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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison between total laparoscopy and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. A meta-analysis based on Japanese and Korean articles.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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To assess the safety and feasibility of total laparoscopy distal gastrectomy (TLDG).
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Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P?
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Genetic association study of RNF8 and BRDT variants with non-obstructive azoospermia in the Chinese Han population.
Syst Biol Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that polymorphisms in genes relevant to spermatogenesis might modulate the efficiency of reproduction in men. Ring finger protein 8 (RNF8) and bromodomain testis-specific (BRDT) are two candidate genes associated with spermatogenesis. Here, we considered potential associations of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNF8 and BRDT genes in Chinese patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). We analyzed 361 men with NOA and 368 fertile controls by using Sequenom iplex technology. Our data did not reveal any variants associated with NOA susceptibility. However, we observed that rs104669 and rs195432 of RNF8 were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Haplotype analysis of the two SNPs indicated that the haplotype AC reduced the risk of NOA and the haplotype TC significantly evaluated the risk of NOA. Moreover, the RNF8 variants rs195432 (C/A p?=?0.030), rs195434 (T/C p?=?0.025), and rs2284922 (T/C p?=?0.034) were correlated with the smaller testis volume.
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[Clinical application of submental island flap in repairing oropharynx defects after cancer ablation].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To discuss the clinical effects of submental island flap on repairing oropharynx defects after cancer ablation, and provide experience for clinical application.
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[Gleevec induces apoptosis in K562 cells through activating caspase-3].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The present study is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying Gleevec-induced apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells in vitro. The apoptotic cell death and cell cycle distribution after Gleevec treatment and the effect of PDCD4 siRNA on Gleevec-induced apoptosis of K562 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The effect of Gleevec on p-Crkl, caspase-3, PARP and PDCD4 protein levels, and the knockdown efficacy of PDCD4 siRNA were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that Gleevec dramatically suppressed the phosphorylation level of Crkl in a dose-dependent manner and induced significant apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of K562 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, Gleevec activated caspase-3 and its downstream substrates PARP, and the caspase pan inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (50 micromol x L(-1)) markedly reduced Gleevec-induced apoptosis from 47.97% +/- 10.56% to 31.05% +/- 9.206% (P < 0.05). Moreover, Gleevec significantly increased the protein expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). PDCD4 knockdown by siRNA reduced Gleevec-induced apoptosis from 46.97% +/- 14.32% to 42.8% +/- 11.43%. In summary, Gleevec induced apoptosis in K562 cells via caspase-3 activation.
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Enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance induced by incorporating rare-earth phosphor into organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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In this work, dysprosium ion decorated yttrium oxide (Dy(3+):Y2O3) nanocrystal phosphors were incorporated into TiO2 acceptor thin film in a bid to enhance the light harvest, charge separation and transfer in the hybrid solar cells. The results show that the energy level offset between the donor (P3HT) and the acceptor (Dy(3+):Y2O3-TiO2) has been narrowed down, thus leading to the enhanced electron and hole transports, and also photovoltaic performances as compared to pure TiO2 without incorporating Dy(3+):Y2O3. By applying femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy, after the incorporation of dopant Dy(3+):Y2O3 into TiO2 at 6 wt%, both the hot electron and hole transfer lifetimes have been shortened, that is, from 30.2 ps and 6.94 ns to 25.1 ps and 1.26 ns, respectively, and an enhanced efficiency approaching 3% was achieved as compared to 2.0% without doping, indicating that the energetic charges are captured more efficiently benefitting a higher power conversion efficiency. Moreover, these results reveal that both the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edges of the acceptor were elevated by 0.57 and 0.32 eV, respectively, after incorporating 6 wt% Dy(3+):Y2O3. This work demonstrates that distinct energy level alignment engineered by Dy(3+):Y2O3 phosphor has an important role in pursuing efficient future solar cells and underscores the promising potential of rare-earth phosphor in solar applications.
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[Evaluation of high-resolution images application for wild medicinal plants macro monitoring: a case of Apocynum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To investigate the resources of medicinal plant, such as wild Apocynum, supervised classification based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and texture feature were used to monitor wild medicinal plants from image captured by ZY-3 and World-view-2 and compare which satellite Image are more appropriate to monitor the wild medicinal plants. The research results shows that: for more complex growth conditions wild medicinal plants Apocynum, high-resolution images Worldview-2 is more suitable for its remote identification, the low-resolution satellite ZY-3 can only recognizes the wild medicinal plants which distributed intensively. If the study target distribution is more intensive and larger scale, and cultivated type medicinal plants, the use of satellite ZY-3 in low resolution remote sensing data to identify the target can be a good choice, it is not necessary to buy high-resolution data, in order to avoid waste of expenditure, for the scattered distribution, the high-resolution satellite imagery data may be indispensable to identify targets.
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Human CD133-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells initiate growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The tumour-specific 'pre-metastatic niche' has emerged as a potential driving force for tumour metastasis and has been confirmed using mouse models of cancer metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) have been shown to play an important role in metastasis, forming a 'pre-metastatic niche' at designated sites for distant tumour progression. Here, CD133+ human umbilical hematopoietic progenitor cells (HUHPCs) were purified from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro. We studied the effects of CD133+ HUHPCs on the growth and metastasis of four colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by using cell-to-cell co-culture. Our results revealed that CD133+ HUHPCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of CRC cells in vitro and enhanced tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, CD133+ HUHPCs were observed in the pre-metastatic liver tissue using immunohistochemical analysis after co-injection of SW480/EGFP(+) cells and HUHPCs. Further experiments were therefore conducted to uncover the molecular mechanisms by which CD133+ HUHPCs influenced colon carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Extracted proteins were separated using the two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis technology. Among the differentially expressed proteins, mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4, stromal cell-derived factor-1, matrix metallopeptidase 9, calumenin, peripherin, leucine zipper, putative tumour suppressor 1 and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase attracted our attention. Western blot analysis further confirmed the differential expression of these proteins. Altogether, these results suggest that CD133+ HUHPCs may induce proliferation or metastasis of CRC cells and impact their derived proteins by providing a pre-metastatic microenvironment.
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[Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.
