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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Triple-Tissue Sampling during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Increases the Overall Diagnostic Sensitivity for Cholangiocarcinoma.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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There are several methods for obtaining tissue samples to diagnose malignant biliary strictures during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, each method has only limited sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a combined triple-tissue sampling (TTS) method (on-site bile aspiration cytology, brush cytology, and forceps biopsy).
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The Efficacy of Moxifloxacin-Containing Triple Therapy after Standard Triple, Sequential, or Concomitant Therapy Failure for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Retreatment after initial treatment failure for Helicobacter pylori is very challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacies of moxifloxacin-containing triple and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy.
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The Relationship Between Accessory Navicular and Flat Foot: A Radiologic Study.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between accessory navicular (AN) and flat foot and to evaluate the association between flat foot and the symptoms of patients with AN.
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Osteosynthesis In Situ for Lateral Condyle Nonunion in Children.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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This study investigated the efficacy of osteosynthesis in situ by evaluating the functional and cosmetic results in children with nonunion of lateral condyle fractures.
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Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate is a novel neurogenic P2Y1 receptor activator in the gut.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Enteric purinergic motor neurotransmission, acting through P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1R), mediates inhibitory neural control of the intestines. Recent studies have shown that NAD(+) and ADP ribose better meet criteria for enteric inhibitory neurotransmitters in colon than ATP or ADP. Here we report that human and murine colon muscles also release uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) spontaneously and upon stimulation of enteric neurons. Release of Up4A was reduced by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that at least a portion of Up4A is of neural origin. Up4A caused relaxation (human and murine colons) and hyperpolarization (murine colon) that was blocked by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS 2500, and by apamin, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated small-conductance K(+) (SK) channels. Up4A responses were greatly reduced or absent in colons of P2ry1(-/-) mice. Up4A induced P2Y1R-SK-channel-mediated hyperpolarization in isolated PDGFR?(+) cells, which are postjunctional targets for purinergic neurotransmission. Up4A caused MRS 2500-sensitive Ca(2+) transients in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells expressing human P2Y1R. Up4A was more potent than ATP, ADP, NAD(+), or ADP ribose in colonic muscles. In murine distal colon Up4A elicited transient P2Y1R-mediated relaxation followed by a suramin-sensitive contraction. HPLC analysis of Up4A degradation suggests that exogenous Up4A first forms UMP and ATP in the human colon and UDP and ADP in the murine colon. Adenosine then is generated by extracellular catabolism of ATP and ADP. However, the relaxation and hyperpolarization responses to Up4A are not mediated by its metabolites. This study shows that Up4A is a potent native agonist for P2Y1R and SK-channel activation in human and mouse colon.
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Effects of Intensive Low-Salt Diet Education on Albuminuria among Nondiabetic Patients with Hypertension Treated with Olmesartan: A Single-Blinded Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The antiproteinuric effect of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade can be magnified by dietary salt restriction. This study sought to determine the effect of intensive low-salt diet education on BP and urine albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients with hypertension and albuminuria.
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Adipose gene expression profiles related to metabolic syndrome using microarray analyses in two different models.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist has a wide-ranging influence on multiple components of metabolic syndrome. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is a useful animal model of metabolic syndrome. To determine genes related to metabolic syndrome, we examined overlapping genes that are simultaneously decreased by PPAR-? agonists and increased in OLETF rats using microarrays in two different models.
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The treatment of Graves' disease in children and adolescents.
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Graves' disease (GD) accounts for 10%-15% of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents. The use of antithyroid drugs as the initial treatment option in GD is well accepted. An average two years remission is achieved in about 30% of children treated with antithyroid drugs. However, the optimal treatment duration and the predictive marker of remission after antithyroid drug therapy are still controversial. Additionally, (131)I therapy and surgery are considered the option for treatment in children and adolescents with GD. We review the treatment options for pediatric GD and the possible determinants of remission and relapse on antithyroid drug treatment in children and adolescents.
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Effect of dialysis initiation timing on clinical outcomes: a propensity-matched analysis of a prospective cohort study in Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Controversy persists regarding the appropriate initiation timing of renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. We evaluated the effect of dialysis initiation timing on clinical outcomes. Initiation times were classified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
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Long-term Outcomes of Symptomatic Gallbladder Sludge.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Long-term outcomes of symptomatic gallbladder (GB) sludge are not fully established. This study aimed to determine whether patients with symptomatic GB sludge could experience subsequent biliary events.
