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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Body mass index, obesity, and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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A number of studies have reported that patients with schizophrenia have a higher body mass index (BMI) than the general population. Few Asian studies have examined BMI in patients with schizophrenia. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the distribution of BMI and prevalence of obesity in a large sample of Chinese patients with schizophrenia (n = 973) and to examine the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of overweight (BMI ? 25 kg/m) and obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m). There was a preponderance of patients who were overweight (58.7%) and obese (73.6%) as compared with control subjects. Regression modeling of clinical and symptom factors in schizophrenia patients revealed that females were almost twice as likely to be obese compared with males and patients with comorbid medical conditions were more likely to be obese compared with those who did not have a comorbid medical condition (odds ratio, 1.6). Those prescribed typical antipsychotic medications were 1.7 times more likely to be obese, whereas individuals prescribed with both typical and atypical antipsychotic medications were 2.2 times more likely to be obese as compared with those prescribed atypical antipsychotics. A significant predictor interaction for obesity was observed between sex and typical antipsychotics, sex and comorbid medical conditions, and years of education and comorbid medical conditions. The higher prevalence of obesity in patients with schizophrenia is a matter of clinical and public health concern; interventions to reduce weight to healthy levels would result in both improved health and quality of life among patients with schizophrenia.
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Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its association with remission status in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), characterises a probable neurobiochemical explanation of maldevelopments in schizophrenia and is a candidate biomarker of the illness. A paucity of studies examining neurobiochemical predictors of remission in schizophrenia exists. In this study, we seek to examine if serum BDNF level is associated with remission status in a sample of Chinese patients with schizophrenia. This study did not find a significant relationship between serum BDNF and remission in patients with schizophrenia. Identification of a suitable biomarker for diagnosis, management, and prognostic outcome is crucial and warrants further study.
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Relationship between clinical improvement and functional gains with clozapine in schizophrenia.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Impairment in psychosocial functioning is a key feature in schizophrenia, but few studies have examined the relationship between improvements in symptoms and functioning. We examined the relationship between change in symptoms and change in functioning in a group of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after 6 and 12 weeks of clozapine treatment. Participants were assessed prior to clozapine and again at 6 and 12-week on the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS). Change scores in BPRS and SOFAS at 6 and 12-week post-clozapine were calculated and the direct relationship was assessed via regression models. Forty-three participants were included in this study; age of sample was 42.1±12.7 years, with 31 (72.1%) male participants. At baseline, the mean BPRS total and SOFAS scores were 46.98±12.86 and 33.07±10.79, respectively. There were significant improvements in BPRS total and SOFAS scores at 6 weeks, but no significant differences between 6 and 12-week assessments. There was no significant change in negative symptoms at both follow-up assessments. At 6-week, change in symptoms was not correlated with change in functioning and while the relationship between change in symptoms and functioning was stronger at 12 weeks, none of the BPRS factors emerged as a significant predictor. The present study found that lower baseline SOFAS score was the most robust predictor for improvements in SOFAS at 6 and 12-weeks. There appears to be a "ceiling" for functional improvements on clozapine, but follow-up studies are needed to examine functional gains beyond 12 weeks.
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Transoral Resection of Stylopharyngeus Calcification: A Unique Manifestation of a Stylohyoid Complex Syndrome.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Eagle syndrome is often considered in the work-up of odynophagia and neck pain. Classically, this is manifested by ossification or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament or styloid process. There are no reported cases of stylopharyngeal calcification leading to these symptoms.
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Adropin is a brain membrane-bound protein regulating physical activity via the NB-3/Notch signaling pathway in mice.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Adropin is a highly conserved polypeptide that has been suggested to act as an endocrine factor that plays important roles in metabolic regulation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial functions. However, in this study, we provide evidence demonstrating that adropin is a plasma membrane protein expressed abundantly in the brain. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening approach, we identified NB-3/Contactin 6, a brain-specific, non-canonical, membrane-tethered Notch1 ligand, as an interaction partner of adropin. Furthermore, this interaction promotes NB3-induced activation of Notch signaling and the expression of Notch target genes. We also generated and characterized adropin knockout mice to explore the role of adropin in vivo. Adropin knockout mice exhibited decreased locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination coupled with defective synapse formation, a phenotype similar to NB-3 knockout mice. Taken together, our data suggest that adropin is a membrane-bound protein that interacts with the brain-specific Notch1 ligand NB3. It regulates physical activity and motor coordination via the NB-3/Notch signaling pathway and plays an important role in cerebellum development in mice.