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Effects of van der Waals interaction and electric field on the electronic structure of bilayer MoS2.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The modification of the electronic structure of bilayer MoS2 by an external electric field can have potential applications in optoelectronics and valleytronics. Nevertheless, the underlying physical mechanism is not clearly understood, especially the effects of the van der Waals interaction. In this study, the spin orbit-coupled electronic structure of bilayer MoS2 has been investigated using the first-principle density functional theory. We find that the van der Waals interaction as well as the interlayer distance has significant effects on the band structure. When the interlayer distance of bilayer MoS2 increases from 0.614 nm to 0.71 nm, the indirect gap between the ? and ? points increases from 1.25 eV to 1.70 eV. Meanwhile, the energy gap of bilayer MoS2 transforms from an indirect one to a direct one. An external electric field can shift down (up) the energy bands of the bottom (top) MoS2 layer and also breaks the inversion symmetry of bilayer MoS2. As a result, the electric field can affect the band gaps, the spin-orbit interaction and splits the valance bands into two groups. The present study can help us understand more about the electronic structures of MoS2 materials for potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
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PDGF regulates chondrocyte proliferation through activation of the GIT1- and PLC?1-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Studies investigating the effects of cytokines on chondrocytes have significant application potential, since the culture of cartilage cells in vitro is a vital step for cartilage tissue engineering. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), one of the growth factors occurring at the early stage of the healing process of damaged tissue, is critical in bone healing. The present study investigated the effects of the activation of PDGF on cell proliferation, apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of chondrocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the stimulation of PDGF led to overexpression of the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) and promotion of the phosphorylation of phospholipase C?1 (PLC?1). Furthermore, PDGF induced chondrocyte proliferation and inhibited apoptosis via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway. Following knocking down GIT1 expression by small interfering RNA, phosphorylation of PLC?1 and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway was no longer promoted by PDGF. In addition, the effects of PDGF on proliferation and apoptosis were suppressed. The expression levels of GIT1 were not affected; however, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was suppressed through inhibition of the phosphorylation of PLC?1 by U73122. The results demonstrated that GIT1 is upstream of PLC?1. Although the ability of PDGF to induce cell proliferation was inhibited by the inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway by PD98059, apoptosis was not suppressed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that PDGF was able to activate the GIT1?PLC?1?mediated ERK1/2 pathway to control chondrocyte proliferation.
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Recent Advances in the Structure-Based and Ligand-Based Design of IKK? inhibitors as Anti-inflammation and Anti-cancer Agents.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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NF-?B is a significant transcription factor that regulates the expression of various pro-survival genes. IKK is a crucial protein kinase that activates NF-?B translocating from cytoplasm to nucleus for DNA binding. It is composed of three subunits, IKK?, IKK?, IKK? (NEMO), where IKK? and IKK? are catalytic subunits, and IKK? is the regulatory subunit. Many diseases, such as Hodgkin's disease, Hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, are related to IKK and NF-?B. So far, various IKK inhibitors targeting the ATP binding site have been identified through high throughput screening, rational design or in silico methods, however, only three of them (CHS-828, EB-1627 and IMD-1041) have been under clinical studies, indicating the strategy for the design of IKK inhibitors need to be reinspected. Besides ATP-competitive inhibitors, several other inhibitors have also been disclosed recently, which provide novel concepts to the discovery of IKK inhibitors. In this review, we focus on two parts: 1) the chemotypes and binding patterns of the traditional ATP-competitive IKK inhibitors; 2) novel strategies for the identification of non-ATP-competitive IKK inhibitors as NF-?B modulators. Through these discussions we hope to present inspirations for the development of new IKK inhibitors.
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Enhanced NLRP3, Caspase-1, and IL- 1? Levels in Degenerate Human Intervertebral Disc and Their Association with the Grades of Disc Degeneration.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in a variety of diseases. However, the role of NLRP3 in the human intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the expression levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream targets caspase-1 and IL-1? in 45 degenerate and seven nondegenerate IVD samples. The correlation between the degeneration scores and expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1? were also analyzed. The mRNA expression levels of the three molecules (NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1?) were higher in the degenerate IVDs group than the controls (nondegenerate IVDs group). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of all three molecules were markedly increased in the nucleus pulposus of degenerate IVDs compared with nondegenerate IVDs. There was a positive correlation between the degeneration scores and the expression levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome as well as its downstream targets caspase-1 and IL-1?. The findings suggest that excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in overproduction of downstream IL-1?, which participates in the pathogenesis of human IVD degeneration. Therefore, the NLRP3 inflammasome might serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of IVD degeneration. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Cecropin suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL- 7402 cell growth and survival in vivo without side-toxicity.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Conventional chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma typically causes various side effects. Our previous study showed that cecropin of Musca domestica can induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells in vitro. However, whether cecropin inhibits BEL-7402 cell in vivo and the question of possible side effects remained undentified. The present study confirmed tumor-inhibitory effects of cecropin in vivo, and furthermore strongly suggested that cecropin cytotoxicity in BEL-7402 cells in vivo may be mainly derived from its pro-apoptotic action. Specifically, we found that cecropin exerted no obvious side effects in tumor-bearing mice as it had no significant hematoxicity as well as visceral toxicity. Therefore, cecropin may be a potential candidate for further investigation as an antitumor agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Coordinated photomorphogenic UV-B signaling network captured by mathematical modeling.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Long-wavelength and low-fluence UV-B light is an informational signal known to induce photomorphogenic development in plants. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a variety of factors involved in UV-B-specific signaling have been experimentally characterized over the past decade, including the UV-B light receptor UV resistance locus 8; the positive regulators constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 and elongated hypocotyl 5; and the negative regulators cullin4, repressor of UV-B photomorphogenesis 1 (RUP1), and RUP2. Individual genetic and molecular studies have revealed that these proteins function in either positive or negative regulatory capacities for the sufficient and balanced transduction of photomorphogenic UV-B signal. Less is known, however, regarding how these signaling events are systematically linked. In our study, we use a systems biology approach to investigate the dynamic behaviors and correlations of multiple signaling components involved in Arabidopsis UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis. We define a mathematical representation of photomorphogenic UV-B signaling at a temporal scale. Supplemented with experimental validation, our computational modeling demonstrates the functional interaction that occurs among different protein complexes in early and prolonged response to photomorphogenic UV-B.
