons. Conclusions: Moderate-intensity SMF could affect the electrophysiological characteristics of VGCS and VGCC by altering their activation and inactivation threshold and velocity. The fluctuations of intracellular free Ca(2+) caused by SMF exposure were not permanent in TRG neurons.
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Chlorpromazine confers neuroprotection against brain ischemia by activating BKCa channel.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a well-known antipsychotic drug, still widely being used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia, psychotic depression and organic psychoses. We have previously reported that CPZ activates the BKCa (KCa1.1) channel at whole cell level. In the present study, we demonstrated that CPZ increased the single channel open probability of the BKCa channels without changing its single channel amplitude. As BKCa channel is one of the molecular targets of brain ischemia, we explored a possible new use of this old drug on ischemic brain injury. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) focal cerebral ischemia, a single intraperitoneal injection of CPZ at several dosages (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) could exert a significant neuroprotective effect on the brain damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockade of BKCa channels abolished the neuroprotective effect of CPZ on MCAO, suggesting that the effect of CPZ is mediated by activation of the BKCa channel. These results demonstrate that CPZ could reduce focal cerebral ischemic damage through activating BKCa channels and merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating ischemic stroke.
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Aquisalimonas halophila sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a hypersaline mine.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A Gram-negative, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic strain, designated YIM 95345(T), was isolated from a soil sample of a hypersaline mine in Yunnan province, PR China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 95345(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 30-35 °C), 3.0-23.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10.0-11.0%, w/v) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism belongs to the genus Aquisalimonas and exhibited sequence similarity of 96.6% to the sole type strain Aquisalimonas asiatica CG12(T). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ?8c and C18 : 1?7c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, three aminolipids and three unidentified phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 59.4 mol%. Based on the results of our comparative phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, the new isolate is assigned to a novel species of the genus Aquisalimonas, for which the name Aquisalimonas halophila sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain YIM 95345(T) (?= DSM 25902(T)?= CCTCC AB 2012043(T)).
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Ultraviolet C upconversion fluorescence of trivalent erbium in BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor excited by a visible commercial light-emitting diode.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Multiple ultraviolet (UV) emission bands have been obtained in Er3+ doped BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor under the excitation of a 532 nm solid-state laser, and the emission peaks at 217, 254, 278, 296, 314, 348, 374 and 394 nm were determined to stem from the high-energy states 4D(1/2), 4D(7/2), 2H(9/2), 2P(1/2), 2P(3/2), 4G(7/2), 4G(11/2), 4H(9/2) of trivalent erbium, respectively. Some UV emission bands in the UVC region can be observed when the sample was excited by commercial green (529 nm) and blue (460 nm) LED. In view of the small size, low-drive voltage and price of LED, UVC upconversion phosphor BaGd2ZnO5:Er3+ excited by visible LED has potential application in environmental sciences.
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High-throughput absolute quantification of proteins using an improved two-dimensional reversed-phase separation and quantification concatemer (QconCAT) approach.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Stable isotope dilution-selective reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SID-SRM-MS) has been widely used for the absolute quantitative analysis of proteins. However, when performing the large-scale absolute quantification of proteins from a more complex tissue sample, such as mouse liver, in addition to a high-throughput approach for the preparation and calibration of large amounts of stable-isotope-labelled internal standards, a more powerful separation method prior to SRM analysis is also urgently needed. To address these challenges, a high-throughput absolute quantification strategy based on an improved two-dimensional reversed-phase (2D RP) separation and quantification concatemer (QconCAT) approach is presented in this study. This strategy can be used to perform the simultaneous quantification of hundreds of proteins from mouse liver within one week of total MS measurement time. By using calibrated synthesised peptides from the protein glutathione S-transferase (GST), large amounts of GST-tagged QconCAT internal standards corresponding to hundreds of proteins can be accurately and rapidly quantified. Additionally, using an improved 2D RP separation method, a mixture containing a digested sample and QconCAT standards can be efficiently separated and absolutely quantified. When a maximum gradient of 72 min is employed in the first LC dimension, resulting in 72 fractions, identification and absolute quantification experiments for all fractions can be completed within one week of total MS measurement time. The quantification approach developed here can further extend the dynamic range and increase the analytical sensitivity of SRM analysis of complex tissue samples, thereby helping to increase the coverage of absolute quantification in a whole proteome.
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Salinigranum rubrum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Halobacteriaceae isolated from a marine solar saltern.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Halophilic archaeal strain GX10(T) was isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern in China. Strain GX10(T) was observed to have pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and produced red-pigmented colonies. Strain GX10(T) was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), with 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M NaCl), with 0-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2) and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The major polar lipids of strain GX10(T) were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and mannosyl glucosyl diether, and five unidentified glycolipids. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions based on 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' sequences revealed that strain GX10(T) was distinct from the related genera, Halogranum, Haloferax, Halopelagius, Halogeometricum, Halobellus, Haloplanus and Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of strain GX10(T) was 62.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain GX10(T) represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, for which the name Salinigranum rubrum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is GX10(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10385(T)?=?JCM 17116(T)).
