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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Diagnosis and treatment of nasal sinus mucoceles invaded the skull base and orbit].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To review the clinical manifestations and management of nasal sinus mucoceles invaded the skull base and orbit.
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LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining-based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining-aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/livercancermarkerrif in an attempt to facilitate biomarker-related studies.
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Overview of the gene ontology task at BioCreative IV.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Gene ontology (GO) annotation is a common task among model organism databases (MODs) for capturing gene function data from journal articles. It is a time-consuming and labor-intensive task, and is thus often considered as one of the bottlenecks in literature curation. There is a growing need for semiautomated or fully automated GO curation techniques that will help database curators to rapidly and accurately identify gene function information in full-length articles. Despite multiple attempts in the past, few studies have proven to be useful with regard to assisting real-world GO curation. The shortage of sentence-level training data and opportunities for interaction between text-mining developers and GO curators has limited the advances in algorithm development and corresponding use in practical circumstances. To this end, we organized a text-mining challenge task for literature-based GO annotation in BioCreative IV. More specifically, we developed two subtasks: (i) to automatically locate text passages that contain GO-relevant information (a text retrieval task) and (ii) to automatically identify relevant GO terms for the genes in a given article (a concept-recognition task). With the support from five MODs, we provided teams with >4000 unique text passages that served as the basis for each GO annotation in our task data. Such evidence text information has long been recognized as critical for text-mining algorithm development but was never made available because of the high cost of curation. In total, seven teams participated in the challenge task. From the team results, we conclude that the state of the art in automatically mining GO terms from literature has improved over the past decade while much progress is still needed for computer-assisted GO curation. Future work should focus on addressing remaining technical challenges for improved performance of automatic GO concept recognition and incorporating practical benefits of text-mining tools into real-world GO annotation.
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[Estimation of biological parameters and yield per recruitment for Coilia nasustaihuensis in Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Coilia nasustaihuensis is the most abundant species in Dianshan Lake and plays an important role in the lake ecosystem. From July 2010 to August 2011, a total of 3107 samples of C. nasustaihuensis were collected from Dianshan Lake. Based on length data of these samples, ELEFAN I technique was employed to estimate growth and mortality parameters, and the Beverton-Holt dynamic model was used to evaluate the population dynamics trend for C. nasustaihuensis. Growth of this species was described using avon Bertalanffy model, and the estimated parameters were Linfinity = 35.70 cm, k = 0.54, and t0 = -0.48 a. The turning point for body mass growth curve of the stock was situated at t = 1.37 a. Natural mortality coefficient M was then estimated using Pauly's empirical equation and found to be 0. 872. Length-converted catch curves were used to estimate the total mortality coefficient Z, which was found to be 2.121. Accordingly, the fishing mortality coefficient (F) was equal to 1.249, and the current exploitation rate was 0. 589, suggesting the stock was over-exploited. According to the Beverton-Holt dynamic model, the minimum capture size for C. nasustaihuensis should be 21.42 cm (age 1.22 years).
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Ion pair charge-transfer thiogermanate salts [MV]2Ge4S10·xSol: solvent induced crystal transformation and photocurrent responsive properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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As most of the chalcogenidometalate anions are well-known electron-rich systems, design and preparation of ion pair compounds, by integrating an organic acceptor (A) with an inorganic chalcogenidometalate donor (D), are an attractive strategy to obtain new functional materials. We report herein the single-crystal structures and properties of three new ion pair charge-transfer (IPCT) compounds by incorporating thiogermanates with methylviologen (MV(2+), N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dication), [MV]2Ge4S10·xSol (Sol = solvent). Sharp and fast solvent-induced color changes and switchable fluorescence emission are observed for the compounds. The weak interactions that relate to the solvent and ions in the structures are likely the key points to modulate the cation-anion charge-transfer. A photocurrent response is observed for the photoelectric system of the IPCT compound upon repetitive switching of light on and off.
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Titanium-oxo cluster with 9-anthracenecarboxylate antennae: a fluorescent and photocurrent transfer material.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Attention has been paid to titanium-oxo clusters (TOCs) modified with functional molecules, because they can be considered as model systems for dye-sensitized titanium oxides in terms of their information in structures and electron transfer. We select 9-anthracenecarboxylate (9-AC) as a photoactive ligand and prepare two model compounds, [Ti6O6(O(i)Pr)6(9-AC)6] (1) and [Ti6O4(O(i)Pr)6(cat)4(9-AC)2] (2) (where cat = catecholate). Structures of the TOCs and the dye-TOC linkage are characterized by single-crystal analysis. Solvent-induced fluorescence change is observed for the cluster solution, and the fluorescence can be turned off by irradiating and on by oxygen bubbling. Photoinduced Ti(III) is responsible for the fluorescence extinction. The photocurrent conversion property of the clusters is examined by use of a three-electrode cell with cluster-coated indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The results indicate that 9-AC is an effective photosensitizer and cluster 1 shows higher photocurrent intensity for its multiantenna structure in comparison with that of 2. Density of states for cluster 1 is calculated, in which the discrete energy bands of Ti6O24 include a number of new energy levels for the contribution of 9-AC molecules.
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Development and application of quartz crystal microbalance sensor based on novel molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymer for rapid detection of histamine in foods.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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To rapidly detect histamine (HA) in foods, a novel material for HA-specific recognition was synthesized by a sol-gel process and coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. The Scatchard model was used to evaluate the adsorption performance of the material; high affinity for HA was demonstrated. Based on QCM frequency change, the sensor exhibited linear behavior for HA concentrations of 0.11 × 10(-2) to 4.45 × 10(-2) mg L(-1), a detection limit of 7.49 × 10(-4) mg kg(-1) (S/N = 3), high selectivity for HA (selectivity coefficient >4) compared with structural analogues, good reproducibility, and long-term stability. The sensor was used to determine the concentration of HA in spiked fish products; the recovery values were satisfactory (93.2-100.4%) and compared well with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (correlation coefficient, r(2) = 0.9965).
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Elmo1 helps dock180 to regulate Rac1 activity and cell migration of ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Engulfment and cell motility 1 (Elmo1) has been reported to cooperate with dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (Dock180) and to be linked to the invasive phenotype of cancer cells through activating small G-protein Rac. We aimed to study the role of Elmo1 in the malignant migration of ovarian cancer.
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Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state.
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[Discussion on reconstruction of the postoperative defect after oral floor carcinoma resection].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To explore the reconstruction approaches and indications in repairing of postoperative defect after resection of oral floor carcinoma.
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Fish oil modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling pathway in diabetes-induced hippocampal neurons apoptosis.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Previous research has demonstrated that diabetes induces learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism of memory impairment induced by diabetes is poorly understood. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to enhance learning and memory and prevent memory deficits in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats, further explored the effect of fish oil on the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. The effects of diabetes and fish oil treatment on the spatial learning and memory were also evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. STZ-induced diabetes impaired spatial learning and memory of rats, which was associated with the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons and oxidative stress. Fish oil administration ameliorated cognitive deficit, reduced oxidative stress, increased AKT phosphorylation, decreased GSK-3? phosphorylation, and decreased pro-apoptotic molecules expression, which protected the hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in diabetic rats. These results suggested a potential role for fish oil as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.