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Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the USF1, GTF2A1L and OR2W3 genes with non-obstructive azoospermia in the Chinese population.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To research the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of three spermatogenesis-related genes (USF1, GTF2A1L and OR2W3) and non-obstruction azoospermia (NOA).
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Core-shell nanophosphor architecture: toward efficient energy transport in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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In this work, a core-shell nanostructure of samarium phosphates encapsulated into a Eu(3+)-doped silica shell has been successfully fabricated, which has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM. Moreover, we report the energy transfer process from the Sm(3+) to emitters Eu(3+) that widens the light absorption range of the hybrid solar cells (HSCs) and the strong enhancement of the electron-transport of TiO2/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) HSCs by introducing the unique core-shell nanoarchitecture. Furthermore, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully obtain the electron transport lifetimes of BHJ systems with or without incorporating the core-shell nanophosphors (NPs). Concrete evidence has been provided that the doping of core-shell NPs improves the efficiency of electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Consequently, a notable power conversion efficiency of 3.30% for SmPO4@Eu(3+):SiO2 blended TiO2/P3HT HSCs is achieved at 5 wt % as compared to 1.98% of pure TiO2/P3HT HSCs. This work indicates that the core-shell NPs can efficiently broaden the absorption region, facilitate electron-transport of BHJ, and enhance photovoltaic performance of inorganic/organic HSCs.
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Indoleacetic acid derivatives from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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A pair of diastereoisomers, the N-glycosylated derivatives of dioxindole-3-hydroxy-3-acetic acid 1-2, and their conjugates with flavonoids 3-8, was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism method. Compounds 3-10 were evaluated for the antioxidant capacity, using the radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.
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Ubiquitin?specific protease 22?induced autophagy is correlated with poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Ubiquitin?specific protease 22 (USP22) is a component of the transcription regulatory histone acetylation complex SAGA, which broadly regulates gene transcription and correlates with cancer progression, metastasis and prognosis. Autophagy is a cell pathway with dual functions that promotes cell survival or death. However, it is not known whether USP22 can regulate autophagy in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we first identified that USP22 was overexpressed in a large number of pancreatic cancer patient samples, concomitant with the increased expression of LC3, a marker of autophagy. Statistical analysis revealed that the increase in USP22 and autophagy was positively correlated with poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Further investigation using a human pancreatic cancer cell (Panc?1) identified that the overexpression of USP22 increased the processing of LC3 into the active form LC3?II and the number of autophagosomes, thus leading to enhanced autophagy. Activation of ERK1/2 kinase rather than AKT1 by USP22 was found to be one of the mechanisms promoting LC3 processing. USP22?induced autophagy was also found to enhance cell proliferation and resistance to starvation and chemotherapeutic drugs in Panc?1 cells, therefore expressing an overall effect that promotes cell survival. Collectively, the present study demonstrated a new function of USP22 that induces autophagy, thus leading to the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
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[Progress in research of the structural optimization of natural product-like Garcinia caged xanthones].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Designing of natural product-like compounds using natural products as template structures is an important strategy for the discovery of new drugs. Gambogic acid (GA), which is a Garcinia natural product with a unique caged xanthone scaffold, inhibits potent antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarized the researches on the identification of the antitumor pharmacophore of GA, and the design, structural optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of natural product-like caged xanthones based on it.
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Development of T. aestivum L.-H. californicum alien chromosome lines and assignment of homoeologous groups of Hordeum californicum chromosomes.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Hordeum californicum (2n = 2x = 14, HH) is resistant to several wheat diseases and tolerant to lower nitrogen. In this study, a molecular karyotype of H. californicum chromosomes in the Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS)-H. californicum amphidiploid (2n = 6x = 56, AABBDDHH) was established. By genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive DNA clones (pTa71, pTa794 and pSc119.2) as probes, the H. californicum chromosomes could be differentiated from each other and from the wheat chromosomes unequivocally. Based on molecular karyotype and marker analyses, 12 wheat-alien chromosome lines, including four disomic addition lines (DAH1, DAH3, DAH5 and DAH6), five telosomic addition lines (MtH7L, MtH1S, MtH1L, DtH6S and DtH6L), one multiple addition line involving H. californicum chromosome H2, one disomic substitution line (DSH4) and one translocation line (TH7S/1BL), were identified from the progenies derived from the crosses of CS-H. californicum amphidiploid with common wheat varieties. A total of 482 EST (expressed sequence tag) or SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers specific for individual H. californicum chromosomes were identified, and 47, 50, 45, 49, 21, 51 and 40 markers were assigned to chromosomes H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7, respectively. According to the chromosome allocation of these markers, chromosomes H2, H3, H4, H5, and H7 of H. californicum have relationship with wheat homoeologous groups 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1, and hence could be designated as 5H(c), 2H(c), 6H(c), 3H(c) and 1H(c), respectively. The chromosomes H1 and H6 were designated as 7H(c) and 4H(c), respectively, by referring to SSR markers located on rye chromosomes.
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[Research on spectral reflectance characteristics for Glycyrrhizae Radix].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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In order to study the spectral reflectance differences of Glycyrrhizae Radix under different growth conditions and lay the foundation for quantitative monitoring of Glycyrrhizae Radix remote sensing images, spectra of Glycyrrhiza species under different growth period and different varieties and different regions were measured by a portable spectrometer. The results showed that the reflectivity of annual G. uralensis was obviously higher than that of the two years plant in the visible light band own to the contents of crown layer chlorophyll. The reflectivity of two years G. pallidiflora was higher than that of G. uralensis in the near infrared band own to the leaf area index and the content of leaf water. The red edge spectrum of annual plant fluctuated largely than that of two years plant due to vegetation coverage and leaf area index. G. pallidiflora grew well than G. uralensis. Under different regions of the Glycyrrhiza species, spectral data analysis showed that within a certain range, the average annual precipitation and average annual evaporation were the major factors to affect the differences of Glycyrrhiza species spectral data under different regions owe to the leaf water content, the higher leaf water content, the lower spectral reflectance. The principal component analysis and continuum-removed method of the spectral data under different regions found that, within a certain range, the average annual precipitation and average annual evaporation were the major factors caused by the differences of Glycyrrhiza species spectral data under the different regions, Glycyrrhiza species spectral similarity related to the spatial distance.