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Update on astigmatism management.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Astigmatism is a common refractive error that affects a significant portion of the population. This is a review of the most salient topics on assessing astigmatism as well as a discussion of the latest developments in surgical options and newest technologies to improve outcomes.
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Serum leptin and its relationship with psychopathology in schizophrenia.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Leptin plays an important role in the modulation of the dopaminergic system and has recently been implicated in schizophrenia. There have been conflicting reports on leptin levels in schizophrenia; as well as on the association between leptin levels and clinical symptoms. Therefore, this study aims to examine (i) leptin levels in schizophrenia relative to control, and (ii) the relationship between leptin and symptoms in schizophrenia. One hundred participants with schizophrenia and 89 healthy controls were recruited from the Institute of Mental Health in Singapore. Demographic information and medical histories were collected. Schizophrenia symptoms were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and serum leptin was measured using a commercially available bioplex leptin assay. Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationship between serum leptin and the positive, negative, general psychopathology subscales and total PANSS scores. Contrary to previously published literature, we did not find any significant difference in leptin level between participants with schizophrenia compared to controls, which might be the result of recruited controls being of comparable body mass index. Serum leptin was found to be positively associated with positive symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score. This study provides evidence to suggest a positive association between serum leptin level and symptomatology in schizophrenia. However, since conflicting results in this area of research exist, it is important to understand better the mechanism behind this relationship and to examine temporal fluctuations in leptin levels in relation with changes in clinical symptomatology.
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The continuous performance test, identical pairs: norms, reliability and performance in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To provide normative values for the healthy ethnic Chinese Singaporean population and a large sample of patients with schizophrenia for the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP). Participants Data were collected on 1011 healthy ethnic Chinese and 654 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, all between 21 and 55 years of age.
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The relationship between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cardiometabolic indices in schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, has been recently shown to be involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. This study seeks to examine the relationship between BDNF, metabolic indices and cardiovascular (CVD) risk in patients with schizophrenia. Medical histories, demographic information and anthropometric measurements were collected and analyzed from 61 participants with schizophrenia. Fasting glucose and lipids were measured in a central laboratory, and serum BDNF was analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 10-year CVD risk for each participant was computed using the Framingham risk score (FRS). Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationships between serum BDNF with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose. To examine the relationship between serum BDNF and FRS, serum BDNF was categorized into quartiles, and a multiple regression was performed. After adjusting for age, gender and current smoking status, diastolic BP (dBP) (p=0.045) and TG (p=0.015) were found to be significantly associated with serum BDNF. Participants in the highest quartile of serum BDNF had a 3.3 times increase in FRS over those in the lowest quartile. Our findings support the possible regulatory role of BDNF in metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis among patients with schizophrenia similar to that observed among the non-mentally ill. Serum BDNF not only present itself as a candidate biomarker of schizophrenia but also might be a viable marker of metabolic co-morbidities associated with schizophrenia.
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Mean platelet volume in schizophrenia unaltered after 1year of clozapine exposure.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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This study investigated the MPV of patients with major psychoses before and after 1year of clozapine exposure. Data were obtained from chart reviews of patients who were initiated on clozapine at the Centre of Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto. 100 patients were eligible for this study; 65 remained on clozapine after 1year. Prior to clozapine initiation, MPV was 10.79±0.91fL and there was no difference in MPV after 1year of clozapine exposure (p=0.777). We found high MPV in patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses, which was unaltered after 1year of clozapine treatment.
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Analysis of non-synonymous-coding variants of Parkinson's disease-related pathogenic and susceptibility genes in East Asian populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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To evaluate the contribution of non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-related disease genes and evaluated the accumulation of rare non-synonymous-coding variants in 375 early-onset PD cases and 399 controls. We also genotyped 782 non-synonymous-coding variants of these genes in 710 late-onset PD cases and 9046 population controls. Significant enrichment of LRRK2 variants was observed in both early- and late-onset PD (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.93; P = 8.05 × 10(-6)). Moderate enrichment was also observed in FGF20, MCCC1, GBA and ITGA8. Half of the rare variants anticipated to cause loss of function of these genes were present in healthy controls. Overall, non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes appear to make a limited contribution to PD risk, suggesting that clinical sequencing of these genes will provide limited information for risk prediction and molecular diagnosis.
