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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical outcome of induction chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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BACKGROUND AIM: We evaluated the efficacy and toxicities of three induction chemotherapy regimens in locally advanced head and neck cancer and assessed the clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in induction chemotherapy.
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Fulminant hepatitis linked to dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome requiring urgent living donor liver transplantation: a case report.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Dapsone is a sulfone-type drug used widely for different infectious, immune, and hypersensitivity disorders as an antibacterial treatment alone or in combination for leprosy and sometimes for infected skin lesions. DHS is a severe idiosyncratic adverse reaction with multi-organ involvement. However, acute necrotic hepatitis requiring an emergent LT is rare. Herein, we report a case of 12-yr-old girl who suffered from fulminant hepatitis and multi-organ failure due to DHS for PPD. She was saved by emergent LDLT. A high index of suspicion and rapid diagnosis are necessary not to miss this potentially lethal but rare disease.
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Clinical outcome of relapsed or refractory burkitt lymphoma and mature B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Despite the rapid improvement in survival rate from Burkitt lymphoma and mature B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in children, a small subset of patients do not respond to first-line chemotherapy or experience relapse (RL). Herein, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients.
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A case-control study to identify risk factors for totally implantable central venous port-related bloodstream infection.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer.
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Favorable outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a targeted once-daily IV busulfan fludarabine etoposide regimen in pediatric and infant ALL patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Conditioning regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) usually include total body irradiation (TBI), but TBI may result in serious sequelae. Busulfan and cyclophosphamide have been used as an alternative to TBI. Etoposide also has been widely used to enhance anti-leukemic effect. But toxicities have been reported in some studies using busulfan, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (BuCyVP) regimen. Recently, a reduced toxicity myeloablative regimen using busulfan and fludarabine showed promising results. Also, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and administration of targeted dose of busulfan has been recommended to improve the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we evaluated the outcome of HSCT using a targeted once-daily intravenous (IV) busulfan fludarabine etoposide (BuFluVP) regimen in pediatric and infant ALL. Busulfan (? 1 year-120 mg/m(2) and < 1 year-80 mg/m(2)) was administered once daily as the first dose on day -8, and targeted dose of busulfan was used according to the TDM results on day -7 ? -5. A total of 44 patients were evaluated. Donor-type neutrophil engraftment was achieved in all patients. Veno-occlusive disease occurred in 7 (15.9%) patients, but all of them were successfully treated. Cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality and relapse were 9.1% and 9.9%. One-year overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) of all patients were 86.2% and 83.8%, respectively. Twelve patients (27.3%) were infants at diagnosis, and 1-year OS of these patients was 83.3%. Our study demonstrated that HSCT using a targeted once-daily IV BuFluVP regimen showed favorable outcome and could be one option for HSCT in pediatric and infant ALL.
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Clinical features, genetics, and outcome of pediatric patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Korea: report of a nationwide survey from Korea Histiocytosis Working Party.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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We analyzed a nationwide registry of pediatric patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in Korea to assess the clinical and genetic features and treatment outcomes in pediatric HLH.
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A multicenter phase II study of everolimus in patients with progressive unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of everolimus in patients with progressive unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC).
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Treatment outcome of osteosarcoma after bilateral retinoblastoma: a retrospective study of eight cases.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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To analyse clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of osteosarcoma that developed in survivors of bilateral retinoblastoma.
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Human papillomavirus-stratified analysis of the prognostic role of miR-21 in oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a significant role in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Expression of miR-21 has a prognostic role in a wide variety of cancers. The upregulation of miR-21 suppresses a number of target genes, including phosphatase tensin homologue (PTEN) and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). We investigated the association between the expression of miR-21 and the clinical features of HNSCC using stratified analysis based on HPV infection status. HPV status and miR-21 expression in HNSCC tissues from 167 patients were evaluated using in situ hybridization. The expression of PDCD4 and PTEN was examined by immunohistochemistry. The up-regulation of stromal miR-21 expression occurred in 40.6% of HPV-negative samples and 28.3% of the HPV-positive group. In HPV-stratified multivariate analysis, high miR-21 expression was associated with poor cancer-specific survival in HPV-negative tumors, but not in HPV-positive tumors. There was a significant association between miR-21 and cytoplasmic PDCD4 overexpression in HPV-negative HNSCCs. We suggest that stromal miR-21 expression is an independent prognostic factor in HPV-negative tumors and miR-21 may play different roles depending on HPV infection status.
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Proton beam therapy reduces the incidence of acute haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities associated with craniospinal irradiation in pediatric brain tumors.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The benefits of proton beam craniospinal irradiation (PrBCSI) in children have been extensively reported in dosimetric studies. However, there is limited clinical evidence supporting the use of PrBCSI. We compared the acute toxicity of PrBCSI relative to that of conventional photon beam CSI (PhBCSI) in children with brain tumours.
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First-line pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by gefitinib maintenance therapy versus gefitinib monotherapy in East Asian patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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In the Iressa Pan-ASia Study (IPASS), gefitinib claimed improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus carboplatin-paclitaxel in clinically selected lung cancer patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess the PFS of pemetrexed-cisplatin (PC) followed by gefitinib maintenance versus gefitinib monotherapy in an IPASS-like population.
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Divergence of P53, PTEN, PI3K, Akt and mTOR expression in tonsillar cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate expression differences of p53, PTEN, PI3K, Akt and mTOR according to the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and to evaluate clinical significance as prognostic markers in patients with locally advanced tonsillar cancer.
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Quantification of human plasma-busulfan concentration by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Busulfan, an alkylating agent administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, has a narrow therapeutic range and wide variability in metabolism. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for rapid and accurate quantification of plasma busulfan.