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CREM variants rs4934540 and rs2295415 conferred susceptibility to nonobstructive azoospermia risk in the Chinese population.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To evaluate the association of variants related to spermatogenesis with susceptibility to Chinese idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), seventeen tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CREM, ACT, KIF17b, and SPAG8 were analyzed in 361 NOA patients and 368 controls by Sequenom iplex technology. The results showed that two CREM SNPs, rs4934540 and rs22954152, were significantly associated with NOA and played protective roles against the disease (P value with Bonferroni correction = 0.00017, odds ratio [OR] = 0.624 and P = 0.012, OR = 0.686, respectively). Haplotype analysis of CREM gene variants suggested that haplotype CGTG of the SNPs, rs4934540, rs2295415, rs11592356, and rs1148247, exhibited significant protective effect against the occurrence of NOA (P = 0.001, OR = 0.659). The haplotype TATG conferred a significantly increased risk of NOA (P = 0.011, OR = 1.317). Furthermore, making use of quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that relative mRNA expression of CREM in NOA patients with maturation arrest was only one-third of that in the controls with normal spermatogenesis (P < 0.0001). Our findings indicated that the polymorphisms of CREM gene were associated with NOA in the Chinese population and low CREM expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of spermatogenesis maturation arrest.
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Insights into targeting NEMO for pharmacological regulation.
Curr Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO), the non-catalytic regulatory subunit of the I?B kinase (IKK) complex, is essential for the canonical NF-?B activation pathway. It has been identified as a molecular platform for assembling the IKK complex and recruiting upstream IKK activators. However, the exact mechanism for regulating IKK activity has still remained elusive. This review describes structural and functional characteristics of NEMO protein, covers the feasible polyubiquitin-mediated NEMO-dependent IKK complex activation mechanism, and briefly summarizes some proteins that bind to NEMO for enhancing or suppressing IKK complex activity. Furthermore, it also discusses several bioactive compounds that disrupt the protein-protein interactions (PPI) involving NEMO, as these PPI may act as alternative routes to develop novel pharmacological agents for inflammation and cancer therapy.
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Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids with diverse skeletons from Ligularia sagitta.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Five new highly oxygenated eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids, possessing C19 (1 and 2), C15 (3 and 4), and C14 (8) skeletons, along with eight known eremophilenolides were obtained from the aerial parts of Ligularia sagitta. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis and that of 3 by ECD spectroscopy. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Erwinia carotovora. Compounds 4 and 5 displayed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against these bacteria with MIC values of approximately 7.25 ?g/mL, followed by 3 and 6 with MIC values in the range of 23.0-125.0 ?g/mL. Compounds 3 and 8 showed mild activity against three human tumor cell lines (IC50 ? 13 ?M). Preliminary structure-activity relationships for these eremophilenolides are reported.
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Investigation of the intermolecular recognition mechanism between the E3 ubiquitin ligase Keap1 and substrate based on multiple substrates analysis.
J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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E3 ubiquitin ligases are attractive drug targets due to their specificity to the ubiquitin machinery. However, the development of E3 ligase inhibitors has proven challenging for the fact that they must disrupt protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The E3 ligase involved in interactome provide new hope for the discovery of the E3 ligase inhibitors. These currently known natural binding partners of the E3 ligase can benefit the discovery of other unknown substrates and also the E3 ligase inhibitors. Herein, we present a novel strategy that using multiple substrates to elucidate the molecular recognition mechanism of E3 ubiquitin ligase. Molecular dynamics simulation, molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculation and energy decomposition scheme were incorporated to evaluate the quantitative contributions of sub-pocket and per-residue to binding. In this case, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases complex, is applied for the investigation of how it recognize its substrates, especially Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response. By analyzing multiple substrates binding determinants, we found that both the polar sub-pockets (P1 and P2) and the nonpolar sub-pockets (P4 and P5) of Keap1 can make remarkable contributions to intermolecular interactions. This finding stresses the requirement for substrates to interact with the polar and nonpolar sub-pockets simultaneously. The results discussed in this paper not only show the binding determinants of the Keap1 substrates but also provide valuable implications for both Keap1 substrate discovery and PPI inhibitor design.
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SETDB1 accelerates tumorigenesis by regulating WNT signaling pathway.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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We investigated the oncogenic role of SETDB1 focusing on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) having high expression of this protein. A total of 387 lung cancer cases were examined by immunohistochemistry, 72% of NSCLC samples were positive for SETDB1 staining, compared to 46% samples of normal bronchial epithelium (106 cases) (p?
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Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance.
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Large proportion of genes in one cryptic WO prophage genome are actively and sex-specifically transcribed in a fig wasp species.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Cryptic prophages are genetically defective in their induction and propagation, and are simply regarded as genetic remnants. There are several putative cryptic WO prophages in the sequenced Wolbachia genomes. Whether they are lytic is unclear and their functions are poorly understood. Only three open reading frames (ORFs) in cryptic WO prophages have been reported to be actively transcribed.
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Inhibitory effects of ?-pinene on hepatoma carcinoma cell proliferation.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Pine needle oil from crude extract of pine needles has anti-tumor effects, but the effective component is not known.
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Walking-age analyzer for healthcare applications.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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This paper describes a walking-age pattern analysis and identification system using a 3-D accelerometer and a gyroscope. First, a walking pattern database from 79 volunteers of ages ranging from 10 to 83 years is constructed. Second, using feature extraction and clustering, three distinct walking-age groups, children of ages 10 and below, adults in 20-60s, and elders in 70s and 80s, were identified. For this study, low-pass filtering, empirical mode decomposition, and K-means were used to process and analyze the experimental results. Analysis shows that volunteers' walking-ages can be categorized into distinct groups based on simple walking pattern signals. This grouping can then be used to detect persons with walking patterns outside their age groups. If the walking pattern puts an individual in a higher "walking age" grouping, then this could be an indicator of potential health/walking problems, such as weak joints, poor musculoskeletal support system or a tendency to fall.