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Proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of pregnenolone in schizophrenia.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Preclinical and clinical data suggest that pregnenolone may be a promising therapeutic in schizophrenia. Pregnenolone is neuroprotective and enhances learning and memory, myelination, and microtubule polymerization. Treatment with pregnenolone elevates allopregnanolone (a neurosteroid that enhances GABAA receptor responses) and pregnenolone sulfate (a positive NMDA receptor modulator). Pregnenolone could thus potentially mitigate GABA dysregulation and/or NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia via metabolism to other neurosteroids.
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The interactive animated epilepsy education programme (IAEEP): How feasible, acceptable and practical is the technology to children?
Technol Health Care
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Being well-informed and knowledgeable about their illnesses would be a great advantage to children with epilepsy (CWE). Subsequently, an effective education programme which could secure interest and simultaneously improve their awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) is essential in enhancing well-being and health outcomes.
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Cotranscriptional recruitment of yeast TRAMP complex to intronic sequences promotes optimal pre-mRNA splicing.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Most unwanted RNA transcripts in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, such as splicing-defective pre-mRNAs and spliced-out introns, are rapidly degraded by the nuclear exosome. In budding yeast, a number of these unwanted RNA transcripts, including spliced-out introns, are first recognized by the nuclear exosome cofactor Trf4/5p-Air1/2p-Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex before subsequent nuclear-exosome-mediated degradation. However, it remains unclear when spliced-out introns are recognized by TRAMP, and whether TRAMP may have any potential roles in pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we demonstrated that TRAMP is cotranscriptionally recruited to nascent RNA transcripts, with particular enrichment at intronic sequences. Deletion of TRAMP components led to further accumulation of unspliced pre-mRNAs even in a yeast strain defective in nuclear exosome activity, suggesting a novel stimulatory role of TRAMP in splicing. We also uncovered new genetic and physical interactions between TRAMP and several splicing factors, and further showed that TRAMP is required for optimal recruitment of the splicing factor Msl5p. Our study provided the first evidence that TRAMP facilitates pre-mRNA splicing, and we interpreted this as a fail-safe mechanism to ensure the cotranscriptional recruitment of TRAMP before or during splicing to prepare for the subsequent targeting of spliced-out introns to rapid degradation by the nuclear exosome.
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Preserved working memory and altered brain activation in persons at risk for psychosis.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in working memory that often appear in attenuated form in persons at high risk for the illness. The authors hypothesized that deviations in task-related brain activation and deactivation would occur in persons with an at-risk mental state performing a working memory task that entailed the maintenance and manipulation of letters.
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Unraveling the relationship between obesity, schizophrenia and cognition.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Previous studies investigating the relationship between obesity and cognition as well as gender differences in these relationships reported equivocal results. Here, we examined age, years of education, schizophrenia, and gender differences which might affect the relationship between obesity and cognition.
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Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: normative data in an english-speaking ethnic chinese sample.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese.
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Altered Striatal Functional Connectivity in Subjects With an At-Risk Mental State for Psychosis.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Recent functional imaging work in individuals experiencing an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis has implicated dorsal striatal abnormalities in the emergence of psychotic symptoms, contrasting with earlier findings implicating the ventral striatum. Our aims here were to characterize putative dorsal and ventral striatal circuit-level abnormalities in ARMS individuals using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to investigate their relationship to positive psychotic symptoms. Resting-state fMRI was acquired in 74 ARMS subjects and 35 matched healthy controls. An established method for mapping ventral and dorsal striatal functional connectivity was used to examine corticostriatal functional integrity. Positive psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Compared with healthy controls, ARMS subjects showed reductions in functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left rostral medial prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, and between the dorsal putamen and left thalamic and lenticular nuclei. ARMS subjects also showed increased functional connectivity between the ventral putamen and the insula, frontal operculum, and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally. No differences in ventral striatal (ie, nucleus accumbens) functional connectivity were found. Altered functional connectivity in corticostriatal circuits were significantly correlated with positive psychotic symptoms. Together, these results suggest that risk for psychosis is mediated by a complex interplay of alterations in both dorsal and ventral corticostriatal systems.