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MTERF1 regulates the oxidative phosphorylation activity and cell proliferation in HeLa cells.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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The mitochondrial transcription termination factor (MTERF) family is a group of highly conserved DNA-binding proteins composed of four key members, MTERF1-4. To date, several studies have investigated the binding sites of MTERF1 on mitochondrial genome and the regulation of mitochondrial gene transcription, but the more intricate connection between mitochondrial genes transcription regulation, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and cell proliferation is still poorly understood. In this study, we constructed over-expression and knockdown vectors of MTERF1 that were transfected into HeLa cells to investigate the functions of MTERF1. Results showed that although MTERF1 is a positive regulatory factor of mitochondrial genes transcription, it had no significant effect on the replication of mitochondrial DNA. Over-expression of MTERF1 increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity and promoted ATP synthesis, cyclin D1 expression, and cell proliferation, while its knockdown inhibited ATP synthesis, decreased cyclin D1 expression, and slowed the cell growth. These results suggested that MTERF1 may promote cell proliferation by regulating oxidative phosphorylation activity in HeLa cells. Ultimately, these findings create a foundation for further and more conclusive studies on the physiological functions of MTERF family by providing novel insights into the potential mechanisms underlying cell proliferation regulation.
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Membrane Permeability Transition and Dysfunction of Rice Mitochondria Effected by Er(III).
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT.
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Rotenone, a mitochondrial respiratory complex I inhibitor, ameliorates lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The syntheses of inflammatory mediators are energy-intensive processes and the mitochondria play pivotal roles in supporting these energy-requiring molecular responses. In the present studies, a mitochondrial respiratory complex I inhibitor rotenone was administrated in mice with lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-Gal)-induced fulminant liver injury and the prophylactic and therapeutic effects on tissue injury were evaluated. We found that pretreatment with rotenone suppressed the elevation of plasma aminotransferases, alleviated the histopathological abnormalities and improved the survival rate of LPS/D-Gal-challenged mice. Pretreatment with rotenone has no obvious effects on hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents but it significantly inhibited the up-regulation of both hepatic mRNA level and plasma protein level of TNF-? and IL-6. In the rotenone-pretreated group, the elevation of hepatic caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 activities induced by LPS/D-Gal decreased and rotenone reduced the count of TUNEL-positive apoptotic hepatocytes. In addition, posttreatment with rotenone at 1h after LPS/D-Gal challenge also suppressed the elevation of plasma aminotransferases. These data suggest that mitochondrial complex I inhibition might be a potential approach for the control of inflammation.
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Effect of metal coordination on photocurrent response properties of a tetrathiafulvalene organogel film.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Organic low molecular weight gelators with a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit have received considerable attention because the formed gels usually exhibit redox active response and conducting or semiconducting properties. However, to our knowledge, metal coordination systems have not been reported for TTF-derived gels up to date. We have designed and synthesized a series of TTF derivatives with a diamide-diamino moiety that can coordinate to specific metal ions with square coordination geometry. Gelation properties and morphologies of the films prepared by the gelators in different hydrophobic solvents are characterized. The TTF derivative with a dodecyl group shows effective gelation properties, and electrodes with the organogel films are prepared. The effect of the Ni(II) and Cu(II) coordination on the photocurrent response property of the electrodes is examined. The metal square coordination significantly increases the photocurrent response. This gel system is the first metal coordination related TTF-gel-based photoelectric material. The mechanism of the metal coordination-improved photocurrent response property is discussed based on the crystal structural analysis and theoretical calculations.
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Involvement of catalase in the protective benefits of metformin in mice with oxidative liver injury.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Metformin is a commonly used anti-diabetic drug with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent hypoglycemic activities. Recent studies have revealed its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In the present study, the anti-oxidative potential of metformin and its potential mechanisms were investigated in a mouse model with carbon tetrachloride (CCl?)-induced severe oxidative liver injury. Our results showed that treatment with metformin significantly attenuated CCl?-induced elevation of serum aminotransferases and hepatic histological abnormalities. The alleviated liver injury was associated with decreased hepatic contents of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, metformin treatment dose-dependently enhanced the activities of catalase (CAT) and decreased CCl?-induced elevation of hepatic H?O? levels, but it had no obvious effects on the protein level of CAT. We also found that metformin increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but treatment with AMPK activator AICAR had no obvious effects on CAT activity. A molecular docking analysis indicated that metformin might interact with CAT via hydrogen bonds. These data suggested that metformin effectively alleviated CCl?-induced oxidative liver injury in mice and these hepatoprotective effects might be associated with CAT.
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A new type of charge-transfer salts based on tetrathiafulvalene-tetracarboxylate coordination polymers and methyl viologen.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Although charge-transfer compounds based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives have been intensively studied, {[cation](n+)·[TTFs](n-)} ion pair charge-transfer (IPCT) salts have not been reported. The aim of this research is to introduce functional organic cations, such as photoactive methyl viologen (MV(2+)), into the negatively charged TTF-metal coordination framework to obtain this new type of IPCT complex. X-ray structural analysis of the four compounds (MV)2[Li4(L)2(H2O)6] (1), {(MV)(L)[Na2(H2O)8]·4H2O}n (2), {(MV)[Mn(L)(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (3), and {(MV)[Mn(L)(H2O)2]}n (4), reveals that the electron donor (D) TTF moiety and the electron acceptor (A) MV(2+) form a regular mixed-stack arrangement in alternating DADA fashion. The TTF moiety and the MV(2+) cation are essentially parallel stacked to form the column structures. The strong electrostatic interaction is a main force to shorten the distance between the cation and anion planes. Optical diffuse-reflection spectra indicate that charge transfer occurs in these complexes. The ESR and magnetic measurements confirm that there is strong charge-transfer-induced partial electron transfer. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 show an effective and repeatable photocurrent response. The current intensities of 3 and 4 are higher than that of 2, which reflects that the coordination center of the Mn(II) ion has a great effect on the increasing photocurrent response.
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Role of the coordination center in photocurrent behavior of a tetrathiafulvalene and metal complex dyad.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Small organic molecule-based compounds are considered to be promising materials in photoelectronics and high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, photoelectron conversion research based on functional organic molecule and metal complex dyads is very scarce. We design and prepare a series of compounds containing a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) moiety substituted with pyridylmethylamide groups of formulas [Ni(acac)2L]·2CH3OH (1), [Cu2I2L2]·THF·2CH3CN (2), and [MnCl2L2]n·2nCH3CH2OH (3) (L = 4,5-bis(3-pyridylmethylamide)-4',5'-bimethylthio-tetrathiafulvalene, acac = acetylacetone) to study the role of the coordination center in photocurrent behavior. Complex 1 is a mononuclear species, and complex 2 is a dimeric species. Complex 3 is a two-dimensional (2-D) coordination polymer. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of these complexes indicate that they are electrochemically active materials. The tetrathiafulvalene ligand L is a photoelectron donor in the presence of electron acceptor methylviologen. The effect of metal coordination centers on photocurrent response behavior is examined. The redox-active metal coordination centers should play an important role in improvement of the photocurrent response property. The different morphologies of the electrode films reflect the dimensions in molecular structures of the coordination compounds.