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Transfer of blood urea nitrogen to cecal microbes and nitrogen retention in mature rabbits are increased by dietary fructooligosaccharides.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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To estimate the effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on N utilization, seven mature rabbits were fed a diet containing 5% glucose or FOS for 8 days. During the last 5 days, total feces and urine were collected to measure N levels (Experiment 1). To examine N transfer from the blood to cecal microbes, eight rabbits were fed the same diets as in Experiment 1. After 9 days of feeding, 2?g of glucose or FOS was given orally. Two hours later 20?mg of (15) N-urea was administered via the ear vein, and 1?h later cecal and blood samples were collected (Experiment 2). Urinary N excretion was lowered by FOS feeding (P?
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Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.
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Association of insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats regulatory polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Systematic searches of electronic databases, reference lists of included articles, and the abstracts presented at related scientific societies meetings were performed. Statistical analyses were conducted using software Stata 11.0. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were applied. Publication bias was tested by Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test. A total of 9 studies including 1075 PCOS patients and 2878 controls were included in the meta-analysis. There were evidence of statistical significant association between INS VNTR and PCOS in allelic model (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.08-1.43, P=0.002) and dominant model (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.11-1.63, P=0.003) but not in additive model (OR=1.38, 95% CI=0.93-2.04, P=0.11) and recessive model (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.96-1.65, P=0.09). No significant publication bias was shown by funnel plots and Egger's regression tests. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that the III allele of INS VNTR is associated with increased risk of PCOS.
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Molecular traces of alternative social organization in a termite genome.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Although eusociality evolved independently within several orders of insects, research into the molecular underpinnings of the transition towards social complexity has been confined primarily to Hymenoptera (for example, ants and bees). Here we sequence the genome and stage-specific transcriptomes of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Blattodea) and compare them with similar data for eusocial Hymenoptera, to better identify commonalities and differences in achieving this significant transition. We show an expansion of genes related to male fertility, with upregulated gene expression in male reproductive individuals reflecting the profound differences in mating biology relative to the Hymenoptera. For several chemoreceptor families, we show divergent numbers of genes, which may correspond to the more claustral lifestyle of these termites. We also show similarities in the number and expression of genes related to caste determination mechanisms. Finally, patterns of DNA methylation and alternative splicing support a hypothesized epigenetic regulation of caste differentiation.
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Expression of glucose transporter protein 1 and p63 in serous ovarian tumor.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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It has been shown that glycolytic metabolism is increased in malignant cells. Cancer cell growth is an energy-related process supported by an increased glucose metabolism. In addition, p63, a known homolog of p53, is expressed predominantly in basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1) and p63 in patients with serous ovarian tumor (benign, borderline and malignant) and study their close relationship with the malignant transformation of serous ovarian tumors.
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Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).
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Abnormalities of myocardial perfusion and glucose metabolism in patients with isolated left ventricular non-compaction.
J Nucl Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The prevalence of myocardial perfusion and glucose metabolic abnormalities and their significance in patients with isolated left ventricular non-compaction (ILVNC) have not been well investigated.
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A novel approach to eliminate Wolbachia infections in Nasonia vitripennis revealed different antibiotic resistance between two bacterial strains.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Wolbachia are widespread in insects and can manipulate host reproduction. Nasonia vitripennis is a widely studied organism with a very high prevalence of Wolbachia infection. To study the effect of Wolbachia infection in Nasonia spp., it is important to obtain noninfected individuals by artificial methods. Current methods that employ sugar water-containing antibiotics can successfully eliminate Wolbachia from the parasitic wasps; however, treatment of at least three generations is required. Here, we describe a novel, feasible, and effective approach to eliminate Wolbachia from N. vitripennis by feeding fly pupae continuously offering antibiotics to Nasonia populations, which shortened the time to eliminate the pathogens to two generations. Additionally, the Wolbachia Uni and CauB strains have obviously different rifampicin-resistance abilities, which is a previously unknown phenomenon.
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Theoretical prediction of electronic structure and carrier mobility in single-walled MoS? nanotubes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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We have investigated the electronic structure and carrier mobility of armchair and zigzag single-walled MoS? nanotubes using density functional theory combined with Boltzmann transport method with relaxation time approximation. It is shown that armchair nanotubes are indirect bandgap semiconductors, while zigzag nanotubes are direct ones. The band gaps of single-walled MoS? nanotubes are along with the augment of their diameters. For armchair nanotubes (5 ? Na ? 14), the hole mobility raise from 98.62 ~ 740.93 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) at room temperature, which is about six times of the electron mobility. For zigzag nanotubes (9 ? Na ? 15), the hole mobility is 56.61 ~ 91.32 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) at room temperature, which is about half of the electron mobility.
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Discovery of potent Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor based on molecular binding determinants analysis.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Keap1 is known to mediate the ubiquitination of Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response. Directly interrupting the Keap1-Nrf2 interaction has been emerged as a promising strategy to develop novel class of antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer agents. On the basis of the molecular binding determinants analysis of Keap1, we successfully designed and characterized the most potent protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitor of Keap1-Nrf2, compound 2, with K(D) value of 3.59 nM binding to Keap1 for the first time to single-digit nanomolar. Compound 2 can effectively disrupt the Nrf2-Keap1 interaction with an EC50 of 28.6 nM in the fluorescence polarization assay. It can also activate the Nrf2 transcription activity in the cell-based ARE-luciferase reporter assay in a dose-dependent manner. The qRT-PCR results of Nrf2 transcription targets gave the consistent results. These results confirm direct and highly efficient interruption of the Keap1-Nrf2 PPI can be fully achieved by small molecules.
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Anterior corpus callosotomy combined with anterior temporal resection with amygdalohippocampectomy: outcome in a patient with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is characterized by epilepsy, cognitive deficits, pseudobulbar palsy and diplegia of the facial, pharyngeal and masticatory muscles. Epilepsy has been described in nearly 90% of affected patients. The epilepsy is usually severe and pharmacoresistant in about 55 percent of CBPS patients. Until now, only 12 cases of surgical treatment on CBPS have been reported; the surgical treatment is usually corpus callosotomy. In this paper, we describe a previously unreported combination of anterior corpus callosotomy plus anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy for a patient with CBPS, resulting in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Based on this case, we suggest that palliative focal resective surgery combined with anterior corpus callosotomy should be considered when a predominance of the epileptiform discharges suggests focal onset in patients with CBPS. Meanwhile, the clinical decision to adopt this combination surgery must be based on a thorough pre-surgical evaluation, and should take into account the clinical, radiological, and EEG features.