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Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice.
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Halomicroarcula limicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern, and emended description of the genus Halomicroarcula.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Halophilic archaeal strain YGHS32T was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain YGHS32T was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), in the presence of 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M NaCl), with 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.3 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.5). The minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 5% (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and four major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, mannosyl glucosyl diether, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and a diglycosyl diether. Strain YGHS32T had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and both of them were phylogenetically related to those of Halomicroarcula pellucida JCM 17820T (92.9-96.3% sequence similarity). The rpoB' gene sequence similarity between strain YGHS32T and Halomicroarcula pellucida JCM 17820T was 91.3%. The DNA G+C content of strain YGHS32T was 64.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YGHS32T and Halomicroarcula pellucida JCM 17820T was 45%. It was concluded that strain YGHS32T (=CGMCC 1.12129T=JCM 18640T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomicroarcula, for which the name Halomicroarcula limicola sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Halomicroarcula is also presented.
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Haloarchaeobius litoreus sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Two extremely halophilic archaeal strains GX1(T) and GX60 were isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern, China. Cells from the two strains were observed to be rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative, with red-pigmented colonies. Strains GX1(T) and GX60 were found to be able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6 M), at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and neither strain required Mg(2+) for growth. The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was found to be 8 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and three glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Haloarchaeobius iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T). 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that each strain had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and both strains were phylogenetically related to Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) (94.9-98.9 % nucleotide identity). The rpoB' gene similarity between strains GX1(T) and GX60, and between these strains and Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) were found to be 99.6, 96.0 and 95.8 %, respectively. The DNA G + C content of strain GX1(T) and GX60 were determined to be 67.7 and 67.8 mol %, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value of strains GX1(T) and GX60 was 86 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) (38 and 32 %). It was concluded that strain GX1(T) (= CGMCC 1.10390(T) = JCM 17114(T)) and strain GX60 (= CGMCC 1.10389 = JCM 17120) represent a new species of Haloarchaeobius, for which the name Haloarchaeobius litoreus sp. nov. is proposed.
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Overexpression of myocardin induces partial transdifferentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes.
Physiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show superior proliferative capacity and therapeutic potential than those derived from bone marrow (BM). Ectopic expression of myocardin further improved the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. The aim was of this study was to assess whether forced myocardin expression in iPSC-MSCs could further enhance their transdifferentiation to cardiomyocytes and improve their electrophysiological properties for cardiac regeneration. Myocardin was overexpressed in iPSC-MSCs using viral vectors (adenovirus or lentivirus). The expression of smooth muscle cell and cardiomyocyte markers, and ion channel genes was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence staining and patch clamp. The conduction velocity of the neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes cocultured with iPSC-MSC monolayer was measured by multielectrode arrays recording plate. Myocardin induced the expression of ?-MHC, GATA4, ?-actinin, cardiac MHC, MYH11, calponin, and SM ?-actin, but not cTnT, ?-MHC, and MLC2v in iPSC-MSCs. Overexpression of myocardin in iPSC-MSC enhanced the expression of SCN9A and CACNA1C, but reduced that of KCa3.1 and Kir2.2 in iPSC-MSCs. Moreover, BKCa, IKir, ICl, Ito and INa.TTX were detected in iPSC-MSC with myocardin overexpression; while only BKCa, IKir, ICl, IKDR, and IKCa were noted in iPSC-MSC transfected with green florescence protein. Furthermore, the conduction velocity of iPSC-MSC was significantly increased after myocardin overexpression. Overexpression of myocardin in iPSC-MSCs resulted in partial transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes phenotype and improved the electrical conduction during integration with mature cardiomyocytes.
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Response surface optimization of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction procedure for the water-soluble polysaccharides from the fruit of Lycium barbarum was investigated and optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three-level four-factor Box Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions inlcluding extraction time, ultrasonic output power, cellulose concentration and extraction temperature. The experimental data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The optimized conditions were as follows: extraction time 20.29 min, ultrasonic output power 78.6 W, cellulose concentration 2.15%, extraction temperature 55.79°C. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 6.31±0.03%, which matched with the predictive yield of 6.32% well.
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Removal and mechanism of Cu (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous single-metal solutions by a novel biosorbent from waste-activated sludge.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The removal and mechanism of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous single-metal solutions were investigated by using a novel biosorbent from waste-activated sludge. A series of adsorption experiments was designed to disclose the effects of the key factors on the adsorption capacity of the biosorbent for the metal ions. The mass ratio of the biosorbent to metal ion was optimized as 2 to balance the adsorption capacity and the removal efficiency. A right shaking speed (150 r/min) not only ensured enough contact frequency between the sorbent and the adsorbate but also reduced the mass transfer resistance. The natural pH value (about 5.5) of the metal solutions benefited a high adsorption capacity of the biosorbent and avoided the consumption of acid or base for pH adjustment. The adsorption reactions belonged to the endothermic process between 15 and 45 °C. As the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed, the meshy structure with long chains and many branches was ideal for the biosorbent to quickly capture the metal ions. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra confirmed that the adsorbed metal ions lay in the precipitates of the adsorption reactions. According to the FTIR analyses, the functional groups responsible for Cu(2+) adsorption majorly consisted of O-H, N-H, COOH, CONH2, and the groups containing sulfur and phosphorus, while those for Cd(2+) adsorption contained O-H, N-H, COOH, and CONH2. The differences in the responsible functional groups explained the phenomenon that the adsorption capacity of the biosorbent for Cu(2+) was higher than that for Cd(2+).