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Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to treat diabetic nephropathy in tree shrews.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes. We used a new DN model in tree shrews to validate the use of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation to treat DN. The DN tree shrew model was established by a high-sugar and high-fat diet and four injections of streptozotocin. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole labelled BM-MSCs were injected into tree shrews. The DN tree shrew model was successfully established. Blood glucose was significantly increased ( p < 0.01) during the entire experiment. DN tree shrews showed dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased 24-h proteinuria. At 21 days after BM-MSC transplantation, glucose and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and 24-h urine volume were lower than in tree shrews with DN alone ( p < 0.01) but were still higher than control values ( p < 0.01). Levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen as well as 24-h proteinuria were lower for DN tree shrews with BM-MSCs transplantation than DN alone ( p < 0.05). High-sugar and high-fat diet combined with STZ injection can induce a tree shrew model of DN. BM-MSCs injection can home to damaged kidneys and pancreas, for reduced 24-h proteinuria and improved insulin resistance.
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Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Protein phosphorylation can regulate most of the important processes in muscle, such as metabolism and contraction. The postmortem (PM) metabolism and rigor mortis have essential effects on meat quality. In order to identify and characterize the protein phosphorylation events involved in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160 phosphoproteins with 784 phosphorylation sites. Among these, 184 phosphorylation sites on 93 proteins had their phosphorylation levels significantly changed. The proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction were the two largest clusters of phosphoproteins with significantly changed phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant changes at the phosphorylation level but were relatively stable at the total protein level, suggesting that protein phosphorylation may have important roles in meat quality development through the regulation of proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction, thereby affecting glycolysis and rigor mortis development in PM muscle.
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Protective effects of garcinol in mice with lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced apoptotic liver injury.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative of Garcinia indica. Recent researches have revealed the antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of garcinol. In the present study, the pharmacological effects of garcinol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-sensitized mice were investigated. We found that treatment with garcinol significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels in LPS/D-Gal-exposed mice. These were accomplished with improved histological alterations in liver sections and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenates. Garcinol significantly reduced the acetylation level of NF-?B, but it had no obvious effects on the elevation of TNF-? or IL-6 in plasma or liver tissue. Garcinol significantly attenuated LPS/D-Gal-induced hepatic apoptosis as evidenced by reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells in liver sections. Our experiments also showed that garcinol markedly suppressed the cleavage of caspase-3 and significantly decreased the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in liver tissues. In addition, garcinol obviously reduced the induction of Bax but did not alter the level of Bcl-2. These results indicated that garcinol might provide protective benefits in LPS/D-Gal-induced liver injury through suppressing apoptosis.
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Investigation of the interaction between quercetin and human serum albumin by multiple spectra, electrochemical impedance spectra and molecular modeling.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Quercetin (Qu), a flavonoid compound, exists widely in the human diet and exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities. This work is aimed at studying the effect of Qu on the bioactive protein, human serum albumin (HSA) under simulated biophysical conditions. Multiple spectroscopic methods (including fluorescence and circular dichroism), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and molecular modeling were employed to investigate the interaction between Qu and HSA. The fluorescence quenching and EIS experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA was caused by formation of a Qu-HSA complex in the ground state, which belonged to the static quenching mechanism. Based on the calculated thermodynamic parameters, it concluded that the interaction was a spontaneous process and hydrogen bonds combined with van der Waal's forces played a major role in stabilizing the Qu-HSA complex. Molecular modeling results demonstrated that several amino acids participated in the binding process and the formed Qu-HSA complex was stabilized by H-bonding network at site I in sub-domain IIA, which was further confirmed by the site marker competitive experiments. The evidence from circular dichroism (CD) indicated that the secondary structure and microenvironment of HSA were changed. Alterations in the conformation of HSA were observed with a reduction in the amount of ? helix from 59.9% (free HSA) to 56% (Qu-HSA complex), indicating a slight unfolding of the protein polypeptides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in a macaque model.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that can migrate to pathological sites and thereby provide a new treatment in diabetic animals. Superparamagnetic iron oxide/4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) double-labeled BMSCs were transplanted into the pancreatic artery of macaques to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The treatment efficiency of BMSCs was also evaluated. After successful induction of the T2DM model, the treatment group received double-labeled BMSCs via the pancreatic artery. Six weeks after BMSC transplantation, the fasting blood glucose and blood lipid levels measured in the treatment group were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the model group, although they were not reduced to normal levels (p < 0.05). Additionally, the serum C-peptide levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). An intravenous glucose tolerance test and C-peptide release test had significant changes to the area under the curve. Within 14 days of the transplantation of labeled cells, the pancreatic and kidney tissue of the treatment group emitted a negative signal that was visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Six weeks after transplantation, DAPI signals appeared in the pancreatic and kidney tissue, which indicates that the BMSCs were mainly distributed in damaged tissue. Labeled stem cells can be used to track migration and distribution in vivo by MRI. In conclusion, the transplantation of BMSCs for the treatment of T2DM is safe and effective.
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Effects of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes during Pregnancy: A Single-Center Cohort Study of a Chinese Population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy.
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The cultural divide: exponential growth in classical 2D and metabolic equilibrium in 3D environments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically different.
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BioC interoperability track overview.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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BioC is a new simple XML format for sharing biomedical text and annotations and libraries to read and write that format. This promotes the development of interoperable tools for natural language processing (NLP) of biomedical text. The interoperability track at the BioCreative IV workshop featured contributions using or highlighting the BioC format. These contributions included additional implementations of BioC, many new corpora in the format, biomedical NLP tools consuming and producing the format and online services using the format. The ease of use, broad support and rapidly growing number of tools demonstrate the need for and value of the BioC format. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/.
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Large-scale Analysis of PDGFRA Mutations in Melanomas and Evaluation of Their Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Imatinib and Crenolanib.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA) is a target for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-based targeted therapy. Dysregulation of PDGFRA has been reported in many cancers. However, PDGFRA mutations in melanomas have not been well studied. We analyzed the genetic mutations of PDGFRA in Chinese patients with melanoma and determined the inhibitory potency of TKIs, such as imatinib and crenolanib, on mutant PDGFRA.