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Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: 22 years' experience of 154 patients at a single center.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Large studies by single institutions have been infrequent because of the rarity of the disease and the diversity of clinical manifestations. In this study, the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively for the 154 patients diagnosed and treated with LCH at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from January 1986 to December 2007. A total of 154 patients were evaluated. One hundred and six patients (68.8%) had single system disease, 48 patients (31.2%) had multisystem disease. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) had risk organ involvement. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) relapsed and the overall survival (OS) of the total study population was 97.1% with a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Patients less than 4 years old, with involvement more than 2 organs and with risk organ involvement showed lower progression free survival (PFS) (P = .001, <.001, and <.001, respectively). Estimated 10-year PFS of patients with and without risk organ involvement were 52.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Patients with single system LCH had excellent prognosis showing 89.6% of PFS and 100% of OS. Patients with multisystem LCH also had a high survival rate, although the incidences of relapse remain to be solved. A new strategy to decrease the incidence of relapse is needed.
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Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels and the Risk of Whole-body Metastatic Potential in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to clarify the clinical associations between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels and whole-body metastatic distribution in stage IV NSCLC patients.
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Trends in the aggressiveness of end-of-life care for Korean pediatric cancer patients who died in 2007-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In light of the Korean Supreme Court's 2009 ruling favoring a patient's right to die with dignity, we evaluated trends in aggressive care in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective study that used administrative data for patients who died in 2007-2010 among the 5,203 pediatric cancer patients registered at the Korean Cancer Central Registry (KCCR) during 2007-2009.
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Unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for non-malignant disorders in children and adolescents.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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This study analyzes the data reported to the Korean Cord Blood Registry between 1994 and 2008, involving children and adolescents with non-malignant diseases. Sixty-five patients were evaluated in this study: SAA (n = 24), iBMFS, (n = 16), and primary immune deficiency/inherited metabolic disorder (n = 25). The CI of neutrophil recovery was 73.3% on day 42. By day 100, the CI of acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease was 32.3%. At a median follow-up of 71 months, five-yr OS was 50.7%. The survival rate (37.5%) and CI of neutrophil engraftment (37.5%) were lowest in patients with iBMFS. Deaths were mainly due to infection, pulmonary complications, and hemorrhage. In a multivariate analysis, the presence of >3.91 × 10(5) /kg of infused CD34 +  cells was the only factor consistently identified as significantly associated with neutrophil engraftment (p = 0.04) and OS (p = 0.03). UCBT using optimal cell doses appears to be a feasible therapy for non-malignant diseases in children and adolescents for whom there is no appropriate HLA-matched related donor. Strategies to reduce transplant-related toxicities would improve the outcomes of UCBT in non-malignant diseases.
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Clinical characteristics of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in childhood.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a frequent complication in patients with cancer. There are an increasing number of reports of permanent CIA.
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Cross-cultural adaptation of the korean version of the minneapolis-manchester quality of life instrument-adolescent form.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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We verified the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument-Adolescent Form (KMMQL-AF) among Korean childhood cancer survivors. A total of 107 childhood cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and 98 childhood cancer survivors who completed cancer treatment were recruited. To assess the internal structure of the KMMQL-AF, we performed multi-trait scaling analyses and exploratory factor analysis. Additionally, we compared each domains of the KMMQL-AF with those of the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and the Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Internal consistency of the KMMQL-AF was sufficient (Cronbachs alpha: 0.78-0.92). In multi-trait scaling analyses, the KMMQL-AF showed sufficient construct validity. The "physical functioning" domain showed moderate correlation with Karnofsky scores and the "psychological functioning" domain showed moderate-to-high correlation with the RCMAS. The KMMQL-AF discriminated between subgroups of different adolescent cancer survivors depending on treatment completion. The KMMQL-AF is a sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for measuring quality of life among Korean childhood cancer survivors.
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Predicting Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Validating the Extent of Metastasis.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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A number of factors related to overall survival (OS) have been addressed in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was conducted to determine the impact of whole-body metastatic regions on survival outcome in advanced non-squamous NSCLC.
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Clinical characteristics of pediatric thalassemia in Korea: a single institute experience.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
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Few literatures have elaborated on the clinical characteristics of children with thalassemia from low-prevalence areas. A retrospective analysis was conducted on children genetically confirmed with thalassemia at Seoul National University Childrens Hospital in Korea. Nine children (1? thalassemia trait, 6? thalassemia minor, 2? thalassemia intermedia) were diagnosed with thalassemia at median age of 4.3 yr old with median hemoglobin of 9.7 g/dL. Seven (78%) children were incidentally found to be anemic and only 2 with ? thalassemia intermedia had presenting symptoms. Five children (56%) were initially misdiagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Despite the comorbidities due to ? thalassemia mental retardation syndrome, the child with ? thalassemia trait had mild hematologic profile. Children with ? thalassemia intermedia had the worst phenotypes due to dominantly inherited mutations. None of the children was transfusion dependent and most of them had no complications associated with thalassemia. Only 1 child (11%) with codon 60 (T?A) mutation of the HBB gene needed red blood cell transfusions. He also had splenomegaly, cholelithiasis, and calvarial vault thickening. Pediatricians in Korea must acknowledge thalassemia as a possible diagnosis in children with microcytic hypochromic hemolytic anemia. High level of suspicion will allow timely diagnosis and managements.
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Open-label, randomized, single-dose, crossover study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety differences between two docetaxel products, CKD-810 and Taxotere injection, in patients with advanced solid cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare CKD-810 (test docetaxel) with Taxotere(®) (reference docetaxel) in terms of pharmacokinetics and safety for patients with advanced or metastatic carcinoma.
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Myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or progressed central nervous system germ cell tumors: results of Korean Society of Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO) S-053 study.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of myeloablative high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or progressed central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs). Eleven patients with non-germinomatous germ cell tumors and nine patients with germinomas were enrolled. Patients received between two and eight cycles of conventional chemotherapy prior to HDCT/autoSCT with or without radiotherapy. Overall, 16 patients proceeded to the first HDCT/autoSCT, and nine proceeded to the second HDCT/autoSCT. CTE (carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide) and cyclophosphamide-melphalan (CM) regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively. Toxicities during HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable, and there were no treatment-related deaths. Twelve patients experienced relapse or progression; however, four patients with germinomas remain alive after subsequent RT. Therefore, a total of 12 patients (four NGGCTs and eight germinomas) remain alive with a median follow-up of 47 months (range 22-90) after relapse or progression. The probability of 3-year overall survival was 59.1 ± 11.2 % (36.4 ± 14.5 % for NGGCTs vs. 88.9 ± 10.5 % for germinomas, P = 0.028). RT, particularly craniospinal RT, was associated with a better tumor response prior to HDCT/autoSCT and a better final outcome. In conclusion, HDCT/autoSCT was feasible, and survival rates were encouraging. Further study with a larger cohort of patients is needed to elucidate the role of HDCT/autoSCT in the treatment of relapsed or progressed CNS-GCTs.
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A CDK4/6 inhibitor enhances cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring mutant KRAS as well as wild-type KRAS.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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The KRAS gain-of-function mutation confers intrinsic resistance to targeted anti-cancer drugs and cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, ultimately leading to treatment failure. KRAS mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma is ~15-30%. Novel therapeutic strategies should be developed to improve clinical outcomes in these cases. Deregulation of the p16/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway is frequently observed in various cancers and it represents an attractive therapeutic target. We compared the anti-tumor efficacy of genetically knocked-down CDK4 and a pharmacological inhibitor of CDK4/6, CINK4, in KRAS mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma cells. We also investigated changes in anti-proliferative activity and downstream molecules with these treatments in combination with paclitaxel. CDK4 short interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased paclitaxel sensitivity in KRAS mutation-positive H23 cells. CINK4 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative activity in 5 adenocarcinoma lines. CINK4 induced G 1 arrest by downregulating the p16/cyclin D1/Rb pathway, resulting in apoptotic induction via increased expression of cleaved caspase3, cleaved PARP and Bax. Combined CINK4 and paclitaxel produced synergistic anti-proliferative activity and increased apoptosis through reduced cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 in KRAS mutation-positive cancer cells. These data suggest CDK4 is a promising target for development of anti-cancer drugs and CINK4 combined with paclitaxel may be an effective therapeutic strategy for enhancing anti-tumor efficacy in KRAS mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma.
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A trial of autologous ex vivo-expanded NK cell-enriched lymphocytes with docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer as second- or third-line treatment: phase IIa study.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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New strategies are still needed to enhance the treatment outcome for advanced non-small cell lung cancer, in spite of recent remarkable developments. Cancer immunotherapy has been attractive since a long time, with diverse clinical attempts and results. In particular, natural killer (NK) cells have received considerable attention because of their potential role in immune surveillance in vivo by destroying infected or transformed cells. Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B (MICA/B) on tumor cells, known as the representative ligand for NKG2D receptor on NK cells, has been reported to be modulated by a variety of stress factors, including some chemotherapeutic agents, and it is anticipated that enhancing MICA/B expression will be contributory to anticancer treatment. With recent development of expanding autologous ex vivo NK cell-enriched lymphocytes (NKL), we designed a trial to augment the anticancer effect by co-administering NKL and docetaxel, one of the second-line agents used for treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Metabolic Activity on [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Glucose Transporter-1 Expression Might Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Limited Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer Who Receive Concurrent Chemoradi
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Limited disease small-cell lung cancer responds well to concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT), but shows high relapse rate and short RFS. We aimed to evaluate tumor metabolic activities measured using FDG-PET as a prognostic factor and analyze its relationships with markers of tumor biologic behavior.
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A randomized, phase II study of vandetanib maintenance for advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer following first-line platinum-doublet chemotherapy.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This randomized, phase II study investigated whether benefit could be obtained by giving vandetanib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial and epithelial growth factor receptor, as a maintenance treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Adjuvant Postoperative Radiotherapy with or without Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: The Importance of Patient Selection for the Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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We wanted to evaluate the role of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
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Molecular genetic characterization of p53 mutated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells transformed with human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer show better tumor response to radiation or chemotherapy than patients with HPV-negative cancer. HPV oncoprotein E6 binds and degrades a typically wild-type p53 protein product. However, HPV16 infection and p53 mutation infrequently coexist in a subset of HNSCCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms through which tumor biology and molecular genetic mechanisms change when two HPV-negative, p53-mutated oropharyngeal cell lines (YD8, non-disruptive p53 mutation; YD10B, disruptive p53 mutation) derived from patients with a history of heavy smoking are transfected with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in vitro. Transfection with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in YD8, reduced the abundance of proteins encoded by tumor suppressor genes, such as p-p53 and p-Rb. Cell proliferative activity was increased in the cells transfected with E6E7 compared to cells transfected with vector alone (P=0.09), whereas the invasiveness of E6E7-transfected cells was significantly reduced (P=0.02). cDNA microarray of the transfected cells with E6E7 showed significant changes in mRNA expression in several signaling pathways, including focal adhesion, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. Regarding the qPCR array for the p53 signaling pathway, the mRNA expression of STAT1 was remarkably upregulated by 6.47-fold (P<0.05); in contrast, IGF-1R was significantly downregulated by 2.40-fold in the YD8-vector compared toYD8-E6E7 (P<0.01). Finally, data collected from these two array experiments enabled us to select two genes, STAT1 and IGF-1R, for further study. In immunohistochemical study, nuclear STAT1 expression was slightly higher in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative oropharyngeal tumors (P=0.18); however, cytoplasmic STAT1 was significantly lower in HPV-positive cases (P=0.03). IGF-1R expression levels were remarkably lower in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative cases (P=0.01). Our data suggest that upregulated STAT1 and interferon signals by HPV16 E6 and E7 genes may play a major role in the relatively favorable prognosis for HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases with non-disruptive p53 mutations.
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Pre-engraftment syndrome after unrelated cord blood transplantation: a predictor of engraftment and acute graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Pre-engraftment syndrome (PES) is poorly characterized, and its clinical significance and the prognostic impact after unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) are unclear. To address these issues, we retrospectively analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of PES in unrelated CBT recipients. Data of 381 patients who received unrelated CBT from 18 medical centers in Korea were reviewed. PES was defined as unexplained fever >38.3°C not associated with infection, and/or unexplained skin rash with or without evidence of fluid retention before neutrophil recovery. PES developed in 102 patients (26.8%) at a median of 7 days after CBT. Of these patients, 74 patients (72.5%) received intravenous corticosteroid at a median dose of 1 mg/kg/day, and of these, 95% showed clinical improvement. Risk factors for developing PES included low risk disease, myeloablative conditioning, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis without methotrexate or corticosteroid, and >5.43 x 10(7)/kg infused nucleated cells. Absence of PES was one of the risk factors for graft failure in multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of grade II to grade IV acute GVHD by 100 days after CBT was higher in patients with PES than in those without PES (56.0% versus 34.4%, P < .01). PES was not associated with chronic GVHD, treatment-related mortality, relapse, or overall survival. PES seems to be common after CBT and may be associated with enhanced engraftment without significant morbidity.
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Growth after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Previous studies have shown that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may result in growth impairment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth during 5 yr after HSCT and to determine factors that influence final adult height (FAH). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who received HSCT. Among a total of 37 eligible patients, we selected 24 patients who began puberty at 5 yr after HSCT (Group 1) and 19 patients who reached FAH without relapse (Group 2). In Group 1, with younger age at HSCT, sex, steroid treatment, hypogonadism and hypothyroidism were not significantly associated with growth impairment 5 yr after HSCT. History of radiotherapy (RT) significantly impaired the 5 yr growth after HSCT. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) only temporarily impaired growth after HSCT. In Group 2, with younger age at HSCT, steroid treatment and hypogonadism did not significantly reduce FAH. History of RT significantly reduced FAH. Growth impairment after HSCT may occur in AML patients, but in patients without a history of RT, growth impairment seemed to be temporary and was mitigated by catch-up growth.
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Respiratory viral infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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This study was performed to characterize respiratory viral infections in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Study samples included 402 respiratory specimens obtained from 358 clinical episodes that occurred in the 116 children of the 175 consecutive HSCT cohort at Seoul National University Childrens Hospital, Korea from 2007 to 2010. Multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions were performed for rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, human coronavirus (hCoV), influenza viruses and human metapneumovirus. Viruses were identified in 89 clinical episodes that occurred in 58 patients. Among the 89 clinical episodes, frequently detected viruses were rhinovirus in 25 (28.1%), RSV in 23 (25.8%), PIV-3 in 16 (18.0%), adenovirus in 12 (13.5%), and hCoV in 10 (11.2%). Lower respiratory tract infections were diagnosed in 34 (38.2%). Neutropenia was present in 24 (27.0%) episodes and lymphopenia was in 31 (34.8%) episodes. Sixty-three percent of the clinical episodes were hospital-acquired. Three patients died of respiratory failure caused by respiratory viral infections. Respiratory viral infections in pediatric patients who have undergone HSCT are common and are frequently acquired during hospitalization. Continuous monitoring is required to determine the role of respiratory viruses in immunocompromised children and the importance of preventive strategies.
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Predictive Efficacy of Low Burden EGFR Mutation Detected by Next-Generation Sequencing on Response to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Direct sequencing remains the most widely used method for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer; however, its relatively low sensitivity limits its clinical use. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of detecting an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation from peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PNA-LNA PCR) clamp and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) techniques compared to that by direct sequencing. Furthermore, the predictive efficacy of EGFR mutations detected by PNA-LNA PCR clamp was evaluated. EGFR mutational status was assessed by direct sequencing, PNA-LNA PCR clamp, and Ion Torrent PGM in 57 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the predictive efficacy of PNA-LNA PCR clamp on the EGFR-TKI treatment in 36 patients with advanced NSCLC retrospectively. Compared to direct sequencing (16/57, 28.1%), PNA-LNA PCR clamp (27/57, 47.4%) and Ion Torrent PGM (26/57, 45.6%) detected more EGFR mutations. EGFR mutant patients had significantly longer progressive free survival (14.31 vs. 21.61 months, P?=?0.003) than that of EGFR wild patients when tested with PNA-LNA PCR clamp. However, no difference in response rate to EGFR TKIs (75.0% vs. 82.4%, P?=?0.195) or overall survival (34.39 vs. 44.10 months, P?=?0.422) was observed between the EGFR mutations by direct sequencing or PNA-LNA PCR clamp. Our results demonstrate firstly that patients with EGFR mutations were detected more frequently by PNA-LNA PCR clamp and Ion Torrent PGM than those by direct sequencing. EGFR mutations detected by PNA-LNA PCR clamp may be as a predicative factor for EGFR TKI response in patients with NSCLC.
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Pharmacogenetic study of deferasirox, an iron chelating agent.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing -1774 del and/or -24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR?=?7.17, 95% CI?=?1.79-28.67, P?=?0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ?40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR?=?8.48, 95% CI?=?1.7-43.57, P?=?0.010 and OR?=?14.17, 95% CI?=?1.34-150.35, P?=?0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox.
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A transforming KIF5B and RET gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma revealed from whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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The identification of the molecular events that drive cancer transformation is essential to the development of targeted agents that improve the clinical outcome of lung cancer. Many studies have reported genomic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) over the past decade; however, the molecular pathogenesis of >40% of NSCLCs is still unknown. To identify new molecular targets in NSCLCs, we performed the combined analysis of massively parallel whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing for cancer and paired normal tissue of a 33-yr-old lung adenocarcinoma patient, who is a never-smoker and has no familial cancer history. The cancer showed no known driver mutation in EGFR or KRAS and no EML4-ALK fusion. Here we report a novel fusion gene between KIF5B and the RET proto-oncogene caused by a pericentric inversion of 10p11.22-q11.21. This fusion gene overexpresses chimeric RET receptor tyrosine kinase, which could spontaneously induce cellular transformation. We identified the KIF5B-RET fusion in two more cases out of 20 primary lung adenocarcinomas in the replication study. Our data demonstrate that a subset of NSCLCs could be caused by a fusion of KIF5B and RET, and suggest the chimeric oncogene as a promising molecular target for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.