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Wnt inhibitory factor-1 functions as a tumor suppressor through modulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling in neuroblastoma.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood and is associated with serious morbidity and mortality. The effective treatment of neuroblastoma remains one of the major challenges in pediatric oncology. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of adult and pediatric tumors. WIF-1 has been identified as an important Wnt antagonist which inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling by directly binding to Wnt proteins. However, the expression and function of WIF-1 in neuroblastoma remains unknown. The present study showed that WIF-1 was downregulated with high level promoter methylation in neuroblastoma cells, and was significantly upregulated after exposure to demethylating agent. This finding suggests that downregulation of WIF-1 was associated with its promoter methylation in neuroblastoma. To further study the potential function of WIF-1 in neuroblastoma, we constructed a plasmid that over-expressed WIF-1 and transfected the plasmid into one neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. We found that restoration of WIF-1 inhibited the growth and proliferation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Moreover, Wnt/?-catenin signaling activity and target genes expression were reduced by WIF-1 restoration. These results provide support that WIF-1 is downregulated and functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing Wnt/?-catenin signaling in neuroblastoma, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.
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Auditory sexual difference in the large odorous frog Odorrana graminea.
J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural. Behav. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Acoustic communication is an important behavior in frog courtship. Male and female frogs of most species, except the concave-eared torrent frog Odorrana tormota, have largely similar audiograms. The large odorous frogs (Odorrana graminea) are sympatric with O. tormota, but have no ear canals. The difference in hearing between two sexes of the frog is unknown. We recorded auditory evoked near-field potentials and single-unit responses from the auditory midbrain (the torus semicircularis) to determine auditory frequency sensitivity and threshold. The results show that males have the upper frequency limit at 24 kHz and females have the upper limit at 16 kHz. The more sensitive frequency range is 3-15 kHz for males and 1-8 kHz for females. Males have the minimum threshold at 11 kHz (58 dB SPL), higher about 5 dB than that at 3 kHz for females. The best excitatory frequencies of single units are mostly between 3 and 5 kHz in females and at 7-8 kHz in males. The underlying mechanism of auditory sexual differences is discussed.
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Halorubrum salinum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The halophilic archaeal strain GX71(T) was isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern near the Weihai city of Shandong Province, China. Cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain GX71(T) was able to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), in the presence of 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6 M NaCl), with 0.005-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-3) and an unidentified lipid was also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GX71(T) showed 94.0-97.0 % similarity to members of the genus Halorubrum of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene sequence of strain GX71(T) was 87.3-93.4 % similarity to current members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of GX71(T) was 67.1 mol%. Strain GX71(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halorubrum lipolyticum CGMCC 1.5332(T), Halorubrum saccharovorum CGMCC 1.2147(T), Halorubrum kocurii CGMCC 1.7018(T) and Halorubrum arcis CGMCC 1.5343(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain GX71(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum salinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GX71(T) (= CGMCC 1.10458(T) = JCM 17093(T)).
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The phenotype and tissue-specific nature of multipotent cells derived from human mature adipocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have been considered to be a homogeneous group of multipotent cells, which present to be an alternative source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine. However, many aspects of the cellular nature about DFAT cells remained unclarified. This study aimed to elucidate the basic characteristics of DFAT cells underlying their functions and differentiation potentials. By modified ceiling culture technique, DFAT cells were converted from human mature adipocytes from the human buccal fat pads. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that those derived cells were a homogeneous population of CD13(+) CD29(+) CD105(+) CD44(+) CD31(-) CD34(-) CD309(-) ?-SMA(-) cells. DFAT cells in this study demonstrated tissue-specific differentiation properties with strong adipogenic but much weaker osteogenic capacity. Neither did they express endothelial markers under angiogenic induction.
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ZnO nanowire arrays on 3D hierachical graphene foam: biomarker detection of Parkinson's disease.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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We report that vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO NWAs) were fabricated on 3D graphene foam (GF) and used to selectively detect uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), and ascorbic acid (AA) by a differential pulse voltammetry method. The optimized ZnO NWA/GF electrode provided a high surface area and high selectivity with a detection limit of 1 nM for UA and DA. The high selectivity in the oxidation potential was explained by the gap difference between the lowest unoccupied and highest occupied molecular orbitals of a biomolecule for a set of given electrodes. This method was further used to detect UA levels in the serum of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The UA level was 25% lower in PD patients than in healthy individuals. This finding strongly implies that UA can be used as a biomarker for PD.