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p75 neurotrophin receptor positive dental pulp stem cells: new hope for patients with neurodegenerative disease and neural injury.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Neurodegenerative diseases and neural injury are 2 of the most feared disorders that afflict humankind by leading to permanent paralysis and loss of sensation. Cell based treatment for these diseases had gained special interest in recent years. Previous studies showed that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) could differentiate toward functionally active neurons both in vitro and in vivo, and could promote neuranagenesis through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities. Some of these neuroregenerative activities were unique to tooth-derived stem cells and superior to bone marrow stromal cells. However, DPSCs used in most of these studies were mixed and unfractionated dental pulp cells that contain several types of cells, and most were fibroblast cells while just contain a small portion of DPSCs. Thus, there might be weaker ability of neuranagenesis and more side effects from the fibroblast cells that cannot differentiate into neural cells. p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) positive DPSCs subpopulation was derived from migrating cranial neural crest cells and had been isolated from DPSCs, which had capacity of differentiation into neurons and repairing neural system. In this article, we hypothesize that p75NTR positive DPSCs simultaneously have greater propensity for neuronal differentiation and fewer side effects from fibroblast, and in vivo transptantation of autologous p75NTR positive DPSCs is a novel method for neuranagenesis. This will bring great hope to patients with neurodegenerative disease and neural injury.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by different concentrations of gadolinium ion.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Gadolinium-based compounds are the most widely used paramagnetic contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging on the world. But the tricationic gadolinium ion (Gd(3+)) could induce cell apoptosis probably because of its effects on mitochondria. Until now, the mechanism about how Gd(3+) interacts with mitochondria is not well elucidated. In this work, mitochondrial swelling, collapsed transmembrane potential and decreased membrane fluidity were observed to be important factors for mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) opening induced by Gd(3+). The protection effect of CsA (Cyclosporin A) could confirm high concentration of Gd(3+) (500?M) would trigger mtPTP opening. Moreover, mitochondrial outer membrane breakdown and volume expansion observed clearly by transmission electron microscopy and the release of Cyt c (Cytochrome c) could explain the mtPTP opening from another aspect. In addition, MBM(+) (monobromobimane(+)) and DTT (dithiothreitol) could protect thiol (-SH) groups from oxidation so that the toxicity of Gd(3+) might be resulted from the chelation of -SH of membrane proteins by free Gd(3+). Gd(3+) could inhibit the initiation of mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, so it might interact with anionic lipids too. These findings will highly contribute to the safe applications of Gd-based agents.
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[A new sesquiterpenoid from fungus Colletotrichum sp. and its cytotoxicity].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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A novel sesquiterpenoid (1) and three known compounds identified as isoaltenuene (2), altenuene (3), and alternariol 4, 10-O-dimethyl ether (4), were isolated in our investigation of the cytotoxic constituents from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line A549, breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Compound 4 could induce the PANC-1 cells inflation or death, but couldnt induce apoptosis at the IC50 of 60.2 microg x mL(-1).
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High Concentration of Gadolinium Ion Modifying Isolated Rice Mitochondrial Biogenesis.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Mitochondria play an important role in plant growth and development, cooperating with the endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. Gadolinium, one of the rare earth elements, is an inhibitor of stretch-activated calcium channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane and has no effect on nuclear calcium variation in plant cells. We analyzed the effects of Gd(3+) on mitochondria function by monitoring mitochondrial swelling, changes of membrane fluidity, and transmembrane potential collapse and by observing mitochondrial ultrastructure. We found that high concentration of Gd(3+) induces rice mitochondrial dysfunction through mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The protection of DTT and EDTA demonstrate that Gd(3+) blocks the inner membrane ion channel through thiol chelation.
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DcR3 regulates the growth and metastatic potential of SW480 colon cancer cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is considered to have anti?apoptotic and pro-metastatic functions, suggesting it might be a therapeutic target. We examined the role and mechanisms of DcR3 on growth and the metastatic ability of SW480 colon cancer cells to provide therapeutic information for targeting DcR3 by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Growth and the metastatic ability were inhibited, apoptosis was induced and cell cycle profile was changed after decreasing DcR3 expression, with lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression. Our results implied the therapeutic potential of silencing DcR3 expression by RNAi in colon cancer.
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[A comparison of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission CT and CT pulmonary angiography for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To assess the diagnostic accuracy of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) single photon emission CT (SPECT) as compared to computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for pulmonary embolism (PE).
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Emulsifying, Flocculating, and Physicochemical Properties of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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The emulsifying, flocculating, and physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) of terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme cultured in liquid media were investigated. The EPS was defined as heteropolysaccharide composed by 41.2 % glucose, 21.1 % galactose, 21.0 % mannose, 2.5 % fructose, 3.6 % ribose, 1.7 % xylose, 0.6 % arabinose, 3.0 % rhamnose, 0.9 % fucose, and 4.3 % glucuronic acid. The EPS possessed higher intrinsic viscosity than other cyanobacterial strains as reported and displayed pseudoplastic behavior in aqueous solution. The EPS produced more stable emulsions with tested hydrocarbons and oils than xanthan gum, and the emulsification indexes with n-hexadecane, liquid paraffin, and peanut oil were higher than 50 %, indicating the strong emulsion-stabilizing capacity. The EPS showed peak flocculating rates of 93.5 and 86.1 % in kaolin and MgO suspension, respectively, and exhibited a better flocculation performance than Al2(SO4)3 and xanthan gum. These results demonstrated that the EPS of N. flagelliforme was a very promising candidate for numerous industrial applications, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, good emulsification activity, and excellent flocculation capability.
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[Association between the interaction polymorphisms of interleukin-10 and smoking on patients with bladder cancer risk from a case-control study].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To investigate the relationship between both polymorphisms of interleukin-10 (IL-10), smoking and the susceptibility to bladder cancer.
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Molecularly imprinted quartz crystal microbalance sensor based on poly(o-aminothiophenol) membrane and Au nanoparticles for ractopamine determination.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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A molecularly imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for ractopamine (RAC) detection was developed by electrodepositing a poly-o-aminothiophenol membrane on an Au electrode surface modified by self-assembled Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This molecularly imprinted QCM sensor showed good frequency response in RAC binding measurements and the introduction of AuNPs demonstrated performance improvements. Frequency shifts were found to be proportional to concentration of RAC in the range of 2.5×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-4) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.17×10(-6) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sensor showed a good selective affinity for RAC (selectivity coefficient >3) compared with similar molecules and good reproducibility and long-term stability. This research has combined the advantages of high specific surface area of AuNPs, high selectivity from molecularly imprinted electrodeposited membrane and high sensitivity from quartz crystal microgravimetry. In addition, the modified electrode sensor was successfully applied to determine RAC residues in spiked swine feed samples with satisfactory recoveries ranging from 87.7 to 95.2%.
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Zebrafish as a model system to study toxicology.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Monitoring and assessing the effects of contaminants in the aquatic eco-environment is critical in protecting human health and the environment. The zebrafish has been widely used as a prominent model organism in different fields because of its small size, low cost, diverse adaptability, short breeding cycle, high fecundity, and transparent embryos. Recent studies have demonstrated that zebrafish sensitivity can aid in monitoring environmental contaminants, especially with the application of transgenic technology in this area. The present review provides a brief overview of recent studies on wild-type and transgenic zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. The authors address the new direction of developing high-throughput detection of genetically modified transparent zebrafish to open a new window for monitoring environmental pollutants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:11-17. © 2013 SETAC.