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Prognostic role of integrin ?1, E-cadherin, and rac1 expression in small cell lung cancer.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Integrin ?(1) mediates cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is correlated with highly invasive and metastatic behavior in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). E-cadherin (ECAD) is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion receptor that restricts invasion of cells and reduces metastasis. Rac1 is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine integrin ?(1) , ECAD and rac1 expression in SCLC and to analyze the prognostic value of these markers in patients with SCLC. We analyzed integrin ?(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression in 112 SCLC tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Correlative analyses between integrin ?(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression and cliniopathological factors were performed. A total of 65 patients had extensive disease (ED) (58%), and 47 had limited disease (LD) (42%). The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range: 14-117 months), and the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.1 months (range: 4.8-7.4 months) and 9.7 months (range: 8.1-11.3 months), respectively. The expression of integrin ?(1) , ECAD, and rac1 protein was observed in 64, 73, and 99 of SCLC tissues, respectively. The correlative analyses between integrin ?(1) , ECAD, or rac1 expression and various clinical parameters did not show any statistical significance. However, the ECAD expression was associated with OS in the entire cohort. In contrast, the expression of integrin ?(1) and rac1 was not associated with PFS or OS. In a subgroup analysis, patients with less than two metastasis had significantly longer OS (p = 0.047) if their tumors expressed integrin ?(1) compared to those without integrin ?(1) expression. In addition, OS was longer for patients with ECAD positive tumors compared to those whose tumors did not express ECAD in males (p = 0.032) and patients who never smoked (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LD (p = 0.004), overall response rate (p = 0.003), and expression of ECAD (p = 0.015) were the independent good prognostic factors for OS. LD (p = 0.024), overall response rate (p < 0.001), and less than two metastasis (p = 0.003) were prognostic factors for longer PFS. These results suggest that ECAD expression may be useful as a prognostic indicator in patients with SCLC.
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Development of multiplex PCR method for the analysis of glutathione s-transferase polymorphism.
Mol Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Busulfan is a key compound in myeloablative chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in children. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST), which is involved in the metabolism of busulfan, have been implicated in interindividual variability in busulfan pharmacokinetics. Development of a rapid and simplified method for polygenic analysis of GST may facilitate large pharmacogenetic studies and clinical application of individualized busulfan dose adjustment. We previously introduced an effective PCR method for analyzing multiple genes using a small amount of DNA, termed TotalPlex amplification.
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Retroviral gene therapy for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease: results from phase I/II trial.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the gp91(phox) gene. In an effort to treat X-CGD, we investigated the safety and efficacy of gene therapy using a retroviral vector, MT-gp91. Two X-CGD patients received autologous CD34(+) cells transduced with MT-gp91 after a conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine and busulfan. The level of gene-marked cells was highest at day 21 (8.3 and 11.7% in peripheral blood cells) but decreased to 0.08 and 0.5%, respectively, 3 years after gene transfer. The level of functionally corrected cells, as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase assay, reached a peak at day 17 (6.5% patient 1 (P1) and 14.3% patient 2 (P2) of total granulocytes) and declined to 0.05% (P1) and 0.21% (P2), 3 years later. Some retroviral vectors were found to have integrated within or close to the proto-oncogenes MDS1-EVI1, PRDM16, and CCND2; however, no abnormal cell expansion or related hematological malignancy was observed. Overall, the gene transfer procedure did not produce any serious adverse effects and was able to convert a significant fraction of blood cells to biologically functional cells, albeit for a short period of time.
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Common variation in genes related to immune response and risk of childhood leukemia.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
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An abnormal immune response to common infection(s) may be a plausible etiological mechanism in childhood leukemia. We investigated whether 931 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected in gene regions related to immune response are associated with childhood leukemia susceptibility in a hospital-based case-control study (63 cases and 148 controls) conducted among Korean children. The AT or TT genotype of rs7939734 in Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) was associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia compared with the AA genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 2.26, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.20-4.25, p(trend) = 0.0007, min p = 0.002, false discovery rate [FDR] p = 0.17). The CG or GG genotype of rs2301696 in TRPM5 was associated with decreased risk of childhood leukemia compared with the CC genotype (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.14-0.63, p(trend) = 0.002, min p = 0.004, FDR p = 0.17). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune response genes might play a role in childhood leukemia development with limited biologic evidence.
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Clinical and testing protocols for the analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in East Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a combined clinical-molecular pathological approach.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Several randomized phase III studies in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) confirmed the superior response rate and progression-free survival of using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor as first-line therapy compared with chemotherapy in patients with activating EGFR mutations. Despite the need for EGFR mutation tests to guide first-line therapy in East Asian NSCLC, there are no current standard clinical and testing protocols.
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Early engraftment of G-CSF-primed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in pediatric patients regardless of donor-recipient weight differences.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Harvesting sufficient progenitor cells from bone marrow (BM) for pediatric patients is a challenging process, especially from smaller donors. Growth factor administration to donors prior to harvest results in an enrichment of the graft and leads to early engraftment. A total of 41 patients received a human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantation using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed BM. All donors received G-CSF 10 ?g/kg/day for 2 days prior to harvest. The median weight difference between donor and recipient was 3.9 kg (range, -29.8 to 32 kg), and the median number of CD34(+) cells harvested was 4.16?×?10(6)/kg (range, 1.17-31.9?×?10(6)/kg). The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (range, 10-27 days), and the time for platelet engraftment was 20 days (range, 12-64 days). The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 to 3 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD was 4.9% and 5.1%, respectively. An analysis according to the weight difference between donor and recipient showed there was no significant difference in harvested CD34(+) cell dose and in time required for engraftment between smaller and heavier donor recipients. G-CSF-primed BM allows successful engraftment and provides a valuable alternative to unstimulated BM and peripheral blood stem cells with good engraftment and tolerable GVHD even in patients with smaller donors.
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Comparative effectiveness of bevacizumab plus cisplatin-based chemotherapy versus pemetrexed plus cisplatin treatment in East Asian non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients applying real-life outcomes.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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To indirectly compare real-life clinical effectiveness of bevacizumab + cisplatin-based therapy from the Safety of Avastin in Lung (SAiL) phase IV clinical trial with published evidence from the phase III clinical trial for pemetrexed + cisplatin among East Asian patients with non-squamous metastatic or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab-based therapy versus cisplatin plus pemetrexed for the first-line treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC in Korea and Taiwan.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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The aim of this analysis is to investigate the mean incremental costs and life expectancy associated with two first-line treatments for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Korea and Taiwan; bevacizumab plus cisplatin and gemcitabine (BevCG) and cisplatin plus pemetrexed (CP).
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An indirect comparison of bevacizumab plus cisplatin-gemcitabine and cisplatin plus pemetrexed treatment for patients with advanced first-line non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer in East Asia.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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To compare the relative efficacy of bevacizumab plus cisplatin-gemcitabine chemotherapy (BevCG) with cisplatin plus pemetrexed (CP) in the first-line treatment of advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in East Asian patients. In the absence of evidence from head-to-head trials, an adjusted indirect treatment comparison (ITC) approach was selected to compare these treatments.
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Highly variable pharmacokinetics of once-daily intravenous busulfan when combined with fludarabine in pediatric patients: phase I clinical study for determination of optimal once-daily busulfan dose using pharmacokinetic modeling.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Busulfan has a narrow therapeutic range, and in children, pharmacokinetic variability has been found to be high even after the use of intravenous (i.v.) busulfan. Recently, a reduced toxicity myeloablative regimen showed promising results, but the data of busulfan pharmacokinetics in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using a targeted busulfan/fludarabine regimen in children has not yet been reported. We performed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) after once-daily i.v. busulfan combined with fludarabine and analyzed the outcomes. Busulfan (i.v.) was administered once daily for 4 consecutive days. The daily target area under the curve (AUC) was 18,125-20,000 ?g*h/L/day (4415-4872 ?mol*min/L/day), which was reduced to 18,000-19,000 ?g*h/L/day (4384-4628 ?mol*min/L/day) after a high incidence of toxicity was observed. A total of 24 patients were enrolled. After infusion of busulfan on the first day, patients showed AUC that ranged from 12,079 to 31,660 ?g*h/L (2942 to 7712 ?mol*min/L) (median 16,824 ?g*h/L, percent coefficient of variation (%CV) = 26.5%), with clearance of 1.74-6.94 mL/min/kg (median 4.03 mL/min/kg). We performed daily TDM in 20 patients, and during the daily TDM, the actual AUC ranged from 73% to 146% of the target AUC, showing high intraindividual variability. The %CV of busulfan clearance of each individual ranged from 7.7% to 38.7%. The total dose of busulfan administered for 4 days ranged from 287.3 mg/m(2) to 689.3 mg/m(2). Graft failure occurred in 3 patients with total AUC less than 74,000 ?g*h/L (18,026 ?mol*min/L), and 2 patients with relatively high total AUC experienced veno-occlusive disease. Busulfan pharmacokinetics showed high inter- and intraindividual variability in HSCT using a targeted busulfan/fludarabine regimen, which indicates the need for intensive monitoring and dose adjustment to improve the outcome of HSCT. Currently, we are performing a newly designed phase II study to decrease regimen-related toxicities and reduce graft failure by setting an optimal target AUC based on this study.
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Gemcitabine Plus Platinum Combination Chemotherapy for Elderly Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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This study aimed to analyze the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine plus platinum chemotherapy for patients aged 70 years or older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Clinical Responses and Prognostic Indicators of Concurrent Chemoradiation for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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To evaluate treatment outcomes and prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation.
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Epidemiology and clinical long-term outcome of childhood aplastic anemia in Korea for 15 years: retrospective study of the Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology Oncology (KSPHO).
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare hematologic disease characterized by pancytopenia and hypocellular marrow. The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology Oncology investigated retrospectively the incidence, survival, and transfusion independency according to treatment strategies in AA.
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Prognostic significance of CD44s expression in resected non-small cell lung cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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CD44s is a cell adhesion molecule known to mediate cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix, a prerequisite for tumor cell migration. CD44s plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we sought to determine whether CD44s is involved in clinical outcomes of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Proposal of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm in Korean patients.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug for the prevention of thromboembolic disorders. We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of four genes and clinical factors to warfarin dose requirement and provided a warfarin-dosing algorithm based on genetic and clinical variables in Korean patients. We recruited 564 Korean patients on stable anticoagulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and GGCX were analyzed. Using multiple regression analysis, we developed a model to predict the warfarin requirement. The SNPs of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and GGCX showed significant correlation with warfarin dose. Patients with the 3730AA genotype received significantly higher doses of warfarin than those with the 3730GG (P=0.0001). For CYP2C9, the highest maintenance dose was observed in the patients with wild-type genotype compared with the variant allele carriers (P<0.0001). The multiple regression model including age, gender, body surface area (BSA), international normalized ratio (INR) and four genetic polymorphisms accounted for 35% of total variations in warfarin dose (R(2)=0.3499; P<0.0001). This study shows that age, gender, BSA, INR and VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 polymorphism affect warfarin dose requirements in Koreans. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription may contribute to improve the efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment for Korean patients.
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Current status of pediatric umbilical cord blood transplantation in Korea: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 236 cases.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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We report the outcome of 236 pediatric umbilical cord blood transplantations (UCBT) performed in Korea. Given that the sources of the grafts were mostly unrelated donors (n = 226; 95.8%), only the results of unrelated UCBT were included for all statistics. The most frequent primary disease was acute leukemia (n = 167). In total, 91.7% of recipients were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). The median doses of nucleated cells and CD34+ cells were 4.84 × 10(7)/kg and 2.00 × 10(5)/kg, respectively. The median times to neutrophil (>0.5 × 10(9)/L) and platelet recovery (>20 × 10(9)/L) were 18 and 45 days, respectively. Grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD developed in 41.1 and 36.1% of cases, respectively. Forty-five patients developed CMV disease. The 5-year overall and event-free survival were 47.5 and 36.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that adverse factors for survival of the whole cohort were total body irradiation-based conditioning (P = 0.007), salvage transplant (P = 0.001), failure to achieve early complete chimerism (P < 0.0005), and CMV disease (P = 0.001). The outcomes of the single- and double-unit UCBT (n = 64) were similar, while double-unit recipients were heavier (P < 0.0005) and older (P < 0.0005). We conclude that double-unit UCBT is a reasonable option for older or heavier children and that the thorough surveillance of CMV infection and the development of an effective CMV therapeutic strategy may be especially important for Korean children, whose CMV seroprevalence exceeds 90%.
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Treatment outcomes in children with Burkitt lymphoma and L3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated using the lymphoma malignancy B protocol at a single institution.
Korean J Hematol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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We compared the outcomes of patients with Burkitt lymphoma and French-American-British (FAB) L3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated using Lymphoma Malignancy B (LMB) or other treatment protocols.
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Tumour lysis syndrome in children: experience of last decade.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The strategy against tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) had been hyperhydration, urine alkalinization, and allopurinol. Recently, rasburicase was added to the armament against this life-threatening condition. In Korea, rasburicase is used as a rescue therapy for cases with allopurinol-resistant hyperuricemia, because of the restriction by the National Health Insurance. We reviewed our experiences to re-assess the risk factors of TLS and the efficacy of rasburicase. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 396 children who were diagnosed as positive with acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma between the years 2000 and 2009. The risk factors for TLS were analyzed statistically, and those before and after the availability of rasburicase were compared. Sixty eight patients (17.2%) had TLS. Multivariate analysis showed that pre-chemotherapy hypophosphatemia was a risk factor for TLS, in addition to the known risk factors of hyperuricemia and high lactate dehydrogenase concentration. The availability of rasburicase as a rescue therapy did not negate the importance of uric acid as a risk factor of TLS. Rasburicase as a second line treatment for intractable hyperuricemia was not effective in reducing the incidence of TLS. Pre-chemotherapy hypophosphatemia was a significant independent risk factor for TLS.
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The impact of HLA matching on unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Korean children.
Korean J Hematol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The impact of HLA matching on outcomes of unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) varies in different racial or ethnic groups. Since little is known about the impact of such matching on URD HSCT in Korean children, we analyzed this issue.
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Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the tonsil.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare malignancy derived from antigen-presenting cells, with 55 cases reported thus far. A standard treatment modality is still being debated. This report describes a 56-year-old female who presented with right tonsillar enlargement and right submandibular swelling for 6 months. Treatment with empiric antibiotics did not result in improvement of her symptoms. Fine needle aspiration of the tonsil revealed no malignant cells. Tonsillectomy was eventually performed due to persistent symptoms. Based on microscopic findings, immunohistochemical stains, and review of the literature, the present case was finally diagnosed as IDCS of the tonsil with cervical lymph node involvement. The patient received four cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) chemotherapy, and a clinically complete response was achieved followed by adjuvant radiation.
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Prognostic significance of nuclear survivin expression in resected adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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The expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, in tumor cells is associated with poor clinical outcome for various cancers. We conducted this study to determine survivin expression in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck and to identify its clinical significance as a prognostic factor.
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FK506 causes cellular and functional defects in human natural killer cells.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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The role of NK cells in allogeneic HCT has been increasingly appreciated, particularly in the GVL effect. Although FK506 has been used widely to prevent GVHD, its action was considered to be primarily through activated T cells. In this study, we provide direct evidence for the first time that human NK cells are immediate targets of FK506. Our in vivo data from patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation or BMT showed a reduced number of NK cells with down-regulated CD25 expression in their peripheral blood compartment. Likewise, FK506 caused profound inhibition of NK cell proliferation in vitro and suppressed NK cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion in response to IL-2. These defects were accompanied by impaired cell clustering and selective down-regulation of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, CD2, CD49d, and CD58. Furthermore, FK506 specifically inhibited expression of NKG2D, CD48, and DNAM1 receptors without affecting that of 2B4, NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46. As a result, natural cytotoxicity against K562 tumor targets was impaired, while leaving redirected ADCC via 2B4 intact. Finally, FK506-treated NK cells showed impaired IL-2R signaling and inhibition of STAT3. Collectively, these signaling impairments and selective down-regulation of NK receptors by FK506 may underlie the proliferative and functional defects of NK cells. Thus, our data provide a new insight into the mechanism of immunosuppression by FK506, which should be considered to interpret the outcome of graft transplantation.
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Weekly rituximab followed by monthly rituximab treatment for steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease: results from a prospective, multicenter, phase II study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Since it was suggested that B cells play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease, rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody targeting B cells, has been shown to be effective in steroid-refractory, chronic graft-versus-host disease. However, most of the data were from small numbers of patients or retrospective analyses. We, therefore, conducted a multicenter phase II study to confirm the efficacy of this treatment strategy that targets B cells.
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High transcript level of FLT3 associated with high risk of relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Identification of prognostic factors and risk-based post-remission therapy was proposed to improve the outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a mutation of FLT3 has been reported to be a risk factor, especially for pediatric patients. Recently, FLT3 expression level was implicated to have prognostic significance in adults, but little is known for childhood AML. To define the prognostic significance, transcript level of FLT3 was analyzed in 52 pediatric AML patients. The median copy number of FLT3 was 4.6x10(3) (40-5.9x10(7) copies)/1.0x10(6) GAPDH copy, and the relapse free survival of patients with high transcript level of FLT3 (>10(6) copy number) (0%) was significantly lower than that of the others (53.2%). High transcript level of FLT3 was associated with a markedly high risk of relapse. The development of new therapeutic scheme such as a frontline allogeneic stem cell transplantation or administration of FLT3 inhibitor is needed to improve outcomes.
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Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
Korean J Hematol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
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Efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue in patients over 1 year of age with stage 4 neuroblastoma: the Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology experience over 6 years (2000-2005).
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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The efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was investigated in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Patients over 1 yr of age who were newly diagnosed with stage 4 neuroblastoma from January 2000 to December 2005 were enrolled in The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology registry. All patients who were assigned to receive HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the efficacy of single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Seventy and 71 patients were assigned to receive single or tandem HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis. Fifty-seven and 59 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR as scheduled. Twenty-four and 38 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group remained event free with a median follow-up of 56 (24-88) months. When the survival rate was analyzed according to intent-to-treat at diagnosis, the probability of the 5-yr event-free survival+/-95% confidence intervals was higher in the tandem HDCT group than in the single HDCT group (51.2+/-12.4% vs. 31.3+/-11.5%, P=0.030). The results of the present study demonstrate that the tandem HDCT/ASCR strategy is significantly better than the single HDCT/ASCR strategy for improved survival in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.
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Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for primary appendiceal carcinoma.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare malignancy. This study assessed prognostic factors affecting the clinical outcome in patients with appendiceal neoplasms.
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Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of childhood leukemia.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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The immune system plays an important role in the control of cancer development. To investigate possible genetic contribution to childhood leukemia risk in the innate immune system, we performed an association study for the 1214 SNPs in 146 gene regions related to innate immunity using GoldenGate (Illumina) oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA) in 106 case patients and 123 controls. Childhood leukemia risk was estimated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, gender and birth weight. The minP test was used to identify statistically significant association at gene level. Three SNPs (STAT6 rs703817, C1qG rs17433222, and MBP rs3794845) were significantly associated with childhood leukemia risk (p(trend) < 0.001, minP < 0.01). The most significant association with childhood leukemia risk was for STAT6 rs703817 (GA vs GG: 0.48 (0.26-0.87), AA vs GG: 0.21 (0.07-0.61), p(trend) = 0.0003, minP = 0.002). Subgroup analysis showed that Ly96 rs78380171 and MBP rs3794845 were significantly associated with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p(trend) < 0.001). Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity genes might play a role in the genesis of childhood leukemia with limited biologic evidence. Additional, larger studies are needed to identify the mechanism of these genes in childhood leukemia patients.
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LY294002 may overcome 5-FU resistance via down-regulation of activated p-AKT in Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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As EBV-associated gastric cancer has unique features that are different from EBV (-) gastric cancer, EBV is considered to have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. It has been reported that viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) in EBV-transformed tumor cells activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which provides a survival signal and chemo-resistance to cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. This study was to evaluate anti-proliferative effect and cell cycle change when 5-FU and LY294002 (LY), a selective inhibitor of PI3K, were treated separately or combined with different schedules in EBV positive gastric cancer cell line, SNU-719.
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Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed medulloblastoma: a report on the Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates +/-95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3+/-12.2% and 26.7% +/-11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates +/-95% CI was 40.0+/-15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
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Dexrazoxane for preventing anthracycline cardiotoxicity in children with solid tumors.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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This study attempted to assess the incidence and outcome of anthracycline cardiotoxicity and the role of dexrazoxane as a cardioprotectant in childhood solid tumors. The dexrazoxane group included 47 patients and the control group of historical cohort included 42. Dexrazoxane was given in the 10:1 ratio to doxorubicin. Fractional shortening and systolic and diastolic left ventricular diameters were used to assess the cardiac function. The median follow-ups were 54 months in the dexrazoxane group and 86 months in the control group. The mean cumulative doses of doxorubicin were 280.8+/-83.4 mg/m(2) in the dexrazoxane group and 266.1+/-75.0 mg/m(2) in the control group. The dexrazoxane group experienced significantly fewer cardiac events (27.7% vs. 52.4%) and less severe congestive heart failure (6.4% vs. 14.3%) than the control group. Thirteen cardiotoxicities including one cardiac death and 2 congestive heart failures occurred in the dexrazoxane group, and 22 cardiotoxicities including 2 cardiac deaths and 4 congestive heart failures, in the control group. Five year cardiac event free survival rates were 69.2% in the dexrazoxane group and 45.8% in the control group (P=0.04). Dexrazoxane reduces the incidence and severity of early and late anthracycline cardiotoxicity in childhood solid tumors.
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Induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? inhibits drug-induced apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line HL-60.
Korean J Hematol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2010
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Leukemic cells originate from hypoxic bone marrow, which protects them from anti-cancer drugs. Although many factors that cause drug resistance in leukemic cells have been studied, the effect of hypoxia on drug-induced apoptosis is still poorly understood.
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Successful engraftment with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and thymoglobulin conditioning regimen in unrelated transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: A phase II prospective multicenter study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been used in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) as part of the conditioning regimen. Among the many kinds of ATG preparations, thymoglobulin had been found to be more effective for preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the rejection of organ transplants. After the promising results of our preliminary study, we conducted a phase II prospective multicenter clinical trial using a fludarabine (Flu), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and thymoglobulin conditioning regimen to allow good engraftment in patients who underwent unrelated transplantation for SAA. Twenty-eight patients underwent bone marrow (N = 15) or mobilized peripheral blood (N = 13) transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors with Cy (50 mg/kg once daily intravenously (i.v.) on days -9, -8, -7, and -6), Flu (30 mg/m² once daily i.v. on days -5, -4, -3, and -2), and thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -3, -2, and -1). Donor-type hematologic recovery was achieved in all patients. The estimated survival rate (SR) was 67.9%, and all the events were treatment-related mortality (TRM), which included thrombotic microangiopathy (N = 2), pneumonia (N = 1), myocardiac infarction (N = 1), posttransplantation lymphoprolifarative disease (N = 3), and chronic GVHD-associated complications (N = 2). The SR of patients who received bone marrow (60.0%) was not different from that of patients who received mobilized peripheral blood (76.9%) (P = .351), but the SR of patients who received more than 15 units of red blood cells before transplantation (45.5%) was significantly lower than that of the other patients (82.4%) (P = .048). The Flu, Cy, and thymoglobulin conditioning regimen achieved promising results for successful engraftment, but the TRM was high. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00737685), and now we are performing a new multicenter study (NCT00882323) to decrease the TRM by reducing the dose of Cy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.