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Waist circumference is a potential indicator of metabolic syndrome in Singaporean Chinese.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Studies proposed that waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are good indicators of MetS. In this study, we examined and compared the predictive utility of clinical measures such as WC, blood pressure and BMI and determined the cutoff points in which these measures are most reliable in identifying MetS in Singaporean Chinese.
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The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) - An Asian UHR perspective.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Numerous studies have been published on the psychosis prodrome and have explored a wide array of its many aspects. However, the set of risk factors identified by these various efforts is not homogenous across studies. This could be due to unique population factors or relatively small sample sizes. Only few studies were conducted on Asian populations, whose socio-cultural characteristics differ - in some cases remarkably - from those in western populations. Singapore is a highly dense city-state in South-east Asia, with low rates of substance abuse. The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) commenced in Singapore in 2008, designed to comprehensively assess a group of ultra high risk (UHR) individuals and identify clinical, social, neuropsychological and biological risk factors unique to the local population. 173 UHR individuals were recruited from this single-site study over 4years. Here, we detail aspects of the study methodology and report on the baseline social and clinical characteristics of the sample population. 78% of the UHR sample suffered from a psychiatric disorder, with Major Depressive Disorder present in more than half of the sample. The mean Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score was 57.4, which indicated a moderate level of impairment. Although the recruited sample did not differ significantly by social and clinical characteristics when compared to previously published reports, the conversion rate to psychosis was 3.5% (n=6) at 6months. Follow-up measures are currently underway to assess longitudinal incidence of psychosis and impact of risk factors on cognition, functioning and remission.
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Longitudinal Youth-At-Risk Study (LYRIKS): outreach strategies based on a community-engaged framework.
Early Interv Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Schizophrenia and psychoses are debilitating disorders often leading to serious functional impairments. Early detection efforts have shifted focus to the prodromal phase and the emphasis is now on individuals at risk of developing psychosis. AIM: The Longitudinal Youth-At-Risk Study (LYRIKS) seeks to elucidate the biological markers of psychosis. This paper describes the application of a community-engaged framework to the outreach strategies of LYRIKS. It describes the outreach goals, strategies used and their impact, as well as the various challenges faced by the research team and community partners. METHODS: The target population was defined. Community organizations having close ties with the target population were identified and approached for collaboration. These included educational and healthcare institutions, and government and welfare organizations. Strategies were categorized as active or passive. Active strategies included clinical screening and recruitment, workshops, roadshows and student internships. Passive strategies included utilizing print and social media. RESULTS: Three thousand three hundred twenty-one youth were approached and 401 called the hotline to find out more about the study. Three thousand five hundred one were pre-screened; 864 were further screened using the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State. One hundred seventy-eight and 346 were eventually recruited as subjects and controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Challenges encountered included differing priorities, maintaining collaborative relationships, stigmatization and inadequate understanding of the profile of at risk youth. Future community-engaged research should be conducted more comprehensively to generate maximum benefits.
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Increased Framingham 10-year CVD risk in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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BACKGROUND & HYPOTHESIS: Schizophrenia is associated with increased mortality rates, which has been attributed to the greater incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The Framingham risk score (FRS) is a widely-used age- and gender-specific algorithm to estimate 10-year CVD risk and vascular age. The main aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk profile in schizophrenia and examine the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a predictor of CVD risk. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia have an increased 10-year CVD risk.
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An Evaluation of Association between a Novel Hippocampal Biology Related SNP (rs7294919) and Schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent genetic analyses have implicated several candidate susceptibility variants for schizophrenia. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7294919 is likely a schizophrenia-susceptibility variant according to its significant association with hippocampal volume, hippocampus function, and cognitive performance as well as the nominal association with schizophrenia. However, all previous analyses were conducted only in Europeans, and whether rs7294919 is associated with schizophrenia in other populations are yet to be tested. Here, we conducted a case-control analysis of rs7294919 with schizophrenia in six independent Chinese (N?=?3) and Japanese (N?=?3) samples, including a total of 7,352 cases and 10,824 controls. The results of our association analysis were not able to confirm the association of rs7294919 with schizophrenia (p?=?0.51 in total samples, odds ratio?=?1.02 for allele[C]). The absence of rs7294919s association in Chinese and Japanese suggest a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia on this locus and also demonstrate the difficulties in replicating associations of schizophrenia across different ethnic populations.
