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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[The levels of angiopoietin-2 in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and its value on prognosis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To approach the correlation between angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels and degree of lung injury and prognosis and its clinical significance in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
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STK33 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma through binding to c-Myc.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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STK33 has been reported to play an important role in cancer cell proliferation. We investigated the role of STK33 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its underlying mechanisms.
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The immunologic and hematopoietic profiles of mesenchymal stem cells derived from different sections of human umbilical cord.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We compared immunologic and hematopoietic characteristics of MSCs derived from whole human umbilical cord (UC), as well as from different sections of UCs, including the amniotic membrane (AM), Wharton's jelly (WJ), and umbilical vessel (UV). Cell phenotypes were examined by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte transformation test and mixed lymphocyte reaction were performed to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of MSCs derived from UCs. The mRNA expression of cytokines was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hematopoietic function was studied by co-culturing MSCs with CD34(+) cells isolated from cord blood. Our results showed that MSCs separated from these four different sections including UC, WJ, UV, and AM had similar biological characteristics. All of the MSCs had multi-lineage differentiation ability and were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. The MSCs also inhibited the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a dose-dependent manner. The relative mRNA expression of cytokines was examined, and the results showed that UCMSCs had higher interleukin-6 (IL6), IL11, stem cell factor, and FLT3 expression than MSCs derived from specific sections of UCs. CD34(+) cells had high propagation efficiencies when co-cultured with MSCs derived from different sections of UCs, among which UCMSCs are the most efficient feeding layer. Our study demonstrated that MSCs could be isolated from whole UC or specific sections of UC with similar immunomodulation and hematopoiesis supporting characteristics.
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Identification and Functional Characterization of Sex Pheromone Receptors in the Common Cutworm (Spodoptera litura).
Chem. Senses
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species.
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[Study on physiological trait changes in growth process of different varieties of Lonicera japonica].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To study the physiological trait changes in the growth process of different varieties of Lonicera japonica, and to explore the growth regularity.
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[Patterns and risk factors of recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To analyze the recurrence characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and explore their clinicopathological correlations in northern China.
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Piezoelectric effects and electromechanical theories at the nanoscale.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Considerable effort has been made to study the piezoelectric effect on the nanoscale, which serves as a physical basis for a wide range of smart nanodevices and nanoelectronics. This paper reviews recent progress in the research on the piezoelectric properties and electromechanical effects of piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs). The review begins with an introduction to existing PNs which exhibit a diverse range of atomic structures and configurations. The nanoscale measurement of their effective piezoelectric coefficients (EPCs) is summarised with an emphasis on the major factors determining the piezoelectric properties of PNs. The paper concludes with a review of the electromechanical theories that are able to capture the small-scale effects on PNs, which include the surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and Eringen's nonlocal theory. In contrast to the classical theories, two types of EPCs are defined, which were found to be size-dependent and loading condition-selective.
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Spontaneous resolution of polyoxometalate-based inorganic-organic hybrids driven by solvent and common ion.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Three single-sided, triol-functionalized Anderson POM hybrids were successfully synthesized. With suitable solvents and the effect driven by common-ion synergy, enantiopure crystals were obtained when the spontaneous resolution of enantiomers occurred upon crystallization. The chirality of POM-organic hybrids was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state CD spectrum. A reversible, spontaneous resolution process for POM-based inorganic-organic hybrids was observed in this work.
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Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.
Biointerphases
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing.
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Flush-mounted probe diagnostics for argon glow discharge plasma.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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A comparison is made between plasma parameters measured by a flush-mounted probe (FP) and a cylindrical probe (CP) in argon glow discharge plasma. Parameters compared include the space potential, the plasma density, and the effective electron temperature. It is found that the ion density determined by the FP agrees well with the electron density determined by the CP in the quasi-neutral plasma to better than 10%. Moreover, the space potential and effective electron temperature calculated from electron energy distribution function measured by the FP is consistent with that measured by the CP over the operated discharge current and pressure ranges. These results present the FP can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool in the stable laboratory plasma and also be anticipated to be applied in other complicated plasmas, such as tokamaks, the region of boundary-layer, and so on.