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Preparation and in vitro evaluation of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Curcumin, a phenolic antioxidant compound derived from the rhizome of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, has proven to be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis, revealing its anticancer potential. In this study, a Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (Cur-GA-PEG-NLC) was prepared by the film ultrasound method to improve the tumor-targeting ability. The drug content was detected by an UV spectrophotometry method. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin in the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) was determined using a mini-column centrifugation method. The encapsulation efficiency for various Cur-GA-PEG-NLC was within the range of 90.06%-95.31% and particle size was between 123.1 nm and 132.7 nm. An in vitro MTT assay showed that Cur-GA10%-PEG-NLC had significantly high cellular uptake and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with other groups.
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Randomized controlled trial: moxibustion and acupuncture for the treatment of Crohn's disease.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture and moxibustion for the treatment of active Crohn's disease (CD).
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Portal vein arterialization technique for liver transplantation patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Liver transplantations were performed on two patients with hepatic failure caused by liver cirrhosis. Hard obsolete thrombi and portal venous sclerosis were observed in the major portal veins of both patients. The arteria colica media of one recipient and the portal vein of the donor were anastomosed end-to-end. The hepatic artery of the first donor was anastomosed end-to end with the gastroduodenal artery of the first recipient; meanwhile, the portal vein of the second donor was simultaneously anastomosed end- to-end with the common hepatic artery of the second recipient. The blood flow of the portal vein, the perfusion of the donor liver and liver function were satisfactory after surgery. Portal vein arterialization might be an effective treatment for patients whose portal vein reconstruction was difficult.
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Adaptive evolution of the circadian gene timeout in insects.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Most insects harbor two paralogous circadian genes, namely timeout and timeless. However, in the Hymenoptera only timeout is present. It remains unclear whether both genes, especially timeout in hymenopteran insects, have distinct evolutionary patterns. In this study, we examine the molecular evolution of both genes in 25 arthropod species, for which whole genome data are available, with addition of the daily expression of the timeout gene in a pollinating fig wasp, Ceratosolen solmsi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae). Timeless is under stronger purifying selection than timeout, and timeout has positively selected sites in insects, especially in the Hymenoptera. Within the Hymenoptera, the function of timeout may be conserved in bees and ants, but still evolving rapidly in some wasps such as the chalcids. In fig wasps, timeout is rhythmically expressed only in females when outside of the fig syconium but arrhythmically in male and female wasps inside the syconium. These plastic gene expressions reflect adaptive differences of males and females to their environment.
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Evaluation of frame-based and event-by-event motion-correction methods for awake monkey brain PET imaging.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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PET imaging of nonhuman primates (NHPs) requires correction of head motion if the subjects are scanned awake and their heads are unrestrained, because the NHPs move their heads faster and more frequently than human subjects. This work focuses on designing and validating 2 motion-correction algorithms for awake NHP brain PET imaging.
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Regulation of chondrocyte proliferation through GIT1-Rac1-mediated ERK1/2 pathway by PDGF.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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There are many growth factors contributing to fracture healing after bone fractures. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) released from platelets is a factor promoting cell division and proliferation, and first appears around the sites of fractures. Culture of chondrocytes in vitro are stimulated by PDGF to proliferation, its presence being upregulated in the extracellular matrix of cartilage; the main components include aggrecan and type II collagen. PDGF induces the expression of G the protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1), promoting Rac1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Both knocking down GIT1 expression by siRNA and blocking phosphorylation of Rac1 inhibit this induced proliferation of chondrocyte. GIT1 and Rac1 control each other, having a synergistic effect on activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. The results suggest that PDGF regulates chondrocyte proliferation through activation of ERK1/2 pathway by upregulation of GIT1 expression and Rac1 phosphorylation.
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Detection of pancreatic cancer with normal carbohydrate antigen 19-9 using protein chip technology.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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To develop a method to differentiate pancreatic cancer patients from healthy or benign individuals when carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is normal.
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Genome-Wide Classification and Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of Citrus MYB Transcription Factor Families in Sweet Orange.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.
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Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD). However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in the brain after 36 h of TSD.
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miR-21 and miR-375 microRNAs as candidate diagnostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: association with patient survival.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The dismal outcome of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients highlights the need for novel prognostic biomarkers. The involvement of microRNAs in cancer and their potential as biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis are becoming increasingly appreciated. We sought to identify microRNAs that exhibit altered expression in laryngeal SCC and to determine whether microRNA (miRNA) expression is predictive of disease progression and/or patient survival. The expression of two miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-375, was evaluated using total RNA isolated from freshly-frozen primary tumors and non-cancerous laryngeal squamous epithelial tissues and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. We further analyzed the association between the expression of miRNAs and the clinicopathological features. A marked difference in the microRNA expression pattern was observed between tumors and non-cancerous tissue. MiR-21 and miR-375 were expressed at higher and lower levels, respectively, in the laryngeal SCC samples, compared to the normal samples (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). There was no correlation between characteristics such as age, sex, clinical stage, and alcohol use, and the expression level of mir-21. The relative expression of mir-375 in laryngeal SCC was shown to be associated with localization of the tumor in these patients (p = 0.037) and with alcohol use (p < 0.05). Patients with high miR-21 or low miR-375 expression in tumor tissues had poorer prognoses compared to patients with lower miR-21 or higher miR-375 expression. Furthermore, the miR-21/miR-375 expression ratio was highly sensitive (0.94) and specific (0.94) for disease prediction. These data suggest that the pattern of microRNA expression in primary laryngeal SCC tissues is reflective of the disease status and that miR-21 and miR-375 expression levels, in particular, may serve as potential biomarkers with applications in the clinical setting.
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MiR-206 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets K-Ras in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNA-206 (miR-206) has been proven to be downregulated in many human malignancies and is correlated with tumor progression. However, the roles of miR-206 and its related molecular mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of miR-206 in OSCC tumorigenesis and development.