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Off-treatment virologic relapse and outcomes of re-treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients who achieved complete viral suppression with oral nucleos(t)ide analogs.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The durability of off-treatment virologic responses has not been fully elucidated in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have previously achieved complete virologic suppression with nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy. This study aimed to assess off-treatment virologic relapse rates and to characterize the outcomes of subsequent re-treatment in CHB patients who have discontinued oral NA following complete virologic suppression.
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Sulfated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Suppress LPS-Induced NO Production via JNK and NF-?B Inactivation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-?B, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of I?B-?. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-? in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-?B activation.
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Antioxidant activity and protective effect of extract of Celosia cristata L. flower on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant potential and protective effects of Celosia cristata L. (Family: Amaranthaceae) flower (CCF) extracts on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in the hepatocytes of Chang cells and rat livers. In vitro, CCF extracts exhibited protective effect through their radical scavenging ability to enhance cell viability, prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inhibit mitochondrial membrane depolarisation in t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity in Chang cells. In vivo, oral feeding of CCF (100mg and 500mg/kg of body weight) to rats for five consecutive days before a single dose of t-BHP (2mmol/kg, i.p.) showed a significant (p<0.05) protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT). The extract decreased the hepatic levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and serum level of triglyceride (TG) against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These results indicate that CCF extract prevented oxidative stress-induced liver injury by enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities.
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Sodium meta-arsenite induces reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy in both androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Sodium meta-arsenite (NaAsO2), a novel compound synthesized by Komipham International Co. Ltd, is an orally bioavailable, water-soluble trivalent arsenical that has shown potent cytotoxic activity in human solid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. In this study, mechanisms of cell death induced by sodium meta-arsenite were investigated. Sodium meta-arsenite reduced cell viability and increased the sub-G1 population in cell cycle analysis in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive CWR22RV1 cells. The apoptosis induced by sodium meta-arsenite was associated with cleavage of caspases 3, 8, and 9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and increased annexin V-positive cells, and was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. Sodium meta-arsenite also increased the level of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and the number of autophagic vacuoles as shown by electron microscopy. Both the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 blocked cell death induced by sodium meta-arsenite. Moreover, sodium meta-arsenite led to the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, decreased sodium meta-arsenite-induced levels of cleaved PARP and LC3-II. Propidium iodide (PI) staining also showed that NAC restored membrane integrity, damaged by sodium meta-arsenite. Therefore, these results suggest that sodium meta-arsenite induces apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic cell death through intracellular ROS accumulation in both androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells and may be used as a new anticancer drug for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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Efficacy of short-term growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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It has been reported that daily recombinant human growth hormone (GH) treatment showed beneficial effects on growth in prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). The present study aimed to validate the GH (Eutropin®) effect on growth promotion and safety after short-term GH treatment.
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Does delaying surgery in immature adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with progressive curve, lead to addition of fusion levels?
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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To analyze the changes in the curve extent, pattern and the fusion level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who undergo delayed surgery instead of early surgery.
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Novel peptides functionally targeting in vivo human lung cancer discovered by in vivo peptide displayed phage screening.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 × 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics.
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Anthrax toxin lethal factor domain 3 is highly mobile and responsive to ligand binding.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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The secreted anthrax toxin consists of three components: the protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). LF, a zinc metalloproteinase, compromises the host immune system primarily by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases in macrophages. Peptide substrates and small-molecule inhibitors bind LF in the space between domains 3 and 4 of the hydrolase. Domain 3 is attached on a hinge to domain 2 via residues Ile300 and Pro385, and can move through an angular arc of greater than 35° in response to the binding of different ligands. Here, multiple LF structures including five new complexes with co-crystallized inhibitors are compared and three frequently populated LF conformational states termed `bioactive', `open' and `tight' are identified. The bioactive position is observed with large substrate peptides and leaves all peptide-recognition subsites open and accessible. The tight state is seen in unliganded and small-molecule complex structures. In this state, domain 3 is clamped over certain substrate subsites, blocking access. The open position appears to be an intermediate state between these extremes and is observed owing to steric constraints imposed by specific bound ligands. The tight conformation may be the lowest-energy conformation among the reported structures, as it is the position observed with no bound ligand, while the open and bioactive conformations are likely to be ligand-induced.
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Associations between serum vitamin D levels and precocious puberty in girls.