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Biflavanones with anti-proliferative activity against eight human solid tumor cell lines from Stellera chamaejasme.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Six 3,3?-biflavanones, including a new compound isochamaejasmenin C (1), were isolated from EtOH extracts of the roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations on 2, 3, 3?, and 2? of compounds 1, 3, and 6, which represent three geometry types of these compounds, were determined by TDDFT quantum chemical calculations of their ECD spectra. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against eight human solid tumor cell lines and compounds 2, 4, and 6 showed strong anti-proliferative effects against all these cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.08 to 15.97 ?M, which were in the same range as the positive control paclitaxel.
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Structure-activity relationship of Baifuzi-cerebrosides on BKCa channel activation.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Our previous study reported that a mixture of cerebrosides from traditional Chinese medicine Baifuzi could activate BKCa channel. It is curious to know the effect of each single cerebroside on the channel. Here we isolated 5 pure cerebrosides from the mixture and determined their chemical structures. The most potent one increased the single channel open probability 6 folds with EC50 value of 1.0 ?M. The structure-activity relationship revealed that acyl chain length of cerebrosides has potent effect, while configuration of double bond at C8-C9 on their long chain base has weak effect on the channel activity. Thus, this research provides a guide for design and synthesis of a lead cerebroside with more potent effect on the BKCa channel.
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Risk factors for idiopathic optic neuritis recurrence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Approximately 30-50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION) patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence.
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Size-class effect contributes to tree species assembly through influencing dispersal in tropical forests.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of trees. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining species-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used tree species data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the species level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the species and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape species' distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to species assembly and enhances our understanding of species coexistence.
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Genome-wide linkage study suggests a susceptibility locus for isolated bilateral microtia on 4p15.32-4p16.2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Microtia is a congenital deformity where the external ear is underdeveloped. Genetic investigations have identified many susceptibility genes of microtia-related syndromes. However, no causal genes were reported for isolated microtia, the main form of microtia. We conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis on a 5-generation Chinese pedigree with isolated bilateral microtia. We identified a suggestive linkage locus on 4p15.32-4p16.2 with parametric LOD score of 2.70 and nonparametric linkage score (Zmean) of 12.28 (simulated occurrence per genome scan equal to 0.46 and 0.47, respectively). Haplotype reconstruction analysis of the 4p15.32-4p16.2 region further confined the linkage signal to a 10-Mb segment located between rs12505562 and rs12649803 (9.65-30.24 cM; 5.54-15.58 Mb). Various human organ developmental genes reside in this 10-Mb susceptibility region, such as EVC, EVC2, SLC2A9, NKX3-2, and HMX1. The coding regions of three genes, EVC known for cartilage development and NKX3-2, HMX1 involved in microtia, were selected for sequencing with 5 individuals from the pedigree. Of the 38 identified sequence variants, none segregates along with the disease phenotype. Other genes or DNA sequences of the 10-Mb region warrant for further investigation. In conclusion, we report a susceptibility locus of isolated microtia, and this finding will encourage future studies on the genetic basis of ear deformity.
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Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex.
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Identification of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) self-incompatibility.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7-36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03-56.50% and 0.04-87.50, respectively. The cultivar "Q10-33-1" had the highest seed set (56.50%) and compatible index (87.50), but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0-37.23%) and compatible index (0-68.65). The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.
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Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.
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[Modified TRIzol method for RNA and DNA co-extraction from blood].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To establish a new method for RNA and DNA co-extraction from the same sample by TRIzol reagent.
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[Genetic polymorphisms of 16 non-CODIS STR loci in Beijing Han population].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 16 non-CODIS loci (D6S477, D22-GATA198B05, D15S659, D8S1132, D3S3045, D17S1290, D14S608, D2S441, D18S535, D13S325, D10S1435, DlS2368, DIS1656, D7S3048, D10S1248 and D19S253) in Beijing Han population.
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[Evaluation outcome of actinobacteria diversity in saline environment influenced by different DNA extraction methods].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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To evaluate the influence of DNA extraction methods on the actinobacteria diversity analysis in saline environment via 16S rDNA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.
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Ultrasound-promoted extraction of cheap microbial flocculant from waste activated sludge.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Ultrasound was uniquely applied to promote the extraction of cheap microbial flocculant (MBF) from waste activated sludge (WAS) of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Various influencing factors, including ultrasonic conditions (frequency, power density and treatment time) and WAS features (pH, concentration and source), were systematically investigated. The propitious ultrasonic conditions for MBF preparation from WAS were 20 kHz, 2.1 to 2.7 kW/L and 1 to 3 min. Natural sludge pH (about 7) was preferable to the MBF preparation. The major components of the extracted MBF contained polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. The yield of the extracted MBF increased with rising sludge concentration. The wide application potential of the developed method was testified by the successful MBF extraction from the WAS samples of four full-scale municipal WWTPs with different typical processes. The ultrasonic method applied to extract MBF from WAS would not only provide a new way for WAS resource reuse, but also markedly cut down the cost of MBF preparation.
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More intense experiences, less intense forecasts: Why people overweight probability specifications in affective forecasts.