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The association between matrix metalloprotease-9 gene polymorphisms and primary angle-closure glaucoma in a Chinese Han population.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To examine the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) gene and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in a Chinese Han population.
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Evidence for the circadian gene period as a proximate mechanism of protandry in a pollinating fig wasp.
Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protandry in insects is the tendency for adult males to emerge before females and usually results from intra-sexual selection. However, the genetic basis of this common phenomenon is poorly understood. Pollinating fig wasp (Agaonidae) larvae develop in galled flowers within the enclosed inflorescences ('figs') of fig trees. Upon emergence, males locate and mate with the still galled females. After mating, males release females from their galls to enable dispersal. Females cannot exit galls or disperse from a fig without male assistance. We sampled male and female Ceratosolen solmsi (the pollinator of Ficus hispida) every 3 h over a 24 h emergence period, and then measured the expression of five circadian genes: period (per), clock (clk), cycle (cyc), pigment-dispersing factor (pdf) and clockwork orange (cwo). We found significant male-biased sexual dimorphism in the expression of all five genes. per showed the greatest divergence between the sexes and was the only gene rhythmically expressed. Expression of per correlated closely with emergence rates at specific time intervals in both male and female wasps. We suggest that this rhythmical expression of per may be a proximate mechanism of protandry in this species.
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[Comparison of the effects of traditional and modern processing methods on antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Musca domestica].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To investigate the different effects of traditional and modern processing methods onantibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Musca domestica.
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Event-by-event respiratory motion correction for PET with 3D internal-1D external motion correlation.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Purpose: Respiratory motion during PET?CT imaging can cause substantial image blurring and underestimation of tracer concentration for both static and dynamic studies. In this study, the authors developed an event-by-event respiratory motion correction method that used three-dimensional internal-one-dimensional external motion correlation (INTEX3D) in listmode reconstruction. The authors aim to fully correct for organ?tumor-specific rigid motion caused by respiration using all detected events to eliminate both intraframe and interframe motion, and investigate the quantitative improvement in static and dynamic imaging.Methods: The positional translation of an internal organ or tumor during respiration was first determined from the reconstructions of multiple phase-gated images. A level set (active contour) method was used to segment the targeted internal organs?tumors whose centroids were determined. The mean displacement of the external respiratory signal acquired by the Anzai system that corresponded to each phase-gated frame was determined. Three linear correlations between the 1D Anzai mean displacements and the 3D centroids of the internal organ?tumor were established. The 3D internal motion signal with high temporal resolution was then generated by applying each of the three correlation functions to the entire Anzai trace (40 Hz) to guide event-by-event motion correction in listmode reconstruction. The reference location was determined as the location where CT images were acquired to facilitate phase-matched attenuation correction and anatomical-based postfiltering. The proposed method was evaluated with a NEMA phantom driven by a QUASAR respiratory motion platform, and human studies with two tracers: pancreatic beta cell tracer [(18)F]FP(+)DTBZ and tumor hypoxia tracer [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). An anatomical-based postreconstruction filter was applied to the motion-corrected images to reduce noise while preserving quantitative accuracy and organ boundaries in the patient studies.Results: The INTEX3D method yielded an increase of 5%-9% and 32%-40% in contrast recovery coefficient on the hot spheres in the NEMA phantom, compared to the reconstructions with only 1D motion correction (INTEX1D) and no motion correction, respectively. The proposed method also increased the mean activities of the pancreas and kidney by 9.3% and 11.2%, respectively, across three subjects in the FPDTBZ studies, and the average lesion-to-blood ratio by 20% across three lesions in the FMISO study, compared to the reconstructions without motion correction. In addition, the proposed method reduced intragate motion as compared to phase-gated images. The application of the anatomical-based postreconstruction filter further reduced noise in the background by >50% compared to reconstructions without postfiltering, while preserving quantitative accuracy and organ boundaries. Finally, the measurements of the time-activity curves from a subject with FPDTBZ showed that INTEX3D yielded 18% and 11% maximum increases in tracer concentration in the pancreas and kidney cortex, respectively.Conclusions: These results suggest that the proposed method can effectively compensate for both intragate and intergate respiratory motion while preserving all the counts, and is applicable to dynamic studies.
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Delimitation and description of the immature stages of a pollinating fig wasp, Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae).
Bull. Entomol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.
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In vitro study of the cytotoxicities of two mixed-ligand oxovanadium complexes on human hepatoma cells.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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The cytotoxicities of two oxovanadium complexes, VOI [VO(satsc)(phen)] (satsc = salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and VOII [VO(3,5-dibrsatsc)(phen)](3,5-dibrsatsc = 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), were studied by performing MTT assays on human hepatoma cell lines BEL-7402, HUH-7 and HepG2. The results showed that both the VOI and VOII complexes possess significant anti-proliferative effects. In addition, the anti-proliferative mechanism of the complexes was analyzed by cell cycle analysis and an apoptosis assay and by detecting the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m). The experimental results showed that the complexes can cause a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and can significantly decrease delta psi m, causing depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Notably, the two complexes induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells and displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. The cytotoxicities of the VOII complex are significantly stronger than that of the VOI complex, suggesting that the cytotoxic effects of oxovanadium complexes may be associated with the electronic effects of the complexes.
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TWO-YEAR SUCCESS RATE OF IMPLANT-RETAINED MANDIBULAR OVERDENTURES BY NOVICE GENERAL DENTISTRY RESIDENTS.
J Oral Implantol
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Abstract The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical success and patient satisfaction when dental implant-retained mandibular overdentures are placed and restored by novice general dentistry residents. A total of 50 subjects who were dissatisfied with their mandibular complete dentures were enrolled in the study. Two dental implants were placed in the anterior mandible between the mental foramina by novice general dentistry residents under the direct supervision of the Principal Investigator. The resident attached the denture to the implants 3 to 4 months later using locator attachments. Implant success rate was determined by measuring bone loss, mobility, pocket probing depth, and gingival and plaque indices. Subjects were requested to complete a satisfaction questionnaire with the prosthesis at 3 months, 1 year and 2 years after overdenture delivery, respectively. A total of 100 implants were placed in the 50 study subjects. Of these two implants were lost in one subject and one subject was deceased due to unrelated causes. Of the 48 remaining subjects, 45 have had their implants restored with overdentures. The subjects overall satisfactions with fit and ability to chew hard foods with their mandibular overdentures improved significantly (p<0.05) following the denture attachment to the dental implants. We conclude that the novice general dentistry residents can successfully place the mandibular implants and restore them with overdentures under direct supervision, subsequently enhancing the subjects satisfaction with their mandibular dentures.