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A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n?=?15) and waitlist control arms (n?=?16). Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simons randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn?=?4.0; p<0.001). Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p?=?0.038), visuospatial/constructional (p?=?0.014), attention (p?=?0.039), and delayed memory (p<0.001) scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy elderly, and appears to be safe, user-friendly and acceptable to senior users. Given the efficacy signal, a phase III trial is warranted.
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Investigation of cigarette smoking among male schizophrenia patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Male schizophrenia patients are known to have a heavier smoking pattern compared with the general population. However, the mechanism for this association is not known, though hypothesis that smoking could alleviate symptomatology of schizophrenia and reduce side effects of antipsychotics has been suggested. The aims of this study were to validate the heavier smoking pattern among male schizophrenia patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms for the association. To enhance the reliability of the study, we recruited two large independent samples with 604 and 535 male Chinese schizophrenia patients, and compared their smoking pattern with that of 535 healthy male controls recruited from general population. Validated multiple indicators and multiple causes structure equation model and regression models were used to investigate the association of smoking with factors of schizophrenia symptomatology and with the usage of antipsychotics and their extra-pyramidal side effects (EPS). Schizophrenia patients had significantly heavier smoking pattern compared with healthy controls in our sample (42.4% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 for current smoking prevalence; 23.5% vs. 43.3%, p<0.001 for smoking cessation rate; 24.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001 for heavy smoker proportion). Their smoking status was also found to be consistently and significantly associated with reduced negative factor scores for schizophrenia symptomatology (??=?-0.123, p?=?0.051 for sample-A; ??=?-0.103, p?=?0.035 for sample-B; ??=?-0.082, p?=?0.017 for the combined sample). However, no significant association was found between smoking and antipsychotics usage or risk of EPS. These results support that smoking is associated with improved negative symptoms, which could account for the heavier smoking pattern among schizophrenia patients.
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The management of acute diarrhea in children in developed and developing areas: from evidence base to clinical practice.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Acute diarrhea remains a major problem in children and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. While vaccination against rotavirus could reduce the burden of the disease, the persistent impact of intestinal infections requires effective treatment in adjunct to oral rehydration solutions, to reduce the severity and duration of diarrhea. Several therapeutic options have been proposed for acute diarrhea, but proof of efficacy is available for few of them, including zinc, diosmectite, selected probiotics and racecadotril. However, at present there is no universal drug, and therapeutic efficacy has only been shown for selected drugs in selected settings, such as: outpatients/inpatients, developed/developing countries and viral/bacterial etiology.
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ARVCF genetic influences on neurocognitive and neuroanatomical intermediate phenotypes in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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There are notable similarities between velocardiofacial syndrome and schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive deficits and brain structural abnormalities. These similarities have supported the role of the armadillo repeat gene deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome (ARVCF) as a susceptibility gene in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationships between haplotypes of the ARVCF gene and specific intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that ARVCF gene haplotypes influence caudate nucleus volume, fractional anisotropy, and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia.
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Integrated genetic and genomic approach in the SingaporeTranslational and Clinical Research in Psychosis Study: an overview.
Early Interv Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with onset frequently in adolescence and followed by a chronic and disabling course. Although the exact pathophysiology of this devastating disorder has not been clearly elucidated, a large part of it has been attributed to genetic influences. This article seeks to provide an overview on what our group has embarked on--to elucidate genetic risk factors for schizophrenia within the Chinese ethnic group.
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Gender differences in Singaporean Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
Asian J Psychiatr
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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The purpose of this study was to compare gender differences in age of onset of illness, clinical features and prescription patterns in Chinese schizophrenia patients in Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted which recruited 903 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia from the Institute of Mental Health between 2005 and 2008. Information on age of onset of schizophrenia, body mass index (BMI), psychiatric family history and current medication was collected via a standardised collection form. Symptom severity was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Differences in age of onset of schizophrenia illness, clinical features and prescription patterns were compared between gender groups. Among sporadic schizophrenia cases, female subjects demonstrated a bimodal distribution in age of onset of illness, and had a significantly later age of illness onset compared with male subjects. For subjects with family history of psychiatric disorder, no significant gender differences were found in age of onset of illness. Female subjects had significantly higher BMI, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus, lower negative symptom scores and were prescribed more atypical antipsychotics and antidepressants compared with male subjects. Male subjects after age 50 were prescribed a lower antipsychotic dose, but this difference was not observed in female subjects. In conclusion, we found differences in age of onset of schizophrenia, severity of negative symptoms and prescription patterns between the male and female gender groups in Chinese schizophrenia patients in Singapore. These differences were consistent with findings from Caucasian population, and could possibly be explained by influences of oestrogen.