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Production of ramoplanin analogues by genetic engineering of Actinoplanes sp.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Ramoplanins are lipopeptides effective against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens. Ramoplanin A2 is in Phase III clinical trials. The structure-activity relationship of the unique 2Z,4E-fatty acid side-chain of ramoplanins indicates a significant contribution to the antimicrobial activities but ramoplanin derivatives with longer 2Z,4E-fatty acid side-chains are not easy to obtain by semi-synthetic approaches. To construct a strain that produces such analogues, an acyl-CoA ligase gene in a ramoplanin-producing Actinoplanes was inactivated and a heterologous gene from an enduracidin producer (Streptomyces fungicidicus) was introduced into the mutant. The resulting strain produced three ramoplanin analogues with longer alkyl chains, in which X1 was purified. The MIC value of X1 was ~0.12 ?g/ml against Entrococcus sp. and was also active against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 2 ?g/ml).
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[Analysis of the molecular characteristics and cloning of full-length coding sequence of interleukin-2 in tree shrews].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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While the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an excellent animal model for studying the mechanisms of human diseases, but few studies examine interleukin-2 (IL-2), an important immune factor in disease model evaluation. In this study, a 465 bp of the full-length IL-2 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from the RNA of tree shrew spleen lymphocytes, which were then cultivated and stimulated with ConA (concanavalin). Clustal W 2.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequence and molecular characteristics, and establish the similarity of the overall structure of IL-2 between tree shrews and other mammals. The homology of the IL-2 nucleotide sequence between tree shrews and humans was 93%, and the amino acid homology was 80%. The phylogenetic tree results, derived through the Neighbour-Joining method using MEGA5.0, indicated a close genetic relationship between tree shrews, Homo sapiens, and Macaca mulatta. The three-dimensional structure analysis showed that the surface charges in most regions of tree shrew IL-2 were similar to between tree shrews and humans; however, the N-glycosylation sites and local structures were different, which may affect antibody binding. These results provide a fundamental basis for the future study of IL-2 monoclonal antibody in tree shrews, thereby improving their utility as a model.
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[Isolation and identification of Tupaia orthoreovirus].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Pathogenic viruses can harm acutely the life and health of laboratory tree shrews acutely; however, few papers exist regarding natural pathogenic virus infection in this species. Six fecal samples obtained from dead tree shrews were collected. The fecal supernatant infected Vero cell line resulted in cytopathic effects (CPE) after 72 h. The CPE included granulating, shrinking, rounding, seining and falling off. Electron microscopy showed the isolation was spherical, double-layered capsid, and about 75 nm in diameter. The purified isolation genome was 10 segments in a typical 3:3:4 arrangements, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The isolation was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the conserved region of the L1 gene, sequence analysis and reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolation was a Tupaia Orthoreovirus (TRV), belonging to Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV). The obtained strain had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the MRV strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08. As a zoonotic virus, the novel TRV strain was first isolated from wild tree shrews, which is significant for promoting tree shrew standardization and providing scientific data for preventing zoonotic tree shrew-to-human transmission.
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Motor Function in MPTP-Treated Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The tree shrew, a new experimental animal model, has been used to study a variety of diseases, especially diseases of the nervous system. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is the gold standard for toxin-based animal models of Parkinsons disease (PD) because MPTP treatment replicates almost all of the pathological hallmarks of PD. Therefore, in this study, the effects of MPTP on the motor function of the tree shrew were examined. After five daily injections of a 3 mg/kg dose of MPTP, the motor function of MPTP-injected tree shrews decreased significantly, and the classic Parkinsonian symptoms of action and resting tremor, bradykinesia, posture abnormalities, and gait instability were observed in most MPTP-injected tree shrews. HPLC results also showed significantly reduced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in tree shrews after MPTP injection. Increased oxidative stress levels are usually considered to be the cause of dopaminergic neuron depletion in the presence of MPTP and were observed in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated tree shrews, as indicated by a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased levels of malondialdehyde. In addition, elevated ?-synuclein mRNA levels in the midbrain of MPTP-treated tree shrews were observed. Furthermore, MPTP-treated tree shrews showed the classic Parkinsonian symptoms at a lower MPTP dosage compared with other animal models. Thus, the MPTP-treated tree shrew may be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of PD.
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Effect of light with different wavelengths on Nostoc flagelliforme cells in liquid culture.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The effects of lights with different wavelengths on the growth and the yield of extracellular polysaccharides of Nostoc flagelliforme cells were investigated in a liquid cultivation. N. flagelliforme cells were cultured for 16 days in 500 ml conical flasks containing BG11 culture medium under 27 micromol·m-2·s-1 of light intensity and 25 degrees C on a rotary shaker (140 rpm). The chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, and phycoerythrin contents in N. flagelliforme cells under the lights of different wavelengths were also measured. It was found that the cell biomass and the yield of polysaccharide changed with different wavelengths of light. The biomass and the yield of extracellular polysaccharides under the red or violet light were higher than those under other light colors. Chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin are the main pigments in N. flagelliforme cells. The results showed that N. flagelliforme, like other cyanobacteria, has the ability of adjusting the contents and relative ratio of its pigments with the light quality. As a conclusion, N. flagelliforme cells favor red and violet lights and perform the complementary chromatic adaptation ability to acclimate to the changes of the light quality in the environment.
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TEMPTING system: A hybrid method of rule and machine learning for temporal relation extraction in patient discharge summaries.
J Biomed Inform
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Patient discharge summaries provide detailed medical information about individuals who have been hospitalized. To make a precise and legitimate assessment of the abundant data, a proper time layout of the sequence of relevant events should be compiled and used to drive a patient-specific timeline, which could further assist medical personnel in making clinical decisions. The process of identifying the chronological order of entities is called temporal relation extraction. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to identify appropriate temporal links between a pair of entities. The method combines two approaches: one is rule-based and the other is based on the maximum entropy model. We develop an integration algorithm to fuse the results of the two approaches. All rules and the integration algorithm are formally stated so that one can easily reproduce the system and results. To optimize the systems configuration, we used the 2012 i2b2 challenge TLINK track dataset and applied threefold cross validation to the training set. Then, we evaluated its performance on the training and test datasets. The experiment results show that the proposed TEMPTING (TEMPoral relaTion extractING) system (ranked seventh) achieved an F-score of 0.563, which was at least 30% better than that of the baseline system, which randomly selects TLINK candidates from all pairs and assigns the TLINK types. The TEMPTING system using the hybrid method also outperformed the stage-based TEMPTING system. Its F-scores were 3.51% and 0.97% better than those of the stage-based system on the training set and test set, respectively.
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Functional identification of the gene encoding the enzyme involved in mannosylation in ramoplanin biosynthesis in Actinoplanes sp.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Ramoplanin is a lipopeptide antibiotic active against multi-drug-resistant, Gram-positive pathogens. Structurally, it contains a di-mannose moiety attached to the peptide core at Hpg(11). The biosynthetic gene cluster of ramoplanin has already been reported and the assembly of the depsipeptide has been elucidated but the mechanism of transferring sugar moiety to the peptide core remains unclear. Sequence analysis of the biosynthetic gene cluster indicated ramo-orf29 was a mannosyltransferase candidate. To investigate the involvement of ramo-orf29 in ramoplanin biosynthesis, gene inactivation and complementation have been conducted in Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076 by homologous recombination. Metabolite analysis revealed that the ramo-orf29 inactivated mutant produced no ramoplanin but the ramoplanin aglycone. Thus, ramo-orf29 codes for the mannosyltransferase in the ramoplanin biosynthesis pathway. This lays the foundation for further exploitation of the ramoplanin mannosyltransferase and aglycone in combinatorial biosynthesis.