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Awake nonhuman primate brain PET imaging with minimal head restraint: evaluation of GABAA-benzodiazepine binding with 11C-flumazenil in awake and anesthetized animals.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Neuroreceptor imaging in the nonhuman primate (NHP) is valuable for translational research approaches in humans. However, most NHP studies are conducted under anesthesia, which affects the interpretability of receptor binding measures. The aims of this study were to develop awake NHP imaging with minimal head restraint and to compare in vivo binding of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-benzodiazepine radiotracer (11)C-flumazenil under anesthetized and awake conditions. We hypothesized that (11)C-flumazenil binding potential (BPND) would be higher in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys.
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3-Aroylmethylene-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-ones as Potent Nrf2/ARE Inducers in Human Cancer Cells and AOM-DSS Treated Mice.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Nrf2-mediated activation of ARE regulates expression of cytoprotective enzymes against oxidative stress, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. We have discovered a novel structure (1) as an ARE inducer via luciferase reporter assay to screen the in-house database of our laboratory. The potency of 1 was evaluated by the expression of NQO-1, HO-1, and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HCT116 cells. In vivo potency of 1 was studied using AOM-DSS models, showing that the development of colorectal adenomas was significantly inhibited. Administration with 1 lowered the expression of IL-6, IL-1?, and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. These results indicated that 1 is a potent Nrf2/ARE activator, both in vitro and in vivo. Forty-one derivatives were synthesized for SAR study, and a more potent compound 17 was identified. To our knowledge, this is a potent ARE activator. Besides, its novel structure makes it promising for further optimization.
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Effective screening strategy using ensembled pharmacophore models combined with cascade docking: application to p53-MDM2 interaction inhibitors.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a crucial role in cellular function and form the backbone of almost all biochemical processes. In recent years, protein-protein interaction inhibitors (PPIIs) have represented a treasure trove of potential new drug targets. Unfortunately, there are few successful drugs of PPIIs on the market. Structure-based pharmacophore (SBP) combined with docking has been demonstrated as a useful Virtual Screening (VS) strategy in drug development projects. However, the combination of target complexity and poor binding affinity prediction has thwarted the application of this strategy in the discovery of PPIIs. Here we report an effective VS strategy on p53-MDM2 PPI. First, we built a SBP model based on p53-MDM2 complex cocrystal structures. The model was then simplified by using a Receptor-Ligand complex-based pharmacophore model considering the critical binding features between MDM2 and its small molecular inhibitors. Cascade docking was subsequently applied to improve the hit rate. Based on this strategy, we performed VS on NCI and SPECS databases and successfully discovered 6 novel compounds from 15 hits with the best, compound 1 (NSC 5359), K(i) = 180 ± 50 nM. These compounds can serve as lead compounds for further optimization.
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Evaluation of motion correction methods in human brain PET imaging--a simulation study based on human motion data.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Motion correction in PET has become more important as system resolution has improved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of event-by-event and frame-based MC methods in human brain PET imaging.
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High-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) for determination of a highly degenerated prophage WO genome in a Wolbachia strain infecting a fig wasp species.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Temperate bacteriophage WO is a model system for studying tripartite interactions among viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes, especially investigations of the genomic stability of obligate intracellular bacteria. Few WO genomes exist because of the difficulty in isolating viral DNA from eukaryotic hosts, and most reports are by-products of Wolbachia sequencing. Only one partial genome of a WO phage has been determined directly from isolated particles. We determine the complete genome sequence of prophage WO (WOSol) in Wolbachia strain wSol, which infects the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), by high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The genome of WOSol is highly degenerated and disrupted by a large region (14,267 bp) from Wolbachia. Consistent with previous molecular studies of multiple WO genomes, the genome of WOSol appears to have evolved by single nucleotide mutations and recombinations.
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[Study on human aFGF fusion gene transformation with soybean 24 kDa oleosin and expression in safflower].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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To investigate the expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in transgenic safflower and lay the foundation for the use of the plant bioreactor large-scale production aFGF.
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Association of the hsa-mir-499 (rs3746444) polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population.
Onkologie
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) have been shown to be related with susceptibility to several human cancers. We evaluated the associations of rs3746444 in pre-miRNA hsa-mir-499 with the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in the Chinese population.
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Obligate mutualism within a host drives the extreme specialization of a fig wasp genome.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Fig pollinating wasps form obligate symbioses with their fig hosts. This mutualism arose approximately 75 million years ago. Unlike many other intimate symbioses, which involve vertical transmission of symbionts to host offspring, female fig wasps fly great distances to transfer horizontally between hosts. In contrast, male wasps are wingless and cannot disperse. Symbionts that keep intimate contact with their hosts often show genome reduction, but it is not clear if the wide dispersal of female fig wasps will counteract this general tendency. We sequenced the genome of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi to address this question.
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New clerodane diterpenoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Nannoglottis carpesioides.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Three new clerodane diterpenoid glycosides with l-arabinose (1-3), together with ten known compounds including phytol-type diterpenes; cycloartane-type, ursane-type, and oleanane-type triterpenes, were isolated from the aerial parts of Nannoglottis carpesioides which a Chinese endemic genus. The structures of the new compounds 1-3 were identified based on chemical and spectroscopic studies, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, HRESIMS, UV, and IR results. Their absolute configurations were determined by the application of theory calculations of optical rotation, which were compared with the experimental data. New aglycone 1a and l-arabinose were obtained by acid hydrolysis of 1 and GC-MS analysis. The cytotoxicities of some isolated compounds against a panel of human cancer cell lines were evaluated by the MTT assay. Clerodane diterpenoides are the characteristic chemical constituents and may be used as chemical markers of the genus Nannoglottis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.