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Cardiac motion in diffusion-weighted MRI of the liver: artifact and a method of correction.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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To characterize cardiac motion artifacts in the liver and assess the use of a postprocessing method to mitigate these artifacts in repeat measurements.
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Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in first-episode psychosis.
Early Interv Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
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Psychosis can be considered one of the most severe stressors that an individual may face. Previous studies have suggested that the traumatic experience of psychotic symptoms and hospitalization may provoke a post-traumatic type reaction.
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Cortical and subcortical white matter abnormalities in adults with remitted first-episode mania revealed by Tract-Based Spatial Statistics.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Abnormalities of brain white matter have been noted in structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of bipolar disorder, but there are fewer investigations specifically examining white matter integrity early in the course of illness. In this study, we employed DTI to elucidate white matter changes in adult patients with remitted first-episode mania and hypothesized that first-episode mania was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in cortical (frontal) and subcortical (thalamus, striatum) white matter as well as white matter tracts (cingulum, corpus callosum).
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Randomized controlled trial of lung lavage with dilute surfactant for meconium aspiration syndrome.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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To evaluate whether lung lavage with surfactant changes the duration of mechanical respiratory support or other outcomes in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).
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The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale: validation of an interview-based assessment of cognitive functioning in Asian patients with schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Growing interest in cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia has led to the need for a clinician-friendly cognitive instrument. The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS), recognized for its brevity and ease of administration, has proven to be a valid and reliable measure of overall cognition in schizophrenia patients. However, there has been no such validation in an Asian context. This SCoRS validation study involved 103 patient and 48 control subjects within an Asian population. Test-retest reliability, sensitivity of the instrument to cognitive differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls as well as validity by comparing with a standardised performance-based cognitive battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) were assessed. Our findings indicated that SCoRS is highly reliable (ICC=0.984) and sensitive to cognitive dysfunction. SCoRS is significantly correlated with BACS composite scores and predicted functional outcomes as measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health Organisation-Quality of Life (WHO QOL) within an Asian population. SCoRS represents a clinician-friendly cognitive assessment tool that incorporates third-party feedback and might be employed in clinical practice to better evaluate and manage schizophrenia.
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Activation of PPARgamma by rosiglitazone attenuates intestinal Cl- secretion.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs rosiglitazone (Ro) and pioglitazone (Po) are PPARgamma agonists in widespread clinical use as insulin-sensitizing agents in Type 2 diabetes. On the basis of recent evidence implicating PPARgamma as a positive modulator of intestinal epithelial differentiation, we hypothesized that TZD drugs might attenuate intestinal secretory function. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effects of Ro and Po on electrogenic Cl- secretion [short-circuit current (I(sc))] in mouse intestinal segments and in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (HT29-Cl.19A). As hypothesized, oral administration of Ro (20 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) to mice for 8 days markedly reduced intestinal I(sc) responses to cAMP (forskolin)- and Ca2+ (carbachol)-dependent stimuli. In these Ro-treated mice, cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation was reduced 65%. With continued Ro treatment, the I(sc) response to carbachol recovered significantly, whereas that to forskolin remained attenuated. Treatment of HT29 cells for 5 days with 10 muM Ro or Po in vitro brought about a similar hyposecretory state. In HT29 cells, the loss of cAMP-dependent Cl- secretion was attributable to a reduced expression of CFTR Cl- channel, KCNQ1 K+ channel, and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1 proteins. The transient loss of Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion involved an impairment of basolateral Ca2+-stimulated K+ channel activity without a detectable loss of K(Ca)3.1 channel protein. Our results establish TZD drugs as important modulators of intestinal Cl- secretory function.
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Microkeratome complications.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Complications from laser in-situ keratomileusis surgery are extremely rare. However, most of the complications involve construction of the corneal flap, which is fashioned using various mechanical or femtosecond laser microkeratomes. Here, we review and discuss complications of microkeratome flaps.
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Stable lentiviral vector-mediated gene silencing in human monocytic cell lines.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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A major obstacle in studying monocyte cell biology has been the resistance of these cells to genetic manipulation, particularly when using nonviral methods. In the approach outlined in this chapter, we describe a strategy for stable gene silencing of monocytic cells. Using a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotyped lentiviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA), stable silencing of the p110alpha isoform of PI3-kinase in the human monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U-937 was achieved.
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Oral diosmectite reduces stool output and diarrhea duration in children with acute watery diarrhea.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Diosmectite is a clay used to treat children with acute watery diarrhea. However, its effects on stool output reduction, the key outcome for pediatric antidiarrheal drugs, have not been shown.
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Presoaking donor corneas reduces graft detachment rates in descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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To present a novel method of reducing rates of graft detachment, the most common postoperative complication of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK).
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Reproducibility of myelin water fraction analysis: a comparison of region of interest and voxel-based analysis methods.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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This study compared region of interest (ROI) and voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods to determine the optimal method of myelin water fraction (MWF) analysis. Twenty healthy controls were scanned twice using a multi-echo T(2) relaxation sequence and ROIs were drawn in white and grey matter. MWF was defined as the fractional signal from 15 to 40 ms in the T(2) distribution. For ROI analysis, the mean intensity of voxels within an ROI was fit using non-negative least squares. For VBA, MWF was obtained for each voxel and the mean and median values within an ROI were calculated. There was a slightly higher correlation between Scan 1 and 2 for the VBA method (R(2)=0.98) relative to the ROI method (R(2)=0.95), and the VBA mean square difference between scans was 300% lower, indicating VBA was the most consistent between scans. For the VBA method, mean MWF was found to be more reproducible than median MWF. As the VBA method is more reproducible and gives more options for visualization and analysis of MWF, it is recommended over the ROI method of MWF analysis.
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A Review of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Candidate Biomarker in Schizophrenia.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin known to be responsible for development, regeneration, survival and maintenance of neurons has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This review seeks to complement previous reviews on biological roles of BDNF and summarizes evidence on the involvement of BDNF in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia with an emphasis on clinical relevance. The expressions of BDNF were altered in patients with schizophrenia and were found to be correlated with psychotic symptomatology. Antipsychotics appeared to have differential effects on expression of BDNF but did not restore BDNF expression of patients with schizophrenia to normal levels. In addition, evidence suggests that BDNF is involved in the major neurotransmitter systems and is associated with disruptions in brain structure, neurodevelopmental process, cognitive function, metabolic and immune systems commonly associated with schizophrenia. Besides that, BDNF has been demonstrated to be tightly regulated with estrogen which has also been previously implicated in schizophrenia. Evidence gathered in this review confirms the relevance of BDNF in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the potential utility of BDNF as a suitable biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic purposes for disease outcome and other co-morbidities. However, further investigations are warranted to examine the specificity of BDNF in schizophrenia compared to other neurodegenerative disorders and other neuropsychiatric illness. Longitudinal prospective studies will also be of added advantage for evaluation of prognostic utility of BDNF in schizophrenia.
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Body mass index and risk of mental disorders in the general population: results from the Singapore Mental Health Study.
J Psychosom Res
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The aims of the current study were to elucidate the association between body mass index (BMI) and mental disorders and to examine whether these associations are moderated by socio-demographic correlates and comorbid physical disorders.
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Fluid recovery during lung lavage in meconium aspiration syndrome.
Acta Paediatr.
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Lung lavage using two aliquots of 15 mL/kg of dilute surfactant was performed in 30 ventilated infants with severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Mean recovery of instilled lavage fluid was 46%, with greater fluid return associated with lower mean airway pressure at 24 h and a shorter duration of respiratory support.
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Validated five-factor model of positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia in Chinese population.
Schizophr. Res.
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The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is the most widely used instrument to assess the severity of symptoms of schizophrenia. Most studies have showed that PANSS measures five dimensions of symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, few studies have ever investigated the structure of PANSS in Chinese schizophrenia population. We recruited two large independent study samples including 903 and 942 Chinese schizophrenia patients and examined the underlying structure of PANSS. By building a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model based on the factor loadings of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and by testing the CFA model in an independent validation sample, we found that PANSS scores consisted of five factors, which were positive factor, negative factor, excitement factor, depression factor, and cognitive factor. The items loaded on these factors were similar to the consensus items published in previous studies except for PANSS items P2 conceptual disorganization, P5 grandiosity, N5 abstract thinking, and G11 poor attention. This difference might be due to the influence of culture on clinical presentation of schizophrenia. By elucidating the structure, symptoms of Chinese schizophrenia patients could possibly be deconstructed and investigated in future studies.