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Metal centered oxidation or ligand centered oxidation of metal dithiolene? Spectral, electrochemical and structural studies on a nickel-4-pyridine-1,2-dithiolate system.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The complex Et(4)N[Ni(4-pedt)(2)] (1) (4-pedt = 1-(pyridine-4-yl) ethylene-1,2-dithiolate) was synthesized to investigate the behaviour of metal dithiolene compounds upon protonation and oxidation by absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and structural analyses and to further understand the electronic states of the dithiolene compounds. It is unexpected that the 915 nm NIR transition band is not shifted when H(+) is added, and it is only affected (blue-shifted) when the compound is oxidized. All the evidence of electronic spectra indicates that the NIR band is relevant to the central [Ni(edt)(2)] moiety (edt = ethylenedithiolate), not the behaviour of individual Ni ions or ligands. It is also not the band of intermolecular interaction of a dimer. The moderately intense band appearing at 655 nm upon protonation is assigned to the intramolecular charge-transfer band between the [Ni(edt)(2)] moiety and the pyridine. The redox potentials of the metal dithiolene are sensitive to the protonation of the pyridyl group. The structures of monocationic complex and the protonated compounds [Ni(4-Hpedt)(2)]·ClO(4)·H(2)O (2) and [Ni(4-Hpedt)(2)]·PhSO(3)·2DMF (3) were characterized by single crystal X-ray determination. The structural data demonstrate that the oxidation of the monoanionic dithiolene complex to neutral does not change the Ni-S bond distances obviously, which further indicates that the process is not only the metal centered oxidation.
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Microcalorimetric studies of the effect of cerium (?) on isolated rice mitochondria fed by pyruvate.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Mitochondria were isolated from the hybrid rice Xiangzaoxian 31, then the effects of low and high concentrations of Ce (?) on metabolism of mitochondria fed by pyruvate were investigated respectively, by microcalorimetry and oxygen electrode method The thermogenic curve of mitochondria without Ce (?) could be divided into three parts: activity recovery phase, stationary phase and decline phase. And the thermokinetic parameters have been calculated through the metabolic thermogenic curves. With addition of different concentrations of Ce (?), the results demonstrated that low levels of cerium ion stimulated the metabolic activity of energized mitochondria and the inhibition was discovered with high concentrations of Ce (?). At the same time, it is shown that the effect in respiration correspond to the effect on mitochondrial metabolism on addition of different concentrations of Ce (?). Moreover, the addition of low and high concentrations of Ce (?) had no obvious effect on the total heat output (Q). The concentration-dependent effect of Ce (?) on metabolism of mitochondria is similar to plant growth response to rare earth elements (Hormesis effect).
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The role of stream water carbon dynamics and export in the carbon balance of a tropical seasonal rainforest, southwest China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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A two-year study (2009 ~ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1), about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest.
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Interaction between a cationic porphyrin and ctDNA investigated by SPR, CV and UV-vis spectroscopy.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The interaction between ctDNA and a cationic porphyrin was studied in this work. The binding process was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy in detail. The association, dissociation rate constants and the binding constants calculated by global analysis were 2.4×10(2)±26.4M(-1)s(-1), 0.011±0.0000056s(-1) and 2.18×10(4)M(-1), respectively. And the results were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The binding constants obtained from cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy were 8.28×10(4)M(-1) and 6.73×10(4)M(-1) at 298K, respectively. The covalent immobilization methodology of ctDNA onto gold surface modified with three different compounds was also investigated by SPR. These compounds all contain sulfydryl but with different terminated functional groups. The results indicated that the 11-MUA (HS(CH2)10COOH)-modified gold film is more suitable for studying the DNA-drug interaction.
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Ce(III)-induced rice mitochondrial permeability transition investigated by spectroscopic and microscopic studies.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Cerium has been widely used as fertilizer and feed additives in agriculture, but it might finally impair human health by food chain accumulation with its dosage increased in environmental and crops samples. To resolve the conflict, we investigated the effects of Ce(III) on isolated rice mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by examining mitochondrial swelling, transmembrane potential, membrane fluidity with spectroscopy, and observing the mitochondrial ultrastructure, meanwhile, the interaction site(s) and mechanism between Ce(III) and mitochondria were also studied. The results showed that the low level of Ce(III) had little effect on rice MPT, however, the higher level of Ce(III) could induce rice MPT, and the thiol (-SH) groups of membrane proteins (defined as "S" site) matched by Ce(III)-triggered rice MPT pore opening.
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Collective Instance-Level Gene Normalization on the IGN Corpus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species.
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T-HOD: a literature-based candidate gene database for hypertension, obesity and diabetes.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Researchers are finding it more and more difficult to follow the changing status of disease candidate genes due to the exponential increase in gene mapping studies. The Text-mined Hypertension, Obesity and Diabetes candidate gene database (T-HOD) is developed to help trace existing research on three kinds of cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, obesity and diabetes, with the last disease categorized into Type 1 and Type 2, by regularly and semiautomatically extracting HOD-related genes from newly published literature. Currently, there are 837, 835 and 821 candidate genes recorded in T-HOD for hypertension, obesity and diabetes, respectively. T-HOD employed the state-of-art text-mining technologies, including a gene/disease identification system and a disease-gene relation extraction system, which can be used to affirm the association of genes with three diseases and provide more evidence for further studies. The primary inputs of T-HOD are the three kinds of diseases, and the output is a list of disease-related genes that can be ranked based on their number of appearance, protein-protein interactions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Unlike manually constructed disease gene databases, the content of T-HOD is regularly updated by our text-mining system and verified by domain experts. The interface of T-HOD facilitates easy browsing for users and allows T-HOD curators to verify data efficiently. We believe that T-HOD can help life scientists in search for more disease candidate genes in a less time- and effort-consuming manner. Database URL: http://bws.iis.sinica.edu.tw/THOD.
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Quantitative proteomics reveal up-regulated protein expression of the SET complex associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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We combined culture-derived isotope tags (CDITs) with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) to extensively survey abnormal protein expression associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in clinical tissues. This approach yielded an in-depth quantitated proteome of 1360 proteins. Importantly, 267 proteins were significantly regulated with a fold-change of at least 1.5. The proteins up-regulated in HCC tissues are involved in regulatory processes, such as the granzyme A-mediated apoptosis pathway (The GzmA pathway). The SET complex, a central component in the GzmA pathway, was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissue. The elevated expressions of all of the SET complex components were validated by Western blotting. Among them, ANP32A and APEX1 were further investigated by immunohistochemistry staining using tissue microarrays (59 cases), confirming their overexpression in tumors. The up-regulation and nuclear accumulations of APEX1 was associated not only with HCC malignancy but also with HCC differentiation in 96 clinical HCC cases. Our work provided a systematic and quantitative analysis and demonstrated key changes in clinical HCC tissues. These proteomic signatures could help to unveil the underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and may be useful for the discovery of candidate biomarkers.