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and autoimmune disease. However, data on the vitamin D status and its association with precocious puberty in girls are limited. We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and precocious puberty in girls.
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Control of infective complications of transrectal prostate biopsy.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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To describe a preparatory protocol for prostate biopsy consisting of prophylaxis based on a third-generation cephalosporin and suppository-type povidone-iodine.
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Resolvin D1 reduces ER stress-induced apoptosis and triglyceride accumulation through JNK pathway in HepG2 cells.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Research has indicated that stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell affects the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Resolvins, a novel family derived from ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing properties, and it has been suggested that they play a role in the amelioration of obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions. This study showed that pretreatment with resolvin D1 (RvD1) attenuated ER stress-induced apoptosis and also decreased caspase 3 activity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, RvD1 significantly decreased tunicamycin-induced triglycerides accumulation as well as SREBP-1 expression. However, tunicamycin-induced ER stress markers were not significantly affected by RvD1 treatment. Moreover, RvD1 treatment did not affect the tunicamycin-induced expression of chaperones that assist protein folding in the ER. These results suggest that RvD1-conferred cellular protection may occur downstream of the ER stress. This was supported by the finding that RvD1 significantly inhibited tunicamycin-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression, although P38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were not affected. In addition, anisomycin, a JNK activator, increased caspase 3 activity and apoptosis as well as triglycerides accumulation and SREBP1 expression, and RvD1 treatment reversed these changes. In conclusion, RvD1 attenuated ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis and apoptosis via the JNK-mediated pathway. This study may provide insight into a novel underlying mechanism and a strategy for treating NAFLD.
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Changes in dynamic pedobarography after extensive plantarmedial release for paralytic pes cavovarus.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Plantarmedial release and first ray extension osteotomy are often combined to treat paralytic cavovarus foot deformity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of additional first ray extension osteotomy in terms of dynamic pedobarography.
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Computed tomographic colonography is valuable for post-treatment evaluation and screening of hidden colorectal cancer in patients with cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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It has been demonstrated that cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is associated with colonic mucosal defect, especially colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the screening of CRC in patients with cryptogenic PLA is important. This study was to investigate whether computed tomographic colonography (CTC) has value as a follow-up modality as well as CRC screening tool in patients with PLA.
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Association between R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score and perioperative outcomes following open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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We investigate the clinical significance of the R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score for renal neoplasm following open partial nephrectomy (PN) under cold ischemia.
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Midazolam with meperidine and dexmedetomidine vs. midazolam with meperidine for sedation during ERCP: prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The combination of midazolam and opioid has been widely used as a standard sedative regimen for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Following recent evidence that dexmedetomidine may exert a synergistic effect in combination with midazolam, this study compared the sedative effect and adverse events of midazolam?-?meperidine?-?dexmedetomidine (MMD) and midazolam?-?meperidine during ERCP.
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The natural course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children and adolescents.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common cause of thyroid disease in children and adolescents, but little is known about the long-term follow-up of HT. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics and to observe the natural course of HT in children and adolescents.
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CD24 and S100A4 expression in resectable pancreatic cancers with earlier disease recurrence and poor survival.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The objectives of this study were to study the expression status of markers associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and to explore the prognostic value of these markers.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Haliotis discus hannai fermented with Cordyceps militaris mycelia in RAW264.7 macrophages through TRIF-dependent signaling pathway.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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In this study, Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai) fermentation was attempted with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using a solid culture. We tried to ferment H. discus hannai to determine the optimal conditions fermentation with regards to its anti-inflammatory effects. The extracts of H. discus hannai fermented with C. militaris mycelia (HFCM-5) showed higher nitric oxide inhibitory effects than H. discus hannai and C. militaris alone. HFCM-5 also decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. HFCM-5 did not affect the MyD88-dependent pathway, but decreased phosphorylation of IRF3 and STAT1 which are involved in TRIF-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that HFCM-5 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via TRIF signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a functional food in the regulation of inflammation.
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The effect of growth hormone treatment on height in children with idiopathic short stature.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is short stature of unknown cause. In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of growth hormone (GH) for ISS. Several studies have evaluated the effect of GH in children with ISS, in whom improved growth velocities and height standard deviation scores (SDS) have been reported. However, clinical variables influence the height improvement.
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Glycogenic hepatopathy in a Korean girl with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report the case of a 13-year-old diabetic female with poorly controlled blood sugar levels who presented with abdominal pain and distention 1 month in duration. She exhibited tender hepatomegaly, an elevated lipid profile, and elevated serum transaminase levels. Her liver histology was consistent with GH. The pathophysiology and/or underlying genetic background of GH remains unclear. The optimum treatment for GH is optimal glycemic control, and the prognosis is favorable. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of GH and observe the clinical response to optimal glycemic control prior to invasive investigation.
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A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.
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Preoperative biliary drainage in hilar cholangiocarcinoma: When and how?
World J Gastrointest Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a tumor of the extrahepatic bile duct involving the left main hepatic duct, the right main hepatic duct, or their confluence. Biliary drainage in hilar cholangiocarcinoma is sometimes clinically challenging because of complexities associated with the level of biliary obstruction. This may result in some adverse events, especially acute cholangitis. Hence the decision on the indication and methods of biliary drainage in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be carefully evaluated. This review focuses on the optimal method and duration of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Under certain special indications such as right lobectomy for Bismuth type IIIA or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma, or preoperative portal vein embolization with chemoradiation therapy, PBD should be strongly recommended. Generally, selective biliary drainage is enough before surgery, however, in the cases of development of cholangitis after unilateral drainage or slow resolving hyperbilirubinemia, total biliary drainage may be considered. Although the optimal preoperative bilirubin level is still a matter of debate, the shortest possible duration of PBD is recommended. Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage seems to be the most appropriate method of PBD in terms of minimizing the risks of tract seeding and inflammatory reactions.
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Effect of sustained use of platelet aggregation inhibitors on post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The effect of platelet aggregation inhibitors (PAI) on post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding in patients who cannot discontinue PAI for sufficient time in urgent conditions has not been identified. The present study analyzed the effect of sustained use of PAI on post-procedural bleeding in patients undergoing ES.
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Evaluation of accuracy of plain radiography in determining the Risser stage and identification of common sources of errors.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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BackgroundRisser¿s sign is an established radiological marker for predicting growth potential in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, but the accuracy of Risser¿s staging has been debated. This research was designed to evaluate the accuracy of Risser¿s staging and to identify causes of errors in Risser¿s staging. Materials and methodsPlain radiographs of 89 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were evaluated for Risser¿s stage using both the Original and French methods. A three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the plain radiographs. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of both methods was assessed on radiographs and 3D-CT images using weighted kappa statistics. The concordance rate for Risser¿s staging between plain radiographs and 3D-CT images were calculated. The various sources of staging differences between the two imaging methods were noted, grouped, and analyzed to identify common error patterns.ResultsIntra- and inter-observer staging reliabilities on plain radiography were 0.91 and 0.94, respectively, using the Original method and 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, using the French method. Intra- and inter-observer reliabilities on 3D-CT were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively, using the Original method and 0.97 and 0.99, respectively, using the French method. Mean concordance rates between plain radiography and 3D-CT were 59.76% and 67.42% using the Original and French methods, respectively. Common sources of error leading to misinterpretation of Risser¿s staging were miscalculation of apophysis excursion, skip ossification, isolated non-linear ossification, micro-fusion, and pseudo-fusion.ConclusionsRisser¿s staging by plain radiography is reliable but not accurate. Variations in the iliac apophysis ossification and misinterpretation of apophysis fusion are the main sources of error.
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Dipeptidyl petidase-IV inhibitor (gemigliptin) inhibits tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and inflammation in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The direct effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis and inflammation in cardiomyocytes have not been elucidated. H9c2 cell viability, which was reduced by tunicamycin, was increased after DPP-IV inhibitor gemigliptin treatment. Gemigliptin significantly decreased the tunicamycin-mediated increase in glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression and ER stress-mediated signaling molecules such as protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/C-EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-p38. Furthermore, gemigliptin effectively induced Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Using flow cytometry and Hoechst staining, we showed that treatment with Akt inhibitor significantly blocked the anti-apoptotic effects mediated by gemigliptin. The reduction in tunicamycin-induced GRP78 level and PERK/CHOP pathway activity by gemigliptin was reversed after treatment with Akt inhibitor. In conclusion, gemigliptin effectively inhibited ER stress-induced apoptosis and inflammation in cardiomyocytes via Akt/PERK/CHOP and IRE1?/JNK-p38 pathways, suggesting its direct protective role in cardiovascular diseases.
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Ibulocydine sensitizes human cancers to radiotherapy by induction of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Ibulocydine (IB), a novel prodrug of CDK inhibitor, has been reported to have anti-cancer effect in human hepatoma cells. In order to address its feasibility as a radiosensitizer to improve radiotherapeutic efficacy for human cancers, this study was designed.
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Association of aromatase (TTTA)n repeat polymorphisms with central precocious puberty in girls.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Precocious puberty is characterized by early activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Oestrogen is the final key factor to start the onset of puberty. The cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1) gene encodes an aromatase that is responsible for the conversion of androgens to oestrogen, which is a key step in oestrogen biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to identify CYP19A1 gene mutations or polymorphisms in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP).
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5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin combined with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) as second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who have progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy.
Chemotherapy
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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There is no standard consensus on a strategy in the second-line setting for gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer. This study evaluated the activity and tolerability of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) as a second-line therapy in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma pretreated with a gemcitabine-based regimen.
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Long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy is not always favorable.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients remains to be clarified. We investigated the long-term outcomes of IgAN patients with an apparently benign presentation and evaluated prognostic factors for renal survival.
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Non-surgical treatment of post-surgical bile duct injury: clinical implications and outcomes.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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To investigate the prognostic factors determining the success rate of non-surgical treatment in the management of post-operative bile duct injuries (BDIs).
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Usefulness of optical coherence tomography to detect central serous chorioretinopathy in monkeys.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Many systemic drugs can induce ocular toxicity and several ocular side-effects have been identified in clinical studies. However, it is difficult to detect ocular toxicity in preclinical studies because of the lack of appropriate evaluation methods. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful because it can provide real-time images throughout a study period, whereas histopathology only provides images of sacrificed animals. Using OCT alongside histopathology, attempts were made to find effective approaches for screening of drug-induced ocular toxicity in monkeys. Such approaches could be used in preclinical studies prior to human trials. Six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were orally administered one of six candidate MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. Central serous chorioretinopathy, a known side-effect of such inhibitors, was identified in four monkeys by OCT. Artifacts generated during tissue processing meant that histopathology could not detect edematous changes. Thus, OCT is a useful tool to detect ocular toxicity which cannot be detected by histopathology in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Chitooligosaccharide and its derivatives: preparation and biological applications.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Chitin is a natural polysaccharide of major importance. This biopolymer is synthesized by an enormous number of living organisms; considering the amount of chitin produced annually in the world, it is the most abundant polymer after cellulose. The most important derivative of chitin is chitosan, obtained by partial deacetylation of chitin under alkaline conditions or by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chitin and chitosan are known to have important functional activities but poor solubility makes them difficult to use in food and biomedicinal applications. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are the degraded products of chitosan or chitin prepared by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of chitosan. The greater solubility and low viscosity of COS have attracted the interest of many researchers to utilize COS and their derivatives for various biomedical applications. In light of the recent interest in the biomedical applications of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, this review focuses on the preparation and biological activities of chitin, chitosan, COS, and their derivatives.
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Suppression of cpn10 increases mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date, several regulatory proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics have been identified. However, the precise mechanism coordinating these complex processes remains unclear. Mitochondrial chaperones regulate mitochondrial function and structure. Chaperonin 10 (Cpn10) interacts with heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and functions as a co-chaperone. In this study, we found that down-regulation of Cpn10 highly promoted mitochondrial fragmentation in SK-N-MC and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of Drp1 suppressed the mitochondrial fragmentation induced by Cpn10 reduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in 3-NP-treated cells was markedly enhanced by Cpn10 knock down. Depletion of Cpn10 synergistically increased cell death in response to 3-NP treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of Drp1 recovered Cpn10-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in 3-NP-treated cells. Moreover, an ROS scavenger suppressed cell death mediated by Cpn10 knockdown in 3-NP-treated cells. Taken together, these results showed that down-regulation of Cpn10 increased mitochondrial fragmentation and potentiated 3-NP-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells.
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Early nephrology referral reduces the economic costs among patients who start renal replacement therapy: a prospective cohort study in Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The nature of cost-saving effects of early referral to a nephrologist in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully evaluated. We evaluated the health care costs before and after dialysis according to the referral time.
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Serum bilirubin affects graft outcomes through UDP-glucuronosyltransferase sequence variation in kidney transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oxidative stress is a major mediator of adverse outcome after kidney transplantation. Bilirubin is produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1), and has potential as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and UGT1A1 sequence variations on kidney allograft outcomes.
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BIX-01294 induces autophagy-associated cell death via EHMT2/G9a dysfunction and intracellular reactive oxygen species production.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We screened a chemical library in MCF-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-conjugated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) (GFP-LC3-MCF-7) using cell-based assay, and identified BIX-01294 (BIX), a selective inhibitor of euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), as a strong autophagy inducer. BIX enhanced formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, LC3-II, and free GFP, signifying autophagic activation. Inhibition of these phenomena with chloroquine and increasement in punctate dKeima ratio (550/438) signal indicated that BIX activated autophagic flux. BIX-induced cell death was suppressed by the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, or siRNA against BECN1 (VPS30/ATG6), ATG5, and ATG7, but not by caspase inhibitors. Moreover, EHMT2 siRNA augmented GFP-LC3 puncta, LC3-II, free GFP, and cell death, implying that inhibition of EHMT2 caused autophagy-mediated cell death. Treatment with EHMT2 siRNA and BIX accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). BIX augmented mitochondrial superoxide via NADPH oxidase activation. In addition, BIX increased hydrogen peroxide and glutathione redox potential in both cytosol and mitochondria. Treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) decreased BIX-induced LC3-II, GFP-LC3 puncta, and cell death, indicating that ROS instigated autophagy-dependent cell death triggered by BIX. We observed that BIX potentiated autophagy-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in estrogen receptor (ESR)-negative SKBr3 and ESR-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HCT116 colon cancer cells, and importantly, in primary human breast and colon cancer cells. Together, the results suggest that BIX induces autophagy-dependent cell death via EHMT2 dysfunction and intracellular ROS accumulation in breast and colon cancer cells, therefore EHMT2 inhibition can be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.
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Down-regulation of Mortalin Exacerbates A?-mediated Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Dysfunction.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Mitochondrial dynamics greatly influence the biogenesis and morphology of mitochondria. Mitochondria are particularly important in neurons, which have a high demand for energy. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Until now various post-translational modifications for mitochondrial dynamic proteins and several regulatory proteins have explained complex mitochondrial dynamics. However, the precise mechanism that coordinates these complex processes remains unclear. To further understand the regulatory machinery of mitochondrial dynamics, we screened a mitochondrial siRNA library and identified mortalin as a potential regulatory protein. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of mortalin strongly induced mitochondrial fragmentation and synergistically increased A?-mediated cytotoxicity as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly we determined that the expression of mortalin in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and in triple transgenic-AD model mice was considerably decreased. In contrast, overexpression of mortalin significantly suppressed A?-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that down-regulation of mortalin may potentiate A?-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction in AD.
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Purification of a Novel Peptide Derived from a Shellfish, Crassostrea gigas, and Evaluation of Its Anticancer Property.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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A novel anticancer peptide was purified from Crassostrea gigas and investigated for its cytotoxic activity. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavourzyme hydrolysate, which showed clearly superior cytotoxic activity on prostate cancer cells, was further purified using a membrane system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anticancer peptide was obtained, and the sequence was partially purified as His-Phe-Asn-Ile-Gly-Asn-Arg-Cys-Leu-Cys at the N-terminus. The peptide purified from C. gigas effectively induced the death of prostate, breast, and lung cancer cells but not normal liver cells. This is the first report of an anticancer peptide derived from the enzymatic hydrolysates of C. gigas.
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BIX-01294 induces autophagy-associated cell death via EHMT2/G9a dysfunction and intracellular reactive oxygen species production.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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We screened a chemical library in MCF-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-conjugated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) (GFP-LC3-MCF-7) using cell-based assay, and identified BIX-01294 (BIX), a selective inhibitor of euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), as a strong autophagy inducer. BIX enhanced formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, LC3-II, and free GFP, signifying autophagic activation. Inhibition of these phenomena with chloroquine and increasement in punctate dKeima ratio (550/438) signal indicated that BIX activated autophagic flux. BIX-induced cell death was suppressed by the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, or siRNA against BECN1 (VPS30/ATG6), ATG5, and ATG7, but not by caspase inhibitors. Moreover, EHMT2 siRNA augmented GFP-LC3 puncta, LC3-II, free GFP, and cell death, implying that inhibition of EHMT2 caused autophagy-mediated cell death. Treatment with EHMT2 siRNA and BIX accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). BIX augmented mitochondrial superoxide via NADPH oxidase activation. In addition, BIX increased hydrogen peroxide and glutathione redox potential in both cytosol and mitochondria. Treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) decreased BIX-induced LC3-II, GFP-LC3 puncta, and cell death, indicating that ROS instigated autophagy-dependent cell death triggered by BIX. We observed that BIX potentiated autophagy-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in estrogen receptor (ESR)-negative SKBr3 and ESR-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HCT116 colon cancer cells, and importantly, in primary human breast and colon cancer cells. Together, the results suggest that BIX induces autophagy-dependent cell death via EHMT2 dysfunction and intracellular ROS accumulation in breast and colon cancer cells, therefore EHMT2 inhibition can be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.
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A feasibility study of peritoneum preservation in radical cystectomy with extraperitonealization of orthotopic neobladder for invasive high-grade bladder cancer: a preliminary analysis.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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To describe a technique for radical cystectomy with extraperitonealization of orthotopic neobladder (RCEN) that reduces bowel-related complications by preservation of the peritoneum.
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Down-Regulation of Survivin by Nemadipine-A Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family of cytokines. TRAIL selectively induces apoptotic cell death in various tumors and cancer cells, but it has little or no toxicity in normal cells. Agonism of TRAIL receptors has been considered to be a valuable cancer-therapeutic strategy. However, more than 85% of primary tumors are resistant to TRAIL, emphasizing the importance of investigating how to overcome TRAIL resistance. In this report, we have found that nemadipine-A, a cell-permeable L-type calcium channel inhibitor, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to this ligand. Combination treatments using TRAIL with nemadipine-A synergistically induced both the caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death, which were blocked by a pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD) but not by autophagy or a necrosis inhibitor. We further found that nemadipine-A, either alone or in combination with TRAIL, notably reduced the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein (IAP) family of proteins. Depletion of survivin by small RNA interference (siRNA) resulted in increased cell death and caspase activation by TRAIL treatment. These results suggest that nemadipine-A potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of survivin expression in TRAIL resistant cells. Thus, combination of TRAIL with nemadipine-A may serve a new therapeutic scheme for the treatment of TRAIL resistant cancer cells, suggesting that a detailed study of this combination would be useful.
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Antioxidant activity and protective effects of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in Chang cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts were evaluated through several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The antioxidant activities were compared with other natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results showed that higher radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity in FRAP than those of vitamin C as a positive control. T. japonica pericarp extracts have antioxidant properties through its ability to prevent tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced toxicity which enhance the cell viability, reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inhibits of oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in Chang liver cells. Therefore, based on these finding, it seems reasonable to suggest that T. japonica pericarp extracts has the potential to protect liver against t-BHP-induced cell damage and should be considered as a potential functional food.
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An analysis of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of fulguration under local anesthesia for small-sized recurrent masses: a comparative analysis to transurethral resection of bladder tumors in a matched cohort.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To investigate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of fulguration compared with traditional transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURB) among patients who had recurrent lesions after an initial TURB due to bladder cancer.
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Outcomes of kidney allograft in recipients with kidney disease of unknown etiology.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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The etiology of renal disease is important because the primary renal pathology may affect the outcomes of kidney allograft with respect to recurrence, rejection, and survival. However, for a significant number of patients who undergo kidney transplantation, the disease etiology is unknown. Here, allograft outcomes for patients with kidney disease of unknown etiology (UEK) at three affiliated Korean hospitals were identified. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) for UEK was 22.9%, which was similar to the rates for diabetic nephropathy (DN, 24.4%) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 20.0%; p = 0.345). The cumulative incidence of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (PTGN) among patients with UEK was significantly lower than that among patients with IgAN (p < 0.001). Overall graft survival of the UEK group was superior to that of the DN group (hazards ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.92, p = 0.030). Preemptive transplantation for UEK significantly reduced the incidence of BPAR (preemptive vs. non-preemptive 9.6% vs. 30.3%, p = 0.001), but graft survival and recurrence were not affected by preemptive transplantation. The outcomes of kidney transplantation for patients with UEK were not inferior to those for patients with IgAN or DN. Preemptive kidney transplantation may be encouraged for UEK patients.
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Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 3 subtypes of achalasia according to the chicago classification in a tertiary institute in Korea.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Achalasia is classified into 3 types according to the Chicago classification. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and treatment outcomes of 3 achalasia subtypes in Korean patients.