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Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
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Schizophrenia has been associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a reliable predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, has also been shown to be more prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of MetS in a sample of patients with schizophrenia in Singapore, and the potential risk factors associated with it.
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Meta-analysis and brain imaging data support the involvement of VRK2 (rs2312147) in schizophrenia susceptibility.
Schizophr. Res.
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Recent genome-wide association studies have reported a set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes, but many of them await further replications in additional samples. Here we analyzed 5 genome-wide supported variants in a Han Chinese sample, and the variant rs2312147 at VRK2 showed significant association, which was confirmed in the meta-analysis combining multiple Asian and European samples (P=3.17×10(-4), N=7498). Rs2312147 is also associated with brain structure in healthy subjects, including the total brain volume and the white matter volume. Gene expression analyses indicated an up-regulation of VRK2 in schizophrenia patients. Our data provide further evidence for the contribution of VRK2 to schizophrenia.
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Rotavirus genotypes in Malaysia and universal rotavirus vaccination.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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Group A rotavirus (RV-A) genotypes isolated in Malaysia was studied to estimate the effectiveness of a universal RV-A vaccination in Malaysia. A simple mathematical model was used, with input from a two-year, two-center, prospective study on hospitalization of RV-A gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, published data on RV-A hospitalizations and genotypes, mortality on childhood GE and published genotype-specific efficacy data on two RV-A vaccines. Assuming a 95% vaccine coverage, the overall projected effectiveness was 75.7 to 88.1% for Rotateq and 78.7 to 90.6% for Rotarix® against RVGE-related hospitalizations. The projected annual reduction in RVGE-related deaths was 27 to 32 deaths (from 34 deaths) for Rotateq and 28 to 32 deaths annually for Rotarix. A universal RV-A vaccine is efficacious in reducing RVGE-related hospitalizations and mortality in Malaysia.
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Neonatal infections in China, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand.
Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
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Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal deaths in Asia but data remain scarce. We aimed to investigate the causative organisms and antibiotic resistance in neonatal care units in China, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand.
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ZNF804A and schizophrenia susceptibility in Asian populations.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
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ZNF804A, a recently identified risk gene for schizophrenia, has been extensively investigated and the principle finding for this locus has been the association with SNP rs1344706 in populations of European ancestries. However, in Asian populations, only a few studies have been conducted for rs1344706 and the results were inconsistent. Here, we studied rs1344706 and schizophrenia susceptibility in multiple Asian case-control samples (10 Chinese and 2 Japanese samples; N?=?21,062), and the meta-analyses indicated non-significant association of rs1344706 with schizophrenia (P?=?0.26), suggesting the same SNP identified in European samples is not predisposing risk in Asians. Further genotyping and association analyses of a set of SNPs spanning the entire genomic region of ZNF804A (520?kb) identified no association except for SNP rs359895 (P?=?7.8?x?10(-5) , N?=?5,172), a newly reported risk SNP located in the ZNF804A promoter region with functional implications. This suggests that ZNF804A may also contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility in Asians although the risk SNP is different from that in Europeans, and it was supported by the detected up-regulation of ZNF804A mRNA expression in the blood cells of Chinese schizophrenia patients compared with normal controls (P?=?0.004). Additionally, the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure analyses using data from HapMap indicated distinct LD blocks across ZNF804A between Chinese and Europeans, which may explain the different association patterns between them, and also highlight the compounding difficulty of genetic studies of complex diseases like schizophrenia when studying multiple ethnic populations.
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Predictive utility of blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.
Early Interv Psychiatry
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This study aims to examine and compare the predictive utility of blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), and to determine optimal cut-off values in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with chronic schizophrenia.
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Analysis of blood-based gene expression signature in first-episode psychosis.
Psychiatry Res
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Blood-based transcriptomic signature in psychosis is an alternative to a brain-based signature. In this study, we profiled whole-blood RNA from 26 patients with first-episode psychosis, and 26 matching controls. We identified a 400-gene signature that classified patients from controls accurately and tested the robustness using other modelling methods.
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The PSS-SR as a screening tool for PTSD in first-episode psychosis patients.
Early Interv Psychiatry
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We examined the validity of the PTSD Symptom Scale - Self-Report (PSS-SR) as a screening instrument for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients recovering from first-episode psychosis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.