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Post-genome wide association studies and functional analyses identify association of MPP7 gene variants with site-specific bone mineral density.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Hong Kong Southern Chinese population with extreme bone mineral density (BMD) scores revealed suggestive association with MPP7, which ranked second after JAG1 as a candidate gene for BMD. To follow-up this suggestive signal, we replicated the top single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4317882 of MPP7 in three additional independent Asian-descent samples (n= 2684). The association of rs4317882 reached the genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis of all available subjects (P(meta)= 4.58 × 10(-8), n= 4204). Site heterogeneity was observed, with a larger effect on spine than hip BMD. Further functional studies in a zebrafish model revealed that vertebral bone mass was lower in an mpp7 knock-down model compared with the wide-type (P= 9.64 × 10(-4), n= 21). In addition, MPP7 was found to have constitutive expression in human bone-derived cells during osteogenesis. Immunostaining of murine MC3T3-E1 cells revealed that the Mpp7 protein is localized in the plasma membrane and intracytoplasmic compartment of osteoblasts. In an assessment of the function of identified variants, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the binding of transcriptional factor GATA2 to the risk allele A but not the G allele of rs4317882. An mRNA expression study in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells confirmed that the low BMD-related allele A of rs4317882 was associated with lower MPP7 expression (P= 9.07 × 10(-3), n= 135). Our data suggest a genetic and functional association of MPP7 with BMD variation.
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1-D Selenidoindates {[In2Se5]}? directed by chiral metal complex cations of 1,10-phenanthroline.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Two 1-D selenidoindates {[M(phen)(3)]In(2)Se(5)·H(2)O}(n) (M = Ni, Fe) were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The 1-D {[In(2)Se(5)](2-)}(n) anion is a new type of single 1-D structure constituted by an alternately fused four-membered In(2)Se(2) ring and five-membered In(2)Se(3) ring. The chalcogenoindates were separated as mechanical racemic mixtures of single enantiomer crystals, in which the R-helix of 1-D InSe anion is directed by the related clockwise (?) cations of [M(phen)(3)](2+) or the L-helix of 1-D anion is directed by the related anticlockwise (?) cation. The ?···?, C···Se, and C-H···Se oriented interactions of metal complex cations with selenidoindate anions play an important role in the formation of the chiral crystals. The embedded [M(phen)(3)](2+) cations improve the optical absorption of the 1-D semiconductor materials.
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The gene normalization task in BioCreative III.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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We report the Gene Normalization (GN) challenge in BioCreative III where participating teams were asked to return a ranked list of identifiers of the genes detected in full-text articles. For training, 32 fully and 500 partially annotated articles were prepared. A total of 507 articles were selected as the test set. Due to the high annotation cost, it was not feasible to obtain gold-standard human annotations for all test articles. Instead, we developed an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm approach for choosing a small number of test articles for manual annotation that were most capable of differentiating team performance. Moreover, the same algorithm was subsequently used for inferring ground truth based solely on team submissions. We report team performance on both gold standard and inferred ground truth using a newly proposed metric called Threshold Average Precision (TAP-k).
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[Supernumerary teeth located in molar region: three cases report].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Supernumerary teeth is one of the teeth dysplasia that the number of teeth exceeded normal. Most of supernumerary teeth reported were located in anterior teeth region, but rare cases were reported in molar region. This paper reported three cases that supernumerary teeth located in molar region.
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An efficient and novel screening model for assessing the bioactivity of extracts against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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As a large number of multidrug-resistant bacteria have emerged, and there is an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial agents. In this study, we developed a liquid-based slow killing assay to be carried out in standard 96-well microtiter plates. This screening method was designed to facilitate high-throughput screening of small molecules and extracts. In antibiotic rescue assays, the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model displayed a high degree of drug resistance in vivo and in vitro. We used the method to screen 1,300 extracts, and found 36 extracts (2.7%) which prolonged the survival of infected nematodes, and four (0.3%) of these extracts showed in vitro and in vivo anti-multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa activity. These results indicate that the whole-animal C. elegans multidrug-resistant bacterial model can be used to screen antibacterial compounds, and can also be useful for bioactive compounds which most likely cannot be identified in vitro.
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[Pulmonary pathology in fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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To study the pulmonary pathology in patients died of fatal human influenza A(H1N1) infection.
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Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf.
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Indium sulfide clusters integrated with 2,2-bipyridine complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Supertetrahedral compounds of chalcogenometalates (T3 cluster compounds) integrated with Ni-bpy (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine) complex were prepared by a solvothermal technique. The compound [Ni(bpy)(3)](3)[H(4)In(10)S(20)]·bpy·2EG·6H(2)O (Mb-InS-1) (EG = ethylene glycol) consists of discrete T3 clusters of [H(4)In(10)S(20)](6-) with three [Ni(bpy)(3)](2+) cations. The compound [Ni(bpy)(3)](2)[H(2)In(10)S(19)]·bpy·2HEA·2H(2)O (Mb-InS-2) (EA = ethanolamine) is a 1-D polymer, in which zigzag T3 cluster chains are charge balanced by metal-bpy complex cations. The compound [Ni(bpy)(3)](7)[H(4)In(40)S(74)]·7Hbpy·3HEA·8H(2)O (Mb-InS-3) is a 2-D T3 polymer with cation layers of [Ni(bpy)(3)](2+). Integrating M-bpy complex cations into chalcogenido structures has been made with the aim of improving the photoabsorption of the materials. The electronic spectra showed the new bands of cation-anion charge-transfer (CACT) that is mainly caused by the S···H-C(py) contacts between the InS T3 supertetrahedral clusters and the [Ni(bpy)(3)](2+) cations.
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Anion-cation charge-transfer properties and spectral studies of [M(phen)3][Cd4(SPh)10] (M = Ru, Fe, and Ni).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Three anion-cation compounds 1-3 with formula [M(phen)(3)][Cd(4)(SPh)(10)]·Sol (M = Ru(2+), Fe(2+), and Ni(2+), Sol = MeCN and H(2)O) have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal analysis. Both the cations and anion are well-known ions, but the properties of the co-assembled compounds are interesting. Molecular structures and charge-transfer between the cations and anions in crystal and even in solution are discussed. These compounds are isomorphous and short inter-ion interactions are found in these crystals, such as ?···? stacking and C-H···? contacts. Both spectroscopic and theoretical calculated results indicate that there is anion-cation charge-transfer (ACCT) between the Ru-phen complex dye and the Cd-SPh cluster, which plays an important role in their photophysical properties. The intensity of the fluorescent emission of the [Ru(phen)(3)](2+) is enhanced when the cation interacts with the [Cd(4)(SPh)(10)](2-) anion. The mechanism for the enhancement of photoluminescence has been proposed.