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Promoting the Recovery of Injured Liver with Poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-3-Hydroxyvalerate-Co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) Scaffolds Loaded with Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Cell-based therapies are major focus of current research for treatment of liver diseases. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs). Results confirmed that WJ-MSCs isolated in this study could express the typical MSC-specific markers and be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. They could also be induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBVHHx) is a new member of polyhydroxyalkanoate family and biodegradable polyester produced by bacteria. PHBVHHx scaffolds showed much higher cell attachment and viability than the other polymers tested. PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs were transplanted into liver-injured mice. Liver morphology improved after 30 days of transplantation and looked similar to normal liver. Concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly lower, and albumin was significantly higher on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that liver had similar structure of normal liver lobules and similar size and shape of normal hepatic cells, and Masson staining demonstrated that liver had less blue staining for collagen after 30 days of transplantation. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of the bile duct epithelial cell gene CK-19 in mouse liver is significantly lower on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the CCl4 group. Real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group. Real-time RT-PCR also demonstrated that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds expressed endothelial cell genes Flk-1, vWF, and VE-cadherin on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group, indicating that WJ-MSCs also differentiated into endothelial-like cells. These results demonstrated that PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs significantly promoted the recovery of injured liver and could be further studied for liver tissue engineering.
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Predicting the long-term toxicity of five-antibiotic mixtures to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Concentration addition (CA) is commonly used as a standard additive reference model to predict the short-term toxicity for most chemical mixtures. Whether CA can predict the long-term toxicity of antibiotic mixtures was investigated. The long-term toxicity of five antibiotics including apramycin sulfate, paromomycin sulfate, tetracycline hydrochloride, chloramphenicol and streptomycin sulfate and their mixtures to a photo bacterium Q67 were detected by the long-term toxicity microplate analysis procedure. Seven five-antibiotic mixtures with various concentration ratios and concentration levels were designed by employing uniform design ray method. The long-term mixture toxicity was predicted by CA based on the toxicity data of single antibiotics. The results showed that Weibull or Logit function fit well with the long-term toxicity data of all the components and their mixtures (R>0.98 and RMSE<0.07). According the toxicity index, the negative logarithm of mean effect concentration, the long-term toxicity of the five antibiotics differs greatly and is higher than their short-term toxicity. The predicted values by CA model conformed to the experimental values of mixtures, which implies CA can predict reliable results for the long-term toxicity of antibiotic mixtures.
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Scrapie Infection in Experimental Rodents and SMB-S15 Cells Decreased the Brain Endogenous Levels and Activities of Sirt1.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Prion diseases are composed of a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders resulting from misfolding of cellular prion (PrP(C)) into scrapie prion (PrP(Sc)). Sirt1, a class III histone deacetylase, has been reported to protect neuronal cells against PrP (106-126)-induced cell death. To address the potential role of Sirt1 during prion infection, the levels and enzyme activities of Sirt1 in the brains of scrapie-infected rodents, including hamsters infected with strain 263K, mice infected with strains 139A and ME7, and in prion infected SMB-S15 cells, were analyzed. Western blots revealed that endogenous Sirt1 levels were significantly decreased in all tested scrapie-infected models. Dynamic assays of brain Sirt1 levels in 263K-infected hamsters during incubation period showed a time-dependent decrease. The acetylating forms of Sirt1 target proteins, P53, PGC-1, and STAT3, markedly increased both in the brains of scrapie-infected rodents and in SMB-S15 cells, representing decreased Sirt1 activity. Immunofluorescent assays illustrated that Sirt1 predominately localized in cytosol of SMB-S15 cells but clearly distributed in nucleus of its normal partner cell line, