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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chemotherapy with cetuximab versus chemotherapy alone for chemotherapy-naive advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effectiveness of standard cytotoxic chemotherapy seems to have reached a 'plateau', and there is a continuous need for new treatments to further improve the prognosis. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody targeted at the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway. Basically, it is designed to inhibit the growth and metastasis among other biological processes of cancer. In combination with chemotherapy, it has been evaluated as a first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC in some randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with inconsistent results.
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The preliminary outcome of syndactyly management in children with a new external separation device.
J Pediatr Orthop B
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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To introduce a new external fixation device for the management of syndactyly in children. To evaluate its preliminary clinical result. From January 2011 to June 2012, 12 cases with cutaneous syndactyly of the middle/ring finger were managed with a new external fixator designed by our department. There were eight cases on the right side and four on the left side. The web space and soft tissue were stretched gradually using the new device. A Z-plasty of syndactylies was performed when the web space has reached the width that we required. The results were evaluated according to the clinical appearance and function of the fingers. Twelve cases had been followed up, with an average time of 16 months (range, 12-27 months). The web space and soft tissue in all the cases were stretched successfully using the new device. Skin grafting was not necessary in the reconstruction of syndactyly. In the last follow-up, the Vancouver Score averaged 0.6 (range, 0-2). Three cases had grade 1 web creep, whereas the other nine cases had grade 0 web creep. The total active motion averaged 130.4° for all affected fingers: 130.8° for the middle and 130.0° for the ring finger. Stiffness in the PIP joint preoperatively in two cases did not improve postoperatively. In 12 affected middle fingers, three cases had a supination deformity averaging 10.6° (range, 5°-15°) and one case had a pronation deformity of 5°. In 12 affected ring fingers, one case had a supination deformity of 18° and two cases had a pronation deformity averaging 7.5° (range, 5°-10°). The middle finger was not pronated in any patient. Among all the ring fingers, two had radial deviation of 8°and 25° and 1 had ulnar deviation of 10°. The surgeon-provided visual analog scale score for esthetics averaged 1.8 (range, 0-5). The parent-provided visual analog scale score was 2.7 (range, 1-5) for pain, 1.3 (range, 0-5) for appearance, and 1.3 (range, 0-5) for function. Displacement of the nail bed during distraction was found in two cases, which was resolved by the Winograd technique in the second surgery of syndactyly release. The clinical appearance and function were excellent. When we use the new external fixation device in the management of syndactyly, we can achieve a satisfactory outcome with little scar of the fingers. There was no need for skin grafting. However, the long-term result should be studied further.
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Safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin Combined with Chemotherapy for Treatment of NSCLC Patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To assess the safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
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Robust feature point matching with sparse model.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Feature point matching that incorporates pairwise constraints can be cast as an integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem. Since it is NP-hard, approximate methods are required. The optimal solution for IQP matching problem is discrete, binary, and thus sparse in nature. This motivates us to use sparse model for feature point matching problem. The main advantage of the proposed sparse feature point matching (SPM) method is that it generates sparse solution and thus naturally imposes the discrete mapping constraints approximately in the optimization process. Therefore, it can optimize the IQP matching problem in an approximate discrete domain. In addition, an efficient algorithm can be derived to solve SPM problem. Promising experimental results on both synthetic points sets matching and real-world image feature sets matching tasks show the effectiveness of the proposed feature point matching method.
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Intake of freshwater fish and associated Fatty acids and risk of breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To investigate the association between intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total freshwater fish intake was linked to decrease in the adjusted OR for breast cancer, but without dose-dependence. Analyses by freshwater fish species showed that consumption of black carp and silver carp was inversely related to breast cancer risk, with adjusted-ORs for the highest intake category of black carp (?500g/month) of 0.54 (95%CI=0.33-0.92; P trend<0.002) and for silver carp (?1000g/month) of 0.19 (95%CI=0.11-0.33; P trend<0.001). In contrast, consumption of crucian carp was positively related to breast cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for the highest intake category (?1000g/month) of 6.09 (95%CI=3.04-12.2; P trend<0.001). Moderate intakes of SFA, PUFA, n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA from freshwater fish may decrease the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids may modify risk of breast cancer, and that different species of freshwater fish could have a different actions on breast cancer risk. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to know the effects of freshwater fish intake on breast cancer risk and the cause of these effects.
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Five miRNAs as Novel Diagnostic Biomarker Candidates for Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the development and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Despite advances in the field of cancer molecular biology and biomarker discovery, the development of clinically validated biomarkers for primary NPC has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of miRNAs as novel primary NPC diagnostic biomarkers. We used an array containing 2, 500 miRNAs to identify 22 significant miRNAs, and these candidate miRNAs were validated using 67 fresh NPC and 25 normal control tissues via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression and correlation analyses were performed with various statistical approaches, in addition to logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to evaluate diagnostic efficacy. qRT-PCR revealed five differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-93-5p, miR-135b-5p, miR-205-5p and miR-183-5p) in NPC tissue samples relative to control samples (p<0.05), with miR-135b-5p and miR-205-5p being of significant diagnostic value (p<0.01). Moreover, comparison of NPC patient clinicopathologic data revealed a negative correlation between miR-93-5p and miR- 183-5p expression levels and lymph node status (p<0.05). These findings display an altered expression of many miRNAs in NPC tissues, thus providing information pertinent to pathophysiological and diagnostic research. Ultimately, miR-135b-5p and miR-205-5p may be implicated as novel NPC candidate biomarkers, while miR- 93-5p, miR-650 and miR-183-5p may find application as relevant clinical pathology and diagnostic candidate biomarkers.
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[In silico cloning and bioinformatics analysis of an AP2/EFR family gene from Arnebia euchroma].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A cDNA sequence of Arnebia euchroma AP2/ERF named AeAP2/ERF was cloned by in silico cloning in this study, using ACX71873 sequence from Lithospermum erythrorhizon as the probe sequence. Some characters of the AP2/ERF gene and encoded protein sequences were predicted and analyzed by the bioinformatics methods, including general physical and chemical properties, hydrophobieity, signal peptide, secondary structure, localization sites in cells. Results showed that the 876 bp long gene included a 1 077 bp ORF and encoding 205 amino acid. The AeAP2/ERF protein had no signal peptide, it was a hydrophilic proteins located in nucleus. The function of the AP2/ERF protein was mainly involved with metabolism controlling and signal transduction.
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Pu-erh tea powder preventive effects on cisplatin-induced liver oxidative damage in Wistar rats.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Chemotherapy is one of the major means for control of malignancies, with cisplatin (CDDP) as one of the main agents, widely used for the treatment of various malignant solid tumors. However, prevention of hepatotoxicity from cisplatin is one of the urgent issues in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of pu-erh tea on hepatotoxicity through body weight and tissue antioxidant parameters like, liver coefficient, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and light microscopic evaluation by histological findings.
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[Stability analysis of reference gene based on real-time PCR in Artemisia annua under cadmium treatment].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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In this study, Actin, 18S rRNA, PAL, GAPDH and CPR of Artemisia annua were selected as candidate reference genes, and their gene-specific primers for real-time PCR were designed, then geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder were used to evaluate their expression stability in the leaves of A. annua under treatment of different concentrations of Cd, with the purpose of finding a reliable reference gene to ensure the reliability of gene-expression analysis. The results showed that there were some significant differences among the candidate reference genes under different treatments and the order of expression stability of candidate reference gene was Actin > 18S rRNA > PAL > GAPDH > CPR. These results suggested that Actin, 18S rRNA and PAL could be used as ideal reference genes of gene expression analysis in A. annua and multiple internal control genes were adopted for results calibration. In addition, differences in expression stability of candidate reference genes in the leaves of A. annua under the same concentrations of Cd were observed, which suggested that the screening of candidate reference genes was needed even under the same treatment. To our best knowledge, this study for the first time provided the ideal reference genes under Cd treatment in the leaves of A. annua and offered reference for the gene expression analysis of A. annua under other conditions.
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Association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis of 36 case-control studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is a highly suspected candidate gene for cancer susceptibility. Attention has been drawn upon associations of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with breast cancer risk. However, the previous published findings remain controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate any association between breast cancer and XRCC3 T241M (23, 812 cases and 25, 349 controls) in different inheritance models.
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Pathogenic analysis in different types of orthopedic implant infections.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Diversity of orthopedic infections with various local environments affects the pattern and prevalence of pathogens. It is not well-characterized whether different pathogens have different propensity to cause different types of orthopedic infections. We aimed to investigate the frequency of different pathogens derived from orthopedic infections, and determine the relationship between the prevalence of clinical isolates and the type of orthopedic implants, especially focusing on staphylococci.
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Decreased oxygen saturation in asymmetrically prominent cortical veins in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Decreased oxygen saturation in asymmetrically prominent cortical veins (APCV) seen in ischemic stroke has been hypothesized to correlate with an increase of de-oxygenated hemoglobin. Our goal is to quantify magnetic susceptibility to define APCV by establishing a cutoff above which the deoxyhemoglobin levels are considered abnormal. A retrospective study was conducted on 26 patients with acute ischemic stroke in one cerebral hemisphere that exhibited APCV with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was used to calculate the magnetic susceptibility of the cortical veins. A paired t-test was used to compare the susceptibility of the cortical veins in the left and right hemispheres for healthy controls as well as in the contralateral hemisphere for stroke patients with APCV. The change in oxygen saturation in the APCV relative to the contralateral side was calculated after thresholding the susceptibility using the mean plus two standard deviations of the contralateral side for each individual. The thresholded susceptibility value of the APCVs in the stroke hemisphere was 254±48ppb which was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that in the contralateral hemisphere (123±12ppb) and in healthy controls (125±8ppb). There was a decrease of oxygen saturation in the APCV ranging from 16% to 44% relative to the veins of the contralateral hemisphere. In conclusion, APCV seen in SWI correspond to reduced levels of oxygen saturation and these abnormal veins can be identified using a susceptibility threshold on the QSM data.
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An internet-based epidemiological investigation of the outbreak of H7N9 Avian Influenza a in China since early 2013.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In early 2013, a new type of avian influenza, H7N9, emerged in China. It quickly became an issue of great public concern and a widely discussed topic on the Internet. A considerable volume of relevant information was made publicly available on the Internet through various sources.
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Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In this paper, a FPGAs-based real-time adaptively modulated 256/64/16QAM-encoded base-band OFDM transceiver with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz is successfully developed, and experimentally demonstrated in a simple intensity-modulated direct-detection optical communication system. Experimental results show that it is feasible to transmit a raw signal bit rate of 7.19Gbps adaptively modulated real-time optical OFDM signal over 20km and 50km single mode fibers (SMFs). The performance comparison between real-time and off-line digital signal processing is performed, and the results show that there is a negligible power penalty. In addition, to obtain the best transmission performance, direct-current (DC) bias voltage for MZM and launch power into optical fiber links are explored in the real-time optical OFDM systems.
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Down-regulation of miRNA-452 is associated with adriamycin-resistance in breast cancer cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Adriamycin (ADR) is an important chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in treatment of breast cancer. However, resistance to ADR results in treatment failure in many patients. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in such drug-resistance. In the present study, microRNA-452 (miR-452) was found to be significantly down-regulated in adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR) compared with the parental MCF-7 cells by miRNA microarray and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). MiR-452 mimics and inhibitors partially changed the adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer cells, as also confirmed by apoptosis assay. In exploring the potential mechanisms of miR-452 in the adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer cells, bioinformatics analysis, RT-qPCR and Western blotting showed that dysregulation of miR-452 played an important role in the acquired adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer, maybe at least in part via targeting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R).
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Release of the A4 Pulley to Facilitate Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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During primary or delayed primary repair of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, surgeons often face difficulty in passing the retracted tendon or repaired tendon under the dense, fibrous A4 pulley. The A4 pulley is the narrowest part of the flexor sheath, proximal to the terminal tendon. Disrupted tendon ends (or surgically repaired tendons) are usually swelling, making passage of the tendons under this pulley difficult or even impossible. During tendon repair in the A4 pulley area, when the trauma is in the middle part of the middle phalanx and the A3 pulley is intact, the A4 pulley can be vented entirely to accommodate surgical repair and facilitate gliding of the repaired tendon after surgery. Venting the pulley does not disturb tendon function when the other major pulleys are intact and when the venting of the A4 pulley and adjacent sheath is limited to the middle half of the middle phalanx. Such venting is easily achieved through a palmar midline or lateral incision of the A4 pulley and its adjacent distal or/and proximal sheath, which helps ensure a more predictable recovery of digital flexion and extension.
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Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery with nipple-areolar preservation for centrally located breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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A compariosn was made of survival outcomes of oncoplastic breast conserving therapy (oBCT) with nipple- areolar (NAC) preservation in women with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in China in a matched retrospective cohort study. We used a database including patients who received oBCT (n=91) or MRM (n=182) from 2003 to 2013 in our hospital. Matching was conducted according to five variables: age at diagnosis, axillary lymph node status, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 status (HER-2) and tumor stage. The match ratio was 1:2. Median follow-up times for the oBCT and MRM groups were 83 and 81 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in 87-month overall, local, or distant recurrence-free survival between patients with oBCT and MRM (89%vs.90%; 93%vs.95%; 91%vs.92%;). For appropriate breast cancer patients, oBCT for CLBC is oncologically safe, oncoplastic techniques improving cosmetic outcomes.
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Entrapment neuropathy of the wrist, forearm, and elbow.
Clin Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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This review discusses key diagnostic points and treatment guidelines for compression neuropathies of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Recent treatment progress is reviewed, controversies are highlighted, and consensus is summarized. Limited or mini-open releases and endoscopic carpal tunnel releases are considered equally safe and efficient. Both methods are currently mainstays of surgical treatment.
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Distal radius fracture: diagnosis, treatment, and controversies.