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Outcomes of Gleason Score ? 8 among high risk prostate cancer treated with 125I low dose rate brachytherapy based multimodal therapy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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To investigate the role of low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy-based multimodal therapy in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) and analyze its optimal indications.
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Palliative treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with obstructive jaundice using biliary drainage with subsequent transarterial chemoembolization.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Nonsurgical biliary drainage is considered as a priority for obstructive jaundice associated with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Successful drainage allows the patient to receive antitumor therapy, such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). However, only limited data are available on clinical outcomes in patients who treated biliary drainage with subsequent TACE.
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Dual inhibition of MEK1/2 and EGFR synergistically induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in EGFR inhibitor-resistant lung cancer cells via BIM upregulation.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations activate the KRAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in lung cancer cells. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib induce apoptosis of cancer cells, but prolonged treatment is often associated with acquired resistance. Here, we identified a novel MEK1/2 inhibitor, CZ0775, and compared its cytotoxic effects to those of AZD6244 (selumetinib) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring EGFR mutations. The lapatinib-sensitive HCC827 and PC9 and lapatinib-resistant H1650 and H1975 cell lines showed poor responses to CZ0775 and AZD6244 monotherapy with an IC50 > 10 ?M. By contrast, combination treatment with lapatinib and CZ0775 inhibited cell proliferation and produced a 2-fold higher number of annexin V-labeled cells than lapatinib alone in H1975 cells. Furthermore, combination treatment decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal related kinase (p-ERK) and survivin levels and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. siRNA-mediated BIM depletion reduced caspase-3 activity (~40%) in lapatinib and CZ0775 treated H1975 cells. An in vitro ERK activity assay showed that p-ERK levels were approximately a 3-fold lower in H1975 cells treated with CZ0775 and lapatinib combination than in cells treated with lapatinib alone. CZ0775 was more cytotoxic than AZD6244 when used in combination with lapatinib. Our results suggest that combination treatment with CZ0774 and EGFR inhibitors is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancers and its effect is mediated by the inhibition of ERK and the induction of BIM.
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Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4?M, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells.
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A Multicenter Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine Plus Oxaliplatin in Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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No standard chemotherapy has been established for advanced gallbladder cancer. The authors studied the activity and tolerability of a gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) combination in unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC).
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Correlation Between Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Level and Prostate Volume in a Community-based Cohort: Large-scale Screening of 35,223 Korean Men.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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To investigate the relationship between prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and prostate volume (PV) according to age in a community-based population of Korean men enrolled in a large-scale screening program.
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The optimal duration of preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors that cause severe obstructive jaundice.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Despite routine preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) with periampullary cancer, its optimal duration has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate PBD in severely jaundiced patients.
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Effects of vertebral column distraction on transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential and histology of the spinal cord in a porcine model.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Spinal cord injury can occur following surgical procedures for correction of scoliosis and kyphosis, as these procedures produce lengthening of the vertebral column. The objective of this study was to cause spinal cord injury by vertebral column distraction and evaluate the histological changes in the spinal cord in relationship to the pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury.
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Presence of coronary artery disease increases the risk of biliary events in patients with asymptomatic gallstones.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Propensity score indicates a probability of having a confounding factor. It is used to match each patient with the closest propensity score between two groups, which is known as propensity score matching. This study aimed to evaluate the gallstone-related biliary events, defined as biliary colic and acute cholecystitis between coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-CAD patients using propensity score matching.
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Radical prostatectomy versus high dose permanent prostate brachytherapy using iodine-125 seeds for patients with high risk prostate cancer: a matched cohort analysis.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To compare the biochemical outcomes reported after radical prostatectomy (RP) versus high dose permanent prostate brachytherapy (HDPPB) using iodine-125 seeds in the treatment of matched high risk prostate cancer (HiPCa).
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Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Functional Dyspepsia.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This study evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on functional dyspepsia (FD), and the relationship between the changes of histological gastritis and FD symptom responses.
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Estrogen receptor ? gene analysis in girls with central precocious puberty.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Estrogen is the final key factor that triggers the onset of puberty. The raised sensitivity of estrogen receptor, which may be caused by an estrogen receptor ? (ER?) gene mutation or polymorphism, has been implicated in the etiology of precocious puberty. The aim of this study is to identify ER? gene mutations or polymorphisms in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP).
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.