J Pers Soc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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We propose that affective forecasters overestimate the extent to which experienced hedonic responses to an outcome are influenced by the probability of its occurrence. The experience of an outcome (e.g., winning a gamble) is typically more affectively intense than the simulation of that outcome (e.g., imagining winning a gamble) upon which the affective forecast for it is based. We suggest that, as a result, experiencers allocate a larger share of their attention toward the outcome (e.g., winning the gamble) and less to its probability specifications than do affective forecasters. Consequently, hedonic responses to an outcome are less sensitive to its probability specifications than are affective forecasts for that outcome. The results of 6 experiments provide support for our theory. Affective forecasters overestimated how sensitive experiencers would be to the probability of positive and negative outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Consistent with our attentional account, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications disappeared when the attention of forecasters was diverted from probability specifications (Experiment 3) or when the attention of experiencers was drawn toward probability specifications (Experiment 4). Finally, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications between forecasters and experiencers were diminished when the forecasted outcome was more affectively intense (Experiments 5 and 6). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Members of the haloarchaeal genera Halosarcina and Halogeometricum (family Halobacteriaceae) are closely related to each other and show 96.6-98?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. This is higher than the accepted threshold value (95?%) to separate two genera, and a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach of all four members of the two genera was conducted to clarify their relationships. Polar lipid profiles indicated that Halogeometricum rufum RO1-4(T), Halosarcina pallida BZ256(T) and Halosarcina limi RO1-6(T) are related more to each other than to Halogeometricum borinquense CGMCC 1.6168(T). Phylogenetic analyses using the sequences of three different genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB and EF-2) strongly supported the monophyly of these four species, showing that they formed a distinct clade, separate from the related genera Halopelagius, Halobellus, Haloquadratum, Haloferax and Halogranum. The results indicate that the four species should be assigned to the same genus, and it is proposed that Halosarcina pallida and Halosarcina limi be transferred to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov. (type strain, BZ256(T)?=?KCTC 4017(T)?=?JCM 14848(T)) and Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. (type strain, RO1-6(T)?=?CGMCC 1.8711(T)?=?JCM 16054(T)).
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cis-clerodane diterpenes from the liverwort Scapania ciliata.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Chemical investigation of the Chinese liverwort Scapania ciliata led to the isolation of four new cis-clerodane lactones, named ciliatolides A-D (1-4, resp.), among which compound 1 was found to be a tetranorclerodanoid. Their structures were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, and, in the case of compound 1, together with a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configurations were established by analysis of the CD spectra and by quantum-chemical CD calculations. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1-4 were preliminarily tested against the PC3 and MCF-7 cell lines.
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[A novel method for absolute protein quantification using 18O isotope labeled concatamers of Q peptides combined with isotope dilution-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A method of concatamers of Q peptides (QconCATs) protein labeled with 18O-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for absolute quantification of proteins is established. The purity of the QconCAT recombinant protein was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and its purity was above 99%. The relative molecular mass was approximately 63.4 kDa. The peptides digested from the QconCAT recombinant protein and the extract of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TTE) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The raw data were processed by pFind and pLabel softwares. The results showed that the efficiencies of protein digestion and the 18O labeling efficiency were able to meet the need of the protein quantification. The performance of the method was evaluated. The absolute contents of the selected proteins in TTE were determined with the relative standard deviations of less than 20% and the accuracy is high. The method not only avoid using the expensive reagent of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), but also provides an alternative way for the accurately absolute quantification of proteins in biological samples for quantitative proteomic research.
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[Differences and clinical significance of receptor expression between primary and locally recurrent breast tumor tissues].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To compare the difference of receptor expression between primary and locally recurrent breast tumor tissues, and analyze their impact on survival of the patients.
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Energetic Salts Based on an Oxygen-Containing Cation: 2,4-Diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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A family of energetic salts with high thermal stability and low impact sensitivity based on an oxygen-containing cation, 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one, were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and multinuclear ((1) H, (13) C) NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Insights into their sensitivities towards impact, friction, and electrostatics were gained by submitting the materials to standard tests. The structures of 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one nitrate, 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one sulfate, 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one perchlorate, 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one 5-nitrotetrazolate were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction; their densities are 1.691, 1.776, 1.854, and 1.636?g?cm(-3) , respectively. Most of the salts decompose at temperatures over 180?°C; in particular, the salts 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one nitrate and 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-6-one perchlorate, which decompose at 303.3 and 336.4?°C, respectively, are fairly stable. Furthermore, most of the salts exhibit excellent impact sensitivities (>40?J), friction sensitivities (>360?N), and are insensitive to electrostatics. The measured densities of these energetic salts range from 1.64 to 2.01?g?cm(-3) . The detonation pressure values calculated for these salts range from 14.6 to 29.2?GPa, and the detonation velocities range from 6536 to 8275?m?s(-1) ; these values make the salts potential candidates for thermally stable and insensitive energetic materials.