Clin Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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This article presents the diagnosis and treatment of distal radius fractures with emphasis on (1) current common principles, (2) the author's current practices, and (3) controversies. The author emphasizes that displaced distal radius fractures should be approached first with a trial of closed reduction, with or without percutaneous pinning. If this reduction is unstable or unsuccessful, open reduction is indicated. Early treatments include percutaneous pinning through the distal radioulnar joint, early or delayed reattachment/repair of the avulsed dorsal periphery of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), reattachment of the TFCC to the ulna fovea, and late reconstruction.
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Surgical treatment, hardware removal, and the wide-awake approach for metacarpal fractures.
Clin Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Most fractures are managed nonoperatively. Those displaced unstable fractures require percutaneous fixation of single (or double) intramedullary Kirschner wires. Only large, oblique fractures must be fixed with screws or a plate. Indications for plating metacarpal fractures are limited in multiple unstable shaft or oblique fractures. After internal fixation, the patient actively moves the digits over a limited range under protection. This article reviews indications and techniques of surgical treatment, hardware removal, and the wide-awake approaches for surgery of these fractures.
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Repair and reconstruction of thumb and finger tip injuries: a global view.
Clin Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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In this review, an international group of senior hand surgeons was asked to provide their currently used methods, views, and advice on thumb and fingertip repair. The basic requirements and methods of thumb and fingertip repair are first outlined, followed by descriptions of the methods favored by individual units or surgeons. More recent innovative methods and modifications are described and challenging topics are discussed. This review ends by illustrating and discussing a few exploratory treatments that hold promise of greatly changing future perspectives of this common clinical problem.
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Neuroprotective effects of gallic acid against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in vitro and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are frequently implicated in the pathology of secondary neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Recent evidence suggests that gallic acid (GA) reverses oxidative stress in rat model of streptozotocin-induced dementia, but the roles and mechanisms of GA on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury remain unknown. Here we investigated the potential roles and mechanisms of GA in hypoxia/reoxygenation induced by sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) in vitro and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1), Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) and MitoSOX fluorescent assay, Clark-type oxygen electrode, firefly luciferase assay, and calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling were conducted to detect cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxygen consumption, ATP level, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) viability. We firstly find that modulation of the mitochondrial dysfunction is an important mechanism by GA attenuating hypoxia/reoxygenation insult. To further assess the effects of GA on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, 2, 3, 5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and Cytochrome C (Cyt C) release were performed in MCAO rats. The results support that GA is useful against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury as a potential protective agent.
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TGF- ? Signaling Cooperates with AT Motif-Binding Factor-1 for Repression of the ? -Fetoprotein Promoter.
J Signal Transduct
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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?-Fetoprotein (AFP) is known to be highly produced in fetal liver despite its barely detectable level in normal adult liver. On the other hand, hepatocellular carcinoma often shows high expression of AFP. Thus, AFP seems to be an oncogenic marker. In our present study, we investigated how TGF-? signaling cooperates with AT motif-binding factor-1 (ATBF1) to inhibit AFP transcription. Indeed, the expression of AFP mRNA in HuH-7 cells was negatively regulated by TGF-? signaling. To further understand how TGF-? suppresses the transcription of the AFP gene, we analyzed the activity of the AFP promoter in the presence of TGF-?. We found that the TGF-? signaling and ATBF1 suppressed AFP transcription through two ATBF1 binding elements (AT-motifs). Using a heterologous reporter system, both AT-motifs were required for transcriptional repression upon TGF-? stimulation. Furthermore, Smads were found to interact with ATBF1 at both its N-terminal and C-terminal regions. Since the N-terminal (ATBF1N) and C-terminal regions of ATBF1 (ATBF1C) lack the ability of DNA binding, both truncated mutants rescued the cooperative inhibitory action by the TGF-? signaling and ATBF1 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that TGF-? signaling can act in concert with ATBF1 to suppress the activity of the AFP promoter through direct interaction of ATBF1 with Smads.
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Bio-electrospraying is a safe technology for delivering human adipose-derived stem cells.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Bio-electrospraying (BES) is a technique for directly jetting living cells that has significant implications for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the effect of BES on human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) remains unknown. Here, we show that an hASC suspension was successfully electrosprayed via a continuous, stable and linearly directed electrospray at 10 kV and at 3 ml/h. Morphological observations and Trypan Blue and CCK-8 assays revealed that the cells remained viable and proliferated at a rate similar to that of the controls (0 kV). However, at 20 kV, BES became unstable and cell viability was reduced. Moreover, hASCs electrosprayed at 10 kV retained their multilineage potential, successfully differentiating into chondrogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic lineages. Thus, BES does not significantly affect cell morphology, viability or multipotency.
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Improved MR venography using quantitative susceptibility-weighted imaging.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To remove the geometry dependence of phase-based susceptibility weighting masks in susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and to improve the visualization of the veins and microbleeds.
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Progression of penile cutaneous horn to squamous cell carcinoma: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The current report presents the case of a 43-year-old male suffering from a penile cutaneous horn. A surgical excision of the lesion was performed and histopathology demonstrated hyperkeratosis, dyskeratosis and epithelial hyperplasia. The cutaneous horn progressed to squamous cell carcinoma <1.5 months following surgery and a partial penectomy was conducted. The International Index of Erectile Function 5 questionnaire was used to assess the patient and the score had decreased in the one-month postoperative follow-up compared with that of the preoperative period. These findings indicate that undergoing a partial penectomy on initial diagnosis of a penile cutaneous horn should be considered in order to conserve a greater quantity of the penile tissue and improve the postoperative quality of life.
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Assessment of immune cells and function of the residual spleen after subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly in cirrhotic patients.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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BackgroundThe spleen is thought to be central in regulating the immune system, a metabolic asset involved in endocrine function. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection leads to a mortality rate of up to 50%. However, there is still controversy on performing subtotal splenectomy as treatment of splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. In the present study, immunocytes and the indexes of splenic size, hemodynamics, hematology and immunology in the residual spleen were analyzed to support subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly.ResultsIn residual spleen, T lymphocytes mainly were focal aggregation in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. While B lymphocytes densely distributed in splenic corpuscle. In red pulp, macrophages were equally distributed in the splenic cord and adhered to the wall of splenic sinus with high density. The number of unit area T and B lymphocytes of splenic corpuscle and marginal zone as well as macrophages of red pulp were obviously increased in the residual spleen, while the number of macrophages didn¿t be changed among the three groups in white pulp. While there were some beneficial changes (i.e., Counts of platelet and leucocyte as well as serum proportion of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells were increased markedly; serum levels of M-CSF and GM-CSF were decreased significantly; The proportion of granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte in bone marrow were changed obviously; But serum IgA, IgM, IgG, Tuftsin level, there was no significant difference; splenic artery flow volume, portal venous diameter and portal venous flow volume, a significant difference was observed in residual spleen) in the clinical indices.ConclusionAfter subtotal splenectomy with splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients, the number of unit area T and B lymphocytes, and MØ in red pulp of residual spleen increased significantly. However, whether increase of T, B lymphocytes and MØs in residual splenic tissue can enhance the immune function of the spleen, still need further research to confirm.
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[Analysis and identification of Poria cocos peels harvested form different producing areas by FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Different geographical regions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), its chemical composition is different, the accumulation of drug and medicinal properties is different. The accurate identification and analysis of different production area of medicinal herbs is critical for the quality control and pharmacological research of TCM. In this paper, a tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with second derivative spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-COS) were employed to identify and analyze the main components of Hubei (HB), Anhui (AH), Yun-nan (YN) genuine Poria Cocos peels. The emergence of several characteristic absorption peaks of carbohydrates including 1149, 1079 1036 cm(-1), peaks around 1619, 1315, 780 cm(-1) belonged to calcium oxalate suggested that HB and AH Poria Cocos peels contained calcium oxalate, but peaks around 797, 779, 537, 470 cm(-1) belonged to kaoline suggested that YN Poria Cocos peels contained kaoline. Their carbohydrates were different by comparing the second derivative infrared spectra in the range of 1640-450 cm(-1) and Yongping come from YN contains both calcium oxalate and kaoline. Furthermore, the above differences were visually validated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy were successfully applied to fast analyze and identify Poria Cocos peels from different geographical regions and subsequently would be applicable to explain the relevance of geographical regions and medicinal properties for the TCM.
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Exosomes from docetaxel-resistant breast cancer cells alter chemosensitivity by delivering microRNAs.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Breast cancer (BCa) remains chemo-unresponsive by inevitable progression of resistance to first-line treatment with docetaxel (doc). Emerging studies indicate that exosomes act as mediators of intercellular communication between heterogeneous populations of tumor cells, engendering a transmitted drug resistance for cancer development. Such modulatory effects have been related to the constant shuttle of biologically active molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of exosome-mediated miRNA delivery in resistance transmission of BCa subpopulations. Using microarray and polymerase chain reaction, we found that exosomes from doc-resistant BCa cells (D/exo) loaded cellular miRNAs. Following D/exo transfer to the fluorescent sensitive cells (GFP-S), some miRNAs were significantly increased in recipient GFP-S. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed the involvement of the top 20 most abundant miRNAs of D/exo in pathways implicated in therapy failure. Coculture assays showed that miRNA-containing D/exo increased the overall resistance of GFP-S to doc exposure. Moreover, D/exo was able to alter gene expression in GFP-S. Our results open up an intriguing possibility that drug-resistant BCa cells may spread chemoresistance to sensitive ones by releasing exosomes and that the effects could be partly attributed to the intercellular transfer of specific miRNAs.
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Exosomes mediate drug resistance transfer in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a probable mechanism is delivery of P-glycoprotein.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Acquired drug resistance is a major obstacle to chemotherapy of cancers. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of exosomes in drug-resistance transfer between breast cancer cells and detect the probable mechanism. A docetaxel-resistant variant of MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7/DOC) was established and then compared with the drug-sensitive variant (MCF-7/S). Exosomes were expelled from the cell supernatant using ultracentrifugation. Drug resistance was assessed by apoptosis assay and MTT examination. Expressions of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Stained exosomes were absorbed by receipt cells. MCF-7/S in the presence of exosomes extracted from the supernatant of MCF-7/DOC (DOC/exo) acquired drug resistance, while MCF-7/S exposed to their own exosomes (S/exo) did not. P-gp expression patterns of exosomes were similar as the originated cells. P-gp expression of MCF-7/S increased after incubation with DOC/exo and was affected by the amount of exosomes. Exosomes are effective in transferring drug resistance as well as P-gp from drug-resistant breast cancer cells to sensitive ones. The delivery of P-gp via exosomes may be a mechanism of exosome-mediated drug resistance transfer.
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Frequent mutation of rs13281615 and its association with PVT1 expression and cell proliferation in breast cancer.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The q24 band of chromosome 8 (8q24) is frequently amplified in human cancers including breast cancer, and several SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) at 8q24, including rs13281615, have been identified for their association with cancer risks. These SNPs are in a "gene desert" region, and their functions in cancer development remain to be illustrated, although several of the SNPs appear to influence the genes in the "desert" in a long-range manner, including the v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) and the non-protein coding plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), both of which have been implicated in human cancers. In the current study, we examined rs13281615 for its potential role in breast cancer using normal and cancer tissues from 121 Chinese women with breast cancer. In addition to confirming the association of the GG genotype of rs13281615 with breast cancer risk, we found that germline GG genotype was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher tumor grade and higher proliferation index. We also found frequent somatic mutations (22/121 or 18.2%) of this SNP in breast cancer. Interestingly, the majority of the mutations (17/22 or 77%) involved a G?A change, resulting in a decrease in the number of cancers with the GG risk genotype and subsequent loss of GG association with higher tumor grade and proliferation index in cancers. Furthermore, PVT1 expression was increased in cancers, and the increase was associated with the GG genotype of rs13281615. These results suggest that the GG genotype of SNP rs13281615 plays a role in breast cancer likely by influencing PVT1 expression, and that during oncogenesis, "protective" mutations could occur.
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MicroRNA-452 contributes to the docetaxel resistance of breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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MicroRNA-452 (miRNA-452) was overexpressed in docetaxel-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/DOC). However, its role in modulating the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to docetaxel (DOC) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miRNA-452 in the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to DOC.Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used to identify the differential expression of miRNA-452 between MCF-7/DOC and MCF-7 cells. MiRNA-452 mimic was transfected into MCF-7 cells and miRNA-452 inhibitor was transfected into MCF-7/DOC cells. The role of miRNA-452 in these transfected cells was evaluated using RT-qPCR, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay. The relationship of miRNA-452 and its predictive target gene "anaphase-promoting complex 4" (APC4) was analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot.MiRNA-452 showed significantly higher expression (78.9-folds) in MCF-7/DOC cells compared to parental MCF-7 cells. The expression of miRNA-452 in the mimic transfected MCF-7 cells was upregulated 212.2-folds (P < 0.05) compared to its negative control (NC), and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of DOC (1.98 ± 0.15 ?M) was significantly higher than that in its NC (0.85 ± 0.08 ?M, P < 0.05) or blank control (1.01 ± 0.19 ?M, P < 0.05). Furthermore, its apoptotic rate (6.3 ± 1.3 %) was distinctly decreased compared with that in its NC (23.8 ± 6.6 %, P < 0.05) or blank control (18.6 ± 4.7 %, P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression of miRNA-452 in the inhibitor-transfected MCF-7/DOC cells was downregulated 0.58-fold (P < 0.05) compared to its NC, the IC50 value of DOC (44.5 ± 3.2 ?M) was significantly lower than that in its NC (107.3 ± 6.63 ?M, P < 0.05) or blank control (102.22 ± 11.34 ?M, P < 0.05), and the apoptotic rate (45.5 ± 10.8 %) was distinctly increased compared with its NC (9.9 ± 2.2 %, P < 0.05) and blank control (9.4 ± 2.5 %, P < 0.05). Further, there was an inverse association between miRNA-452 and APC4 expression in breast cancer cells in vitro.Dysregulation of miRNA-452 involved in the DOC resistance formation of breast cancer cells may be, in part, via targeting APC4.
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Deletion of atbf1/zfhx3 in mouse prostate causes neoplastic lesions, likely by attenuation of membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The ATBF1/ZFHX3 gene at 16q22 is the second most frequently mutated gene in human prostate cancer and has reduced expression or mislocalization in several types of human tumors. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ATBF1 has a tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer has not been tested. In this study, we examined the role of ATBF1 in prostatic carcinogenesis by specifically deleting Atbf1 in mouse prostatic epithelial cells. We also examined the effect of Atbf1 deletion on gene expression and signaling pathways in mouse prostates. Histopathologic analyses showed that Atbf1 deficiency caused hyperplasia and mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) primarily in the dorsal prostate but also in other lobes. Hemizygous deletion of Atbf1 also increased the development of hyperplasia and mPIN, indicating a haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. The mPIN lesions expressed luminal cell markers and harbored molecular changes similar to those in human PIN and prostate cancer, including weaker expression of basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 (Ck5), cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, and the smooth muscle layer marker Sma; elevated expression of the oncoproteins phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Akt and Muc1; and aberrant protein glycosylation. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number of genes that were dysregulated by Atbf1 deletion, particularly those that encode for secretory and cell membrane proteins. The four signaling networks that were most affected by Atbf1 deletion included those centered on Erk1/2 and IGF1, Akt and FSH, NF-?B and progesterone and ?-estradiol. These findings provide in vivo evidence that ATBF1 is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, suggest that loss of Atbf1 contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways, and provide a new animal model for prostate cancer.
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FOXA1: a promising prognostic marker in breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Accurate diagnosis and proper monitoring of cancer patients remain important obstacles for successful cancer treatment. The search for cancer biomarkers can aid in more accurate prediction of clinical outcome and may also reveal novel predictive factors and therapeutic targets. One such prognostic marker seems to be FOXA1. Many studies have shown that FOXA1 is strongly expressed in a vast majority of cancers, including breast cancer, in which high expression is associated with a good prognosis. In this review, we summarize the role of this transcription factor in the development and prognosis of breast cancer in the hope of providing insights into utility of FOXA1 as a novel biomarker.
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[The effect of partial liquid ventilation on inflammatory response in piglets with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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To evaluate the effect of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors change in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced piglets acute lung injury (ALI).
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Interruption of KLF5 acetylation converts its function from tumor suppressor to tumor promoter in prostate cancer cells.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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KLF5 possesses both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting activities, though the mechanism controlling these opposing functions is unknown. In cultured noncancerous epithelial cells, KLF5 converts from proproliferative to antiproliferative activity upon TGF?-induced acetylation, which sequentially alters the KLF5 transcriptional complex and the expression of genes such as p15 and MYC. In this study, we tested whether the acetylation status of KLF5 also determines its opposing functions in tumorigenesis using the PC-3 and DU 145 prostate cancer cell lines, whose proliferation is inhibited by TGF?. KLF5 inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells, and the inhibition was dependent on KLF5 acetylation. MYC and p15 showed the same patterns of expression change found in noncancerous cells. In nude mice, KLF5 also suppressed tumor growth in an acetylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, deacetylation switched KLF5 to tumor promoting activity, and blocking TGF? signaling attenuated the tumor suppressor activity of KLF5. RNA sequencing and comprehensive data analysis suggest that multiple molecules, including RELA, p53, CREB1, MYC, JUN, ER, AR and SP1, mediate the opposing functions of AcKLF5 and unAcKLF5. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism by which KLF5 switches from antitumorigenic to protumorigenic function and also suggest the roles of AcKLF5 and unAcKLF5, respectively, in the tumor suppressing and tumor promoting functions of TGF?.
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Inhibition of invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human breast cancer cells by hydrogen sulfide through decreased phospho-p38 expression.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) is an exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing molecule and has antitumor potential against a wide variety of human cancer types. The effect of exogenous H2S on the invasion of breast cancer and the possible underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of H2S on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-induced human breast cancer cells and the associated mechanisms. MCF-7 cells were incubated with TGF-?1 to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and an MTT assay was performed to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry, using propidium iodide (PI) staining, was used to determine the stages of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and PI double staining. Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expression of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE, an endogenous H2S producer), phospho-p38 (a signaling protein associated with apoptosis), and SNAI1 (Snail, associated with the induction of EMT). A Boyden chamber invasion assay was performed to detect tumor invasion. The results demonstrated that when NaHS was administered to TGF-?1-treated MCF-7 cells, the cells exhibited decreased proliferation, G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. NaHS treatment following TGF-?1 administration also resulted in decreased cell invasion and decreased EMT, which was indicated by decreased Snail protein expression. In addition, incubation with NaHS increased endogenous CSE protein expression and decreased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells stimulated by TGF-?1. Furthermore, the inhibition of endogenous CSE by DL-propargylglycine increased EMT in the MCF-7 cells treated with NaHS and TGF-?1. In conclusion, the present study provides insights into a novel anticancer effect of H2S on breast cancer cells through activation of the CSE/H2S pathway and decreased expression of phospho-p38.
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the effect of asymmetric core suture purchase on gap resistance of tendon repair in linear cyclic loading.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To evaluate the biomechanical properties of an asymmetric core suture for tendon repair.
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2.5D multi-view gait recognition based on point cloud registration.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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This paper presents a method for modeling a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) human body and extracting the gait features for identifying the human subject. To achieve view-invariant gait recognition, a multi-view synthesizing method based on point cloud registration (MVSM) to generate multi-view training galleries is proposed. The concept of a density and curvature-based Color Gait Curvature Image is introduced to map 2.5D data onto a 2D space to enable data dimension reduction by discrete cosine transform and 2D principle component analysis. Gait recognition is achieved via a 2.5D view-invariant gait recognition method based on point cloud registration. Experimental results on the in-house database captured by a Microsoft Kinect camera show a significant performance gain when using MVSM.
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Regulatory effects of introduction of an exogenous FGF2 gene on other growth factor genes in a healing tendon.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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In this study of a tendon injury model, we investigated how injection of a vector incorporating one growth factor gene changes expression levels of multiple growth factor genes in the healing process. The flexor tendon of chicken toes was completely cut and repaired surgically. The tendons in the experimental arm were injected with an adeno-associated virus-2 vector incorporating basic fibroblast growth-factor gene, whereas the tendons in the control arm were not injected or injected with sham vectors. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we found that, within the tendon healing period, a set of growth factor genes-transforming growth factor-?1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and connective tissue growth factor-were significantly up-regulated. Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor-B gene was not changed, and the insulin-like growth factor was down-regulated. A tendon marker gene, scleraxis, was significantly up-regulated in the period. Our study revealed an intriguing finding that introduction of one growth factor gene in the healing tendon modulated expression of multiple growth factor genes. We believe this study may have significant implications in determining the approach of gene therapy, and the findings substantiate that gene therapy using a single growth factor could affect multiple growth factors.
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Characterization and antioxidant activities of degraded polysaccharides from Poria cocos sclerotium.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Poria cocos F.A.Wolf is a Chinese traditional medicine used to treat chronic gastritis, edema, nephrosis, gastric atony, and acute gastroenteric catarrh. Polysaccharides are the main active component of P. cocos. We obtained polysaccharides PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 from the degradation of P. cocos polysaccharides (PCP) with different concentrations of H2O2 solution. Molecular weights were determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. HPLC analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 are heteropolysaccharides composed of glucose and arabinose. IR spectra indicated obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. The antioxidant activities of these polysaccharides were evaluated by established in vitro systems, including scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, ABTS radicals, and ferrous ions. The degradation polysaccharides exhibited obvious and concentration-dependent antioxidant properties. In addition, DNA binding analysis showed that PCP-1 had a stronger capacity than other polysaccharides to interact with DNA. However, each polysaccharide had a certain capacity for DNA damage protection.
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Exosomes from drug-resistant breast cancer cells transmit chemoresistance by a horizontal transfer of microRNAs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adriamycin and docetaxel are two agents commonly used in treatment of breast cancer, but their efficacy is often limited by the emergence of chemoresistance. Recent studies indicate that exosomes act as vehicles for exchange of genetic cargo between heterogeneous populations of tumor cells, engendering a transmitted drug resistance for cancer development and progression. However, the specific contribution of breast cancer-derived exosomes is poorly understood. Here we reinforced other's report that human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/S could acquire increased survival potential from its resistant variants MCF-7/Adr and MCF-7/Doc. Additionally, exosomes of the latter, A/exo and D/exo, significantly modulated the cell cycle distribution and drug-induced apoptosis with respect to S/exo. Exosomes pre-treated with RNase were unable to regulate cell cycle and apoptosis resistance, suggesting an RNA-dependent manner. Microarray and polymerase chain reaction for the miRNA expression profiles of A/exo, D/exo, and S/exo demonstrated that they loaded selective miRNA patterns. Following A/exo and D/exo transfer to recipient MCF-7/S, the same miRNAs were significantly increased in acquired cells. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis showed the involvement of miR-100, miR-222, and miR-30a in pathways implicated in cancer pathogenesis, membrane vesiculation and therapy failure. Furthermore, D/exo co-culture assays and miRNA mimics transfection experiments indicated that miR-222-rich D/exo could alter target gene expression in MCF-7/S. Our results suggest that drug-resistant breast cancer cells may spread resistance capacity to sensitive ones by releasing exosomes and that such effects could be partly attributed to the intercellular transfer of specific miRNAs.
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Characterization of nuclear localization and SUMOylation of the ATBF1 transcription factor in epithelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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ATBF1/ZFHX3 is a large transcription factor that functions in development, tumorigenesis and other biological processes. ATBF1 is normally localized in the nucleus, but is often mislocalized in the cytoplasm in cancer cells. The mechanism underlying the mislocalization of ATBF1 is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the nuclear localization of ATBF1, and found that ectopically expressed ATBF1 formed nuclear body (NB)-like dots in the nucleus, some of which indeed physically associated with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) NBs. We also defined a 3-amino acid motif, KRK2615-2617, as the nuclear localization signal (NLS) for ATBF1. Interestingly, diffusely distributed nuclear SUMO1 proteins were sequestered into ATBF1 dots, which could be related to ATBF1's physical association with PML NBs, known SUMOylation hotspots. Furthermore, ATBF1 itself was SUMOylated. ATBF1 SUMOylation occurred at more than 3 lysine residues including K2349, K2806 and K3258 and was nuclear specific. Finally, the PIAS3 SUMO1 E3 ligase, which interacts with ATBF1 directly, diminished rather than enhanced ATBF1 SUMOylation, preventing the co-localization of ATBF1 with SUMO1 in the nucleus. These findings suggest that nuclear localization and SUMOylation are important for the transcription factor function of ATBF1, and that ATBF1 could cooperate with PML NBs to regulate protein SUMOylation in different biological processes.
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Cryptococcus albidus encephalitis in newly diagnosed HIV-patient and literature review.
Med Mycol Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We present the first case of encephalitis caused by Cryptococcus albidus duo to AIDS. In addition, we give an overview of the literature of extra-dermal infection cases caused by C. albidus. In the 21 cases, HIV and organ transplantation were important risk factors especially in recent 20 years. Fungal culture or India ink preparations are the best way to demonstrate C. albidus in both serum and CSF.
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[Clinical observation of the immediate breast reconstruction following breast-conserving surgery for centrally located breast cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To investigate the clinical efficacy of the immediate breast reconstruction following breast-conserving surgery for centrally located breast cancer.
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KLF5 Activates MicroRNA 200 Transcription To Maintain Epithelial Characteristics and Prevent Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Epithelial Cells.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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KLF5 is an essential basic transcriptional factor that regulates a number of physiopathological processes. In this study, we tested whether and how KLF5 modulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated epithelial cells as an established model of EMT, we found that KLF5 was downregulated during EMT and that knockdown of KLF5 induced EMT even in the absence of TGF-? and EGF treatment, as indicated by phenotypic and molecular EMT properties. Array-based screening suggested and biochemical analyses confirmed that the microRNA 200 (miR-200) microRNAs, a group of well-established EMT repressors, were transcriptionally activated by KLF5 via its direct binding to the GC boxes in miR-200 gene promoters. Functionally, overexpression of miR-200 prevented the EMT induced by KLF5 knockdown or by TGF-? and EGF treatment, and ectopic expression of KLF5 attenuated TGF-?- and EGF-induced EMT by rescuing the expression of miR-200. In mouse prostates, knockout of Klf5 downregulated the miR-200 family and induced molecular changes indicative of EMT. These findings indicate that KLF5 maintains epithelial characteristics and prevents EMT by transcriptionally activating the miR-200 family in epithelial cells.
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MicroRNAs delivered by extracellular vesicles: an emerging resistance mechanism for breast cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Resistance to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy as well as targeted drugs is a major problem in treatment of breast cancer. Over the last decades, emerging studies have revealed that extracellular vesicles, which are chronically released by breast cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells, influence the action of most commonly used therapeutics. Such modulatory effects have been related to the transport of biologically active molecules including proteins and functional microRNAs. In this review, we highlight recent studies regarding extracellular vesicle-mediated microRNA delivery in formatting drug resistance. We also suggest the use of extracellular vesicles as a promising method in antiresistance treatment.
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Systematic expression analysis of genes related to multidrug-resistance in isogenic docetaxel- and adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cell lines.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Docetaxel (Doc) and adriamycin (Adr) are two of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. However, their efficacy is often limited by the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). The purpose of this study was to investigate MDR mechanisms through analyzing systematically the expression changes of genes related to MDR in the induction process of isogenic drug resistant MCF-7 cell lines. Isogenic resistant sublines selected at 100 and 200 nM Doc (MCF-7/100 nM Doc and MCF-7/200 nM Doc) or at 500 and 1,500 nM Adr (MCF-7/500 nM Adr and MCF-7/1,500 nM) were developed from human breast cancer parental cell line MCF-7, by exposing MCF-7 to gradually increasing concentrations of Doc or Adr in vitro. Cell growth curve, flow cytometry and MTT cytotoxicity assay were preformed to evaluate the MDR characteristics developed in the sublines. Some key genes on the pathways related to drug resistance (including drug-transporters: MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP; drug metabolizing-enzymes: CYP3A4 and glutathione S-transferases (GST) pi; target genes: topoisomerase II (TopoII?) and Tubb3; apoptosis genes: Bcl-2 and Bax) were analyzed at RNA and protein expression levels by real time RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. Compared to MCF-7/S (30.6 h), cell doubling time of MCF-7/Doc (41.6 h) and MCF-7/Adr (33.8 h) were both prolonged, and the cell proportion of resistant sublines in G1/G2 phase increased while that in S-phase decreased. MCF-7/100 nM Doc and MCF-7/200 nM Doc was 22- and 37-fold resistant to Doc, 18- and 32-fold to Adr, respectively. MCF-7/500 nM Adr and MCF-7/1,500 nM Adr was 61- and 274-fold resistant to Adr, three and 12-fold to Doc, respectively. Meantime, they also showed cross-resistance to the other anticancer drugs in different degrees. Compared to MCF-7/S, RT-qPCR and Western blot results revealed that the expression of MDR1, MRP1, BCRP, Tubb3 and Bcl-2 were elevated in both MCF-7/Doc and MCF-7/Adr, and TopoII?, Bax were down-regulated in both the sublines, while CYP3A4, GST pi were increased only in MCF-7/Doc and MCF-7/Adr respectively. Furthermore, the changes above were dose-dependent. The established MCF-7/Doc or MCF-7/Adr has the typical MDR characteristics, which can be used as the models for resistance mechanism study. The acquired process of MCF-7/S resistance to Doc or Adr is gradual, and is complicated with the various pathways involved in. There are some common resistant mechanisms as well as own drug-specific changes between both the sublines.
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IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee Report 2014: From the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).
J Hand Surg Eur Vol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries.
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Role of KLF5 in hormonal signaling and breast cancer development.
Vitam. Horm.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Steroid hormones, including ovarian steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen and androgen, play vital roles in the development of normal mammary gland and breast cancer via their receptors. How these hormones regulate these physiological and pathological processes remains to be elucidated. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a transcription factor playing significant roles in breast carcinogenesis, whose expression has been shown to be regulated by hormones. In this review, the relationships among hormonal signaling, KLF5, and breast cancer are summarized and discussed.
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Phase II study on pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer not responding to prior palliative chemotherapy.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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This study was to determine the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer who failed to respond to first and (or) second line chemotherapy.
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Effects of age, breast density and volume on breast cancer diagnosis: a retrospective comparison of sensitivity of mammography and ultrasonography in Chinas rural areas.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Mammography has been confirmed as the only effective mode to improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer in Western developed countries, but might not be a good choice in other areas of the world. One of the major challenges in China is to determine an optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. This study was designed to clarify the sensitivity of ultrasonography compared with that of mammography in rural China.
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[Effects of aquatic plants during their decay and decomposition on water quality].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Taking 6 aquatic plant species as test objects, a 64-day decomposition experiment was conducted to study the temporal variation patterns of nutrient concentration in water body during the process of the aquatic plant decomposition. There existed greater differences in the decomposition rates between the 6 species. Floating-leaved plants had the highest decomposition rate, followed by submerged plants, and emerged plants. The effects of the aquatic plant species during their decomposition on water quality differed, which was related to the plant biomass density. During the decomposition of Phragmites australis, water body had the lowest concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. In the late decomposition period of Zizania latifolia, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen increased, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. In the decomposition processes of Nymphoides peltatum and Nelumbo nucifera, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were higher than those during the decomposition of other test plants. In contrast, during the decomposition of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum verticillatum, water body had the highest concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus. For a given plant species, the main water quality indices had the similar variation trends under different biomass densities. It was suggested that the existence of moderate plant residues could effectively promote the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in water body, reduce its nitrate concentration to some extent, and decrease the water body nitrogen load.
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of traditional chinese medicine must search chinese databases to reduce language bias.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Systematic reviews (SRs) that fail to search non-English databases may miss relevant studies and cause selection bias. The bias may be particularly severe in SRs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as most randomized controlled trials (RCT) in TCM are published and accessible only in Chinese. In this study we investigated how often Chinese databases were not searched in SRs of TCM, how many trials were missed, and whether a bias may occur if Chinese databases were not searched. We searched 5 databases in English and 3 in Chinese for RCTs of Chinese herbal medicine for coronary artery disease and found that 96.64% (115/119) eligible studies could be identified only from Chinese databases. In a random sample of 80 Cochrane reviews on TCM, we found that Chinese databases were only searched in 43 or 53.75%, in which almost all the included studies were identified from Chinese databases. We also compared SRs of the same topic and found that they may draw a different conclusion if Chinese databases were not searched. In conclusion, an overwhelmingly high percentage of eligible trials on TCM could only be identified in Chinese databases. Reviewers in TCM are suggested to search Chinese databases to reduce potential selection bias.
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Outcomes and evaluation of flexor tendon repair.
Hand Clin
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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This article reviews recent reports of outcomes of flexor tendon repair and discusses the problems associated with such surgeries. Reports of no repair rupture in individual case series have emerged recently. Their results move toward the clinical goal of primary repair without repair rupture. The Strickland method remains the most common to record the outcomes. Outcomes should be provided by subzones of the tendon injuries, and the level of expertise of the surgeons expertise should be reported to allow comparisons of the results.
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Polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer and their antioxidant activities.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Polysaccharides named as PP1, PP2, PP3, PP4 and PP5 were extracted and isolated from the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer, a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, by controlling the final concentration of solution to precipitate the polysaccharides. The molecular weight of polysaccharides was determined by HGPLC chromatography system. The monosaccharide composition was analyzed by Gas chromatography on an Agilent 6890A instrument using a DB-35MS column and flame-ionization detector. All of the polysaccharides were heteropolysaccharides and consisted of arabinose, glucose and galactose. The content of arabinose increased with the increasing of ethanol concentration and PP5 had the most arabinose content in these samples. IR spectra indicated obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharide, the presence of uronic acids. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by various established in vitro systems, including scavenging activity of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, ABTS and DPPH radicals. Both samples showed inhibitory effects on superoxide, hydroxyl, ABTS and DPPH radical. And PP5 shows more clearly and relatively stronger capacity than other polysaccharides on the protective effect of DNA damage.
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Active and passive smoking, and alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk in chinese women.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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To evaluate the relation between smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results revealed that smoking, whether active or passive through the husband, was related to increased risk of breast cancer. The ORs (adjusted for age, menopausal status, educational levels, occupation, body mass index and income) were 3.55 (95%CI: 1.27-9.91) for active smoking and 1.47 (95%CI: 1.18-1.84) for passive smoking from husbands, respectively. A significant positive relationship was observed between breast cancer risk and the degree of husbands smoking. There were significant increase trend in ORs with the daily smoked number of cigarettes of husbands, the passive smoking years from husbands and the pack-years of husbands smoking (trend test: p=0.00003, 0.00013 and 0.0001, respectively). Alcohol consumption was also found to be a risk factor. The findings of this study in particular suggest that husbands smoking increases risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.
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In vivo gliding and contact characteristics of the sigmoid notch and the ulna in forearm rotation.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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To investigate shifting of the contact center over the surfaces of 2 opposing bones of the distal radioulnar joint during forearm rotation.
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Polymorphisms in XRCC1 Gene, Alcohol drinking, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Case-control Study in Jiangsu Province of China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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To evaluate the relationship between alcohol drinking, XRCC1 codon 194 and 399 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control study with 315 colorectal cancer cases (105 colon, 210 rectal) and 439 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. The XRCC1 codon 194 and 399 genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction and restrictrion fragment length polymorphism methods (PCR-RFLP). A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with an unconditional logistic model. In this study no significant differences were observed among the studied groups with regard to the genotype distribution of the XRCC1 codons 194 and 399 and the risk of colorectal cancer did not appear to be significantly influenced by genotype alone, whereas alcohol consumption showed a positive association (P for trend <0.01). When combined effects of XRCC1 polymorphisms and alcohol consumption were analyzed, we found that the 194Trp or 399Gln alleles further increased the colorectal cancer risk due to high alcohol intake. These findings support the conclusion that colorectal cancer susceptibility may be altered by gene-environment interactions.
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Current progress in the treatment of metaplastic breast carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare type of breast carcinoma, characterized by various combinations of mesenchymal, adenocarcinoma and other epithelial components. MBC often manifests as a large mass, with low axillary lymph node involvement and poor prognosis. Knowledge and treatment patterns about MBC demographics, presentation and tumor characteristics are very limited. In clinical practice, MBC is usually treated based on the guidelines developed for infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). The ideal treatment paradigm for MBC is unknown due to its low incidence and pathological variability, so potential predictors of treatment efficacy need to be explored. This review summarizes the current models and strategies for MBC according to the published literature.
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Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.
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Current practice of primary flexor tendon repair: a global view.
Hand Clin
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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In this article, a group of international leaders in tendon surgery of the hand provide details of their current methods of primary flexor tendon repair. They are from recognized hand centers around the world, from which major contributions to the development of methods for flexor tendon repair have come over the past 2 decades. Changes made since the early 1990s regarding surgical methods and postoperative care for the flexor tendon repair are also discussed. Current practice methods used in the leading hand centers are summarized, and key points in providing the best possible clinical outcomes are outlined.
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Tendon healing, edema, and resistance to flexor tendon gliding: clinical implications.
Hand Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Early flexor tendon healing is characterized by peak cellular apoptosis of both inflammatory and tendon cells in the first week, followed by progressively greater tenocyte proliferation in the second and third weeks. Tenocyte apoptosis is a predominant event, but proliferation of tenocytes is minimal in the middle and late healing periods. Edematous subcutaneous tissues, edema of the tendon, the intact annular pulleys, and extensor tendons all greatly contribute to the resistance. Careful consideration of the contributing factors and dynamics offers insight into strategies to reduce repair rupture and maximize tendon gliding through surgery and postoperative motion protocols.
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Uncommon methods of flexor tendon and tendon-bone repairs and grafting.
Hand Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The conventional practices used in flexor tendon repair have remained unchanged in many units. Because clinical cases vary considerably, some situations may merit more unusual methods. Here the author describes a few methods that have been used in flexor tendon repair. This article discusses a few methods that are clinically useful in treating some patients but are not commonly described. The newer tendon-bone junction methods exemplified here would likely replace the pull-out suture. Late direct repair and lengthening plasty require the accumulation of clinical experience. Allograft tendon reconstruction has shown successful midterm results, but long-term follow-up is certainly necessary.
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How often are ineffective interventions still used in clinical practice? A cross-sectional survey of 6,272 clinicians in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The World Health Organization reported in 2011 that irrational use of medicines was a serious global problem that is wasteful and harmful. The worst is use of ineffective or harmful interventions which should not be used at all. However, little is known about the changes that 20 years of evidence-based medicine has made particularly in reducing use of ineffective interventions. We surveyed clinicians in China to show how often ineffective interventions were still used in practice.
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The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism rs11966200 in MHC region and clinical features of generalized vitiligo in Chinese Han population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes. A strong association at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11966200 within MHC region had been identified in a recent genome-wide association study of generalized vitiligo in Chinese Han population. This study aims to investigate the relationships between SNP rs11966200 and the clinical features of generalized vitiligo in Chinese Han population. We compared the allele and genotype frequency among different vitiligo subphenotypes including age onset, extent of disease, clinical subtypes, family history of vitiligo and history of autoimmune disease. Our data showed SNP rs11966200 was associated with early-onset vitiligo (onset age ? 20 years) (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; p = 2.01 × 10(-13)), moderate-severe vitiligo (involved body surface ? 5 %) (OR, 1.17; p = 0.025), vitiligo vulgaris (OR, 1.13; p = 0.043), and focal vitiligo (OR, 0.86; p = 0.018). The study suggested that the underlying risk causal allele tagged by SNP rs11966200 might not only play important roles in the development of vitiligo, but also contribute to the diverse clinical characteristics of generalized vitiligo at least in Chinese Han population.
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In vitro study on the feasibility of magnetic stent hyperthermia for the treatment of cardiovascular restenosis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Thermal treatment or hyperthermia has received considerable attention in recent years due to its high efficiency, safety and relatively few side-effects. In this study, we investigated whether it was possible to utilize targeted thermal or instent thermal treatments for the treatment of restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) through magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH). A 316L stainless steel stent and rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in the present study, in which the inductive heating characteristics of the stent under alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure, as well as the effect of MSH on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression of the rabbit VSMCs, were evaluated. The results demonstrated that 316L stainless steel coronary stents possess ideal inductive heating characteristics under 300 kHz AMF exposure. The heating properties were shown to be affected by the field intensity of the AMF, as well as the orientation the stent axis. MSH had a significant effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs, and the effect was temperature-dependent. While a mild temperature of 43°C demonstrated negligible effects on the growth of VSMCs, MSH treatment above 47°C effectively inhibited the VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a 47°C treatment exhibited a significant and long-term inhibitory effect on VSMC migration. The results strongly suggested that MSH may be potentially applied in the clinic as an alternative approach for the prevention and treatment of restenosis.
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Apoptosis in adhesions and the adhesion-tendon gliding interface: relationship to adhesion-tendon gliding mechanics.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Adhesion formation is closely related to tendon-gliding function. We aimed to investigate apoptosis (programmed cell death) in adhesions and tendons and study its relationship to the mechanics of adhesions and healing tendons.
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Anticancer activities of PPAR? in breast cancer are context-dependent.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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This Commentary highlights the article by Nakles et al, who described that PPAR? activation suppresses non-invasive tumor development and induces ER-positivity without affecting invasive tumor development.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.