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Dlx2 over-expression: a possible mechanism for first branchial arch malformation.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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The first branchial arch malformation (FBAM) is a rare congenital defect associated with anomalous development of the first and second branchial arches. Cause of FBAM still remains unknown, and is thought in most cases to be multifactorial, involving both genetic and enviromental factors. Dlx2 as a member of the Dlx homeobox gene family, plays a crucial role in the development of the first branchial arch. The tissues regulated mainly by Dlx2 are coincident with the tissues mainly involved in FBAM. Dlx2 over-expression generated by electroporation transfection can disturb the migration and differentiation of cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs), which migrate to the branchial arches and in turn give rise to much of the facial skeleton and connective tissues. Furthermore, Dlx2 over-expression can be found in the first branchial arch spontaneous mutant mice. So we hypothesize that Dlx2 over-expression mutation causes FBAM due to an increase in cell-cell adhesion and inhibiting the migration of CNCC to the first branchial arch in the early stage, or migrating to an incorrect position and cant differentiate into normal tissues. What an exact role of Dlx2 over-expression in FBAM remains to be investigated and Dlx2 over-expression transgenic mouse will be a nice model for further research in FBAM.
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Indium-sulfur supertetrahedral polymers integrated with [M(phen)3]2+ cations (M = Ni and Fe).
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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A series of supertetrahedral polymers of chalcogenometalates (T3 cluster compounds) integrated with M-phen complexes (phen =1,10-phenanthroline; M = Ni, Fe) was prepared by a similar solvothermal technique. Compound [Fe(phen)(3)](4)[H(4)In(20)S(38)]·Hphen·3HDMA·8H(2)O (Mp-InS-4) (DMA = dimethylamine) is a 1-D straight chain. Compounds [M(phen)(3)](4)[In(20)S(37)]·6Hphen·4H(2)O (M = Ni, Mp-InS-5; Fe, Mp-InS-6) are the first reported 2-D Tn polymers integrated with complex cations of [M(phen)(3)](2+). Compound [Ni(phen)(3)](4)[H(4)In(20)S(38)]·2Hphen·2HDMA·3H(2)O (Mp-InS-7) shows a zigzag 1-D structure. We find that the reaction time is an important factor in assembling of the T3 clusters. Prolonging the reaction time seems favorable to the higher condensed phases (from 0-D to 2-D). However, a longer reaction time resulted in the crack of 2-D structure. Integrating M-phen complex cations with the chalcogenido anions can improve absorption of the materials in the visible range due to the charge transfers within the cations or between cations and anions.
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[Herpes zoster treated with meridian-collateral electric information therapy combined with pricking and cupping].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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To explore the best acupoints for the treatment of herpes zoster.
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Mitochondrial permeability transition induced by different concentrations of zinc.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Zinc is one of the required trace elements in animals, and it serves an important role in biological systems. However, high levels of zinc are poisonous to organisms. So far, there exist conflicting reports about zinc ions-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). We analyzed the effects of Zn²? on MPT by monitoring mitochondrial swelling with the ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectrum, characterizing the fluidity of the membrane with fluorescence anisotropy, detecting the transmembrane potential (??) with fluorescence intensity, and observing mitochondrial ultrastructure with transmission electron microscopy. Data reveal that low concentrations of zinc ions can trigger MPT while high levels of zinc ions cannot, which implies that zinc ions toxicity cannot be the result of a single simple mechanism.
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Integration of gene normalization stages and co-reference resolution using a Markov logic network.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Gene normalization (GN) is the task of normalizing a textual gene mention to a unique gene database ID. Traditional top performing GN systems usually need to consider several constraints to make decisions in the normalization process, including filtering out false positives, or disambiguating an ambiguous gene mention, to improve system performance. However, these constraints are usually executed in several separate stages and cannot use each others input/output interactively. In this article, we propose a novel approach that employs a Markov logic network (MLN) to model the constraints used in the GN task. Firstly, we show how various constraints can be formulated and combined in an MLN. Secondly, we are the first to apply the two main concepts of co-reference resolution-discourse salience in centering theory and transitivity-to GN models. Furthermore, to make our results more relevant to developers of information extraction applications, we adopt the instance-based precision/recall/F-measure (PRF) in addition to the article-wide PRF to assess system performance.
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Bis(diamino-diamido)-tetrathiafulvalene, a redox active sensor for proton, anions, and cations.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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A bis(diamino-diamido) tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative H(4)L(2) has been designed and synthesized. Experiments of pH titration reveal that integrating the redox active TTF unit with the diamino-diamido moiety adds new properties to the traditional ligand. Oxidation of the TTF moiety increases the acidity of the amido group, and the coordination of metal ions is also sensitive to the oxidation state of the ligand. This compound is capable of acting as a leaving or accepting ligand for proton and metal ions. The electrochemistry of the protonated TTF derivative of H(4)L(2) was studied in the presence of a series of oxo anions and metal cations. The results indicate that the redox potentials selectively respond to HC(2)O(4)(-) and SO(4)(2-) anions, and Ni(II) and Cu(II) cations. Solid-state structures of a cation-anion salt H(8)L(2)·2SO(4)·8H(2)O and a nickel coordination compound [Ni(2)L(2)]·2DMF have been characterized by means of X-ray crystallography which are helpful in understanding the inter-ion interactions.
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A two-reflection divergent differentiating critical angle refractometer.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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A new critical angle refractometer (CAR) for high accuracy refractive index measurement of liquid has been developed. The instrument improves the accuracy by two reflections in an elongated parallelogram prism, and acquires the angular reflectivity without any angle scanning parts through introduction of a point source with a divergent beam and a charge coupled device. In addition, it employs a simple and robust measurement method that gets the critical angle by differentiating the angular reflectivity. Through investigating absorbing media with absorption index ? (the imaginary part of refractive index) from 0 to 10(-2.1), the theoretical calculation shows that the proposed two-reflection CAR would outperform the traditional one-reflection CAR on lowering the principal error from the differentiation method and improving the ability of getting the critical angle. By testing two typical liquids-salt-water solution and milk, the preliminary experiment indicates that this two-reflection divergent differentiating critical angle refractometer is feasible and of high accuracy.
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IL-10 elicits IFN?-dependent tumor immune surveillance.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Tumor immune surveillance and cancer immunotherapies are thought to depend on the intratumoral infiltration of activated CD8(+) T cells. Intratumoral CD8(+) T cells are rare and lack activity. IL-10 is thought to contribute to the underlying immune suppressive microenvironment. Defying those expectations we demonstrate that IL-10 induces several essential mechanisms for effective antitumor immune surveillance: infiltration and activation of intratumoral tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, expression of the Th1 cytokine interferon-? (IFN?) and granzymes in CD8(+) T cells, and intratumoral antigen presentation molecules. Consequently, tumor immune surveillance is weakened in mice deficient for IL-10 whereas transgenic overexpression of IL-10 protects mice from carcinogenesis. Treatment with pegylated IL-10 restores tumor-specific intratumoral CD8(+) T cell function and controls tumor growth.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.