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Accelerating the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy induction by europium hydroxide nanorods.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Autophagy is one of the well-known pathways to accelerate the clearance of protein aggregates, which contributes to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Although there are numerous reports that demonstrate the induction of autophagy with small molecules including rapamycin, trehalose and lithium, however, there are few reports mentioning the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins through autophagy induction by nanoparticles. In the present article, we have demonstrated that europium hydroxide [Eu(III)(OH)3] nanorods can reduce huntingtin protein aggregation (EGFP-tagged huntingtin protein with 74 polyQ repeats), responsible for neurodegenerative diseases. Again, we have found that these nanorods induce authentic autophagy flux in different cell lines (Neuro 2a, PC12 and HeLa cells) through the expression of higher levels of characteristic autophagy marker protein LC3-II and degradation of selective autophagy substrate/cargo receptor p62/SQSTM1. Furthermore, depression of protein aggregation clearance through the autophagy blockade has also been observed by using specific inhibitors (wortmannin and chloroquine), indicating that autophagy is involved in the degradation of huntingtin protein aggregation. Since [Eu(III)(OH)3] nanorods can enhance the degradation of huntingtin protein aggregation via autophagy induction, we strongly believe that these nanorods would be useful for the development of therapeutic treatment strategies for various neurodegenerative diseases in near future using nanomedicine approach.
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Secondary metabolites from the Chinese liverwort Cephaloziella kiaeri.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Sixteen new clerodane diterpenoids, cephaloziellins A-P (1-16), and two known analogues (17 and 18) were isolated from an EtOH extract of the Chinese liverwort Cephaloziella kiaeri. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated from extensive spectroscopic data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR), and the structures of 5, 9, and 15 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The absolute configurations of all new compounds were established by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra.
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Hepatitis B surface antigen inhibits MICA and MICB expression via induction of cellular miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and HBsAg-transgenic mice have been reported to spontaneously develop HCC. The major histocompatibility complex class I-related molecules A and B (MICA and MICB) are NKG2D ligands that play important roles in tumor immune surveillance. In the present study, we found that HBsAg overexpression in HepG2 cells led to upregulation of 133 and downregulation of 9 microRNAs (miRNAs). Interestingly, several HBsAg-induced miRNAs repressed the expression of MICA and MICB via targeting their 3-untranslated regions. In addition, the expression of MICA and MICB was significantly reduced upon HBsAg overexpression, which was partially restored by inhibiting the activities of HBsAg-induced miRNAs. Moreover, HBsAg-overexpressing HCC cells exhibited reduced sensitivity to natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis. Taken together, our data suggest that HBsAg supresses the expression of MICA and MICB via induction of cellular miRNAs, thereby preventing NKG2D-mediated elimination of HCC cells.
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Unit asking: a method to boost donations and beyond.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The solicitation of charitable donations costs billions of dollars annually. Here, we introduce a virtually costless method for boosting charitable donations to a group of needy persons: merely asking donors to indicate a hypothetical amount for helping one of the needy persons before asking donors to decide how much to donate for all of the needy persons. We demonstrated, in both real fund-raisers and scenario-based research, that this simple unit-asking method greatly increases donations for the group of needy persons. Different from phenomena such as the foot-in-the-door and identifiable-victim effects, the unit-asking effect arises because donors are initially scope insensitive and subsequently scope consistent. The method applies to both traditional paper-based fund-raisers and increasingly popular Web-based fund-raisers and has implications for domains other than fund-raisers, such as auctions and budget proposals. Our research suggests that a subtle manipulation based on psychological science can generate a substantial effect in real life.
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[Preparation of a trypsin immobilized reactor on silver wire modified by atom transfer radical polymer and its application in proteome identification].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The routine proteolysis of proteins is performed in solution, but it suffers from drawbacks such as long incubation time, enzyme autodigestion, and non-reusability. Therefore we here demonstrated that trypsin could be immobilized on silver wire modified by atom transfer radical polymerization to prepare a new kind of enzyme immobilized reactor. The digestion efficiency, repeatability and recovery of the silver wire-trypsin reactor (SW-Trypsin) were evaluated by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Highly efficient digestion was achieved by using SW-Trypsin within only 20 min. Standard protein could be almost completely digested with sequence coverage up to 93%, which is higher than that of 79% sequence coverage obtained by in-solution digestion for 16 h. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was digested eight times within a month by using the SW-Trypsin. The results of sequence coverage were between 89% to 97%, with an average sequence coverage of 94%, which showed that SW-Trypsin had good stability. In addition, the recovery test by using myoglobin (MYO) showed that the recovery rate was 87.67%. At last, the extract from Tengchong thermophilic bacteria was digested by SW-Trypsin in 20 min and in-solution trypsin in 16 h. The results of sequence coverages and the number of identified proteins were similar. Moreover, the ratio of the number of peptides with zero missed cleavages to the number of all identified peptides by using SW-Trypsin was higher than that by in-solution digestion. Also, the SW-Trypsin was easily removed from the digestion solution. Good performances of SW-Trypsin implied that it has a good prospect in the application in future proteomics research.
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Haloplanus salinus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from a Chinese marine solar saltern.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Halophilic archaeal strain YGH66(T) was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near the Sanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells were pleomorphic, flat, stained Gram-negative, and produced pink-pigmented colonies. Strain YGH66(T) was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M NaCl), at 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2), and at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells of strain YGH66(T) were lysed in distilled water, and the minimum NaCl concentration that prevented cell lysis was 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, one major glycolipid (GL1) chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and a minor unidentified lipid (GL2), respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YGH66(T) was closely related to Haloplanus natans JCM 14081(T), Haloplanus aerogenes TBN37(T), and Haloplanus vescus RO5-8(T) with the similarities of 98.0, 97.6, and 96.9 %, respectively. The rpoB gene similarity between strain YGH66(T) and the current three members of Haloplanus were 90.4-92.8 %. The DNA G+C content of strain YGH66(T) was 67.2 mol %. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YGH66(T) and three members of Haloplanus, H. natans JCM 14081(T), H. aerogenes TBN37(T), H. vescus RO5-8(T) were 50, 46 and 39 %, respectively. It was concluded that strain YGH66(T) represents a novel species of the genus Haloplanus, for which the name Haloplanus salinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YGH66(T) (=CGMCC 1.12127(T) = JCM 18368(T)).
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Halorubrum rubrum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from a Chinese salt lake.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
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Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC87(T) and YCA11, were isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells of the two strains were observed to be pleomorphic rod-shaped, stained Gram-negative and produced red-pigmented colonies. Strain YC87(T) was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M NaCl), at 0.05-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.3 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) while strain YCA11 was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 2.1-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M NaCl), at 0.01-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The cells of both isolates were observed to lyse in distilled water. The minimum NaCl concentrations that prevented cell lysis were determined to be 8 % (w/v) for strain YC87(T) and 12 % (w/v) for strain YCA11. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether; another major glycolipid and trace amounts of several unidentified lipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.8 % identical, showing 93.2-98.2 % similarity to members of the genus Halorubrum of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB gene similarity between strains YC87(T) and YCA11 was 99.3 % and showed 87.5-95.2 % similarity to the closest relative members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of strains YC87(T) and YCA11 were determined to be 64.9 and 64.5 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain YC77 was 87 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halorubrum cibi JCM 15757(T) and Halorubrum aquaticum CGMCC 1.6377(T), the most related members of the genus Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC87(T) and YCA11 represent a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum rubrum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC87(T) (=CGMCC 1.12124(T) = JCM 18365(T)).
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A high ratio of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves obesity-linked inflammation and insulin resistance through suppressing activation of TLR4 in SD rats.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Dietary ratios of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in controlling markers of metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and lipid profiles, which are also presumed to be partly related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, molecular mechanisms of the different PUFAs related to metabolic disorders have not been systematically addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios on obesity and IR and, further, to determine the underlying mechanisms. For 16 weeks, 32 SD male rats, randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 per group), received one of the following diets: normal chow, high saturated fatty acid (SFA), high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (1?1, PUFA¹:¹), or low n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (1?4, PUFA¹:?). Following the experimental diet period, metabolic parameters related to obesity and IR were measured. Compared to SFA diet-fed rats, PUFA¹:¹ diet-fed rats exhibited decreased body and visceral fat weight, lowered blood lipids, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Moreover, the TLR4 protein and mRNA levels were markedly down-regulated by PUFA¹:¹ compared with SFA; however, PUFA¹:? diet-fed rats failed to exhibit these changes. Cumulatively, our data highlight a role for a PUFA¹:¹ diet in the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders by suppressing the activation of TLR4, a critical modulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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Halobellus litoreus sp. nov., a Halophilic Archaeon Isolated from a Chinese Marine Solar Saltern.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Halophilic archaeal strain GX31(T) was isolated from a marine solar saltern of China. The cells of the strain were rod-shaped and lysed in distilled water, stain Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. It was neutrophilic, and required at least 0.9 M NaCl and 0-1.0 M MgCl2 for growth under the optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), PG phosphate methyl ester, PG sulphate, and two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulphated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1) and mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), respectively. Trace amounts of two unidentified lipids were also detected. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GX31(T) was closely related to the members of Halobellus of the family Halobacteriaceae with similarities of 94.1-98.7 %. Strain GX31(T) showed 89.8-95.4 % of the rpoB gene similarity to the members of Halobellus. The DNA G+C content of strain GX31(T) was 66.8 mol%. Strain GX31(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with two most related members of the genus Halobellus. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain GX31(T) represent a novel species of the genus Halobellus, for which the name Halobellus litoreus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GX31(T) (=CGMCC 1.10387(T) = JCM 17118(T)).
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Enhancement of polydatin on inward rectifier potassium channel current in rat ventricular myocytes.
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polydatin on transient outward potassium channel current (Ito), steady-state outward potassium channel current (Iss) and inward rectifier potassium channel current (IK1) in ventricular myocytes of rat using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed: (1) Polydatin (above 10 µmol/L) increased IK1 of ventricular myocytes in a non-concentration dependent manner. (2) Polydatin neither had any effect on Ito peak current of ventricular myocytes, nor changed activation, inactivation and recovery kinetics of Ito. (3) Polydatin had no effect on Iss of ventricular myocytes. These results suggest that polydatin enhances IK1 channel activity, but has no effect on Ito and Iss channels in rat ventricular myocytes, which might be one of the ionic mechanisms for antiarrhythmic effect of polydatin.
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Rare coexistence of metastatic neuroblastoma of liver and solid pseudo papillary tumor of pancreas: case report and literature review.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Neuroblastoma is the second most common malignant solid tumor in children, and often metastasizes to liver, most notably in patients with stage 4S tumors. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPT) is a pancreatic borderline tumor with low malignant potential. Coexistence of these two tumors in one patient has never been reported before. Hereby, we present a case of an 8-month-old infant with coexisting tumors of SPT and metastatic neuroblastoma of liver. Dysdifferentiation of neural crest might be responsible for histogenesis of the coexisting tumors.
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Modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay strategy using graphene oxide sheets and gold nanoparticles functionalized with different antibody types.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and graphene oxide (GO) sheets are excellent nano carriers in many analytical methods. In this study, a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) strategy was developed using antibody-functionalized GO sheets and GNPs. This modification significantly reduced the limit of detection (LOD) and cost greatly of this assay. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by detecting HSP70 in a human serum sample. This result suggests that the 3G-ELISA method is feasible to detect an antigen in a complex mixture, and the LOD is up to 64-fold and the cost is as low as one-tenth of the conventional ELISA method.
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Halobellus rarus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from an inland salt lake of China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC21(T) and YC77, were isolated from an inland salt lake of China. Both have pleomorphic rod-shaped cells that lyse in distilled water, stain Gram-negative and form red-pigmented colonies. They are neutrophilic, require at least 2.1 M NaCl for growth under the optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS), two major glycolipids (GL1 and GL2) chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1) and mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), respectively. Trace amounts of two unidentified lipids (GL0-1 and GL0-2) were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains are 99.9 % identical, show 94.0-98.9 % similarity to the closest relative members of Halobellus of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB gene similarity between strains YC21(T) and YC77 is 99.8 % and show 90.3-95.3 % similarity to the closest relative members of Halobellus. The DNA G+C content of strains YC21(T) and YC77 were 66.1 and 66.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain YC77 was 89 %, and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halobellus limi TBN53(T), the most related member of Halobellus. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC21(T) and YC77 represent a novel species of the genus Halobellus, for which the name Halobellus rarus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC21(T) (=CGMCC 1.12121(T) = JCM 18362(T)).
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Halobellus inordinatus sp. nov., from a marine solar saltern and an inland salt lake of China.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC20(T) and XD15, were isolated from a marine solar saltern and an inland salt lake in China. Both had pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. They were neutrophilic, requiring at least 100 g NaCl l(-1) and 0.5-95 g MgCl2 l(-1) for growth at the optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS) and two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1) and mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), respectively. Trace amounts of two unidentified glycolipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.5?% identical and showed 94.0-95.9?% similarity to the most closely related members of the genus Halobellus of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB gene sequence similarity between strains YC20(T) and XD15 was 98.2?% and these sequences showed 89.6-92.8?% similarity to those of the most closely related members of the genus Halobellus. The DNA G+C contents of strains YC20(T) and XD15 were 65.8 mol% and 65.4 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain XD15 was 92?%, and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness to members of the genus Halobellus. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC20(T) and XD15 represent a novel species of the genus Halobellus, for which the name Halobellus inordinatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC20(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12120(T)?=?JCM 18361(T)) and the other strain is XD15 (?=?CGMCC 1.12236?=?JCM 18648).
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[Effects of the size of magnetic particles of immobilized enzyme reactors on the digestion performance].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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We applied immobilized enzyme reactors prepared with different sizes of magnetic particles into protein and proteome digestion. In addition, the influences of different sizes of the magnetic particles were studied on the reunion, enzyme efficiency and leakage sites. The experimental results showed that in comparison with the submicron magnetic particles, the amount of trypsin immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticles was 3. 5 times more than that of the submicron magnetic particles. However, the enzymatic efficiency was at the same level when the same amount of trypsin was used, and the reunion phenomenon was obviously improved when the size of the magnetic nanoparticles increased. Taking the immobilized enzyme reactor of 20 nm magnetic nanoparticles as an example, the digestion performance was further examined. The experimental results showed that rapid digestion could be achieved within 1 mm when the mass ratio of the trypsin and bovine serum albumin was 1:1. The peptide number of 0 missed cleavage site and the sequence coverage changed little after the protein was digested for 10 mm. It was concluded that the digestion efficiency of the immobilized enzyme reactor was much better than that of the in-solution digestion. When the immobilized enzyme reactors and the free trypsin were used for digestion, little differences of the leakage sites were found. Therefore, the immobilized enzyme reactors prepared with different sizes of magnetic particles can be applied in proteomic research for quick and efficient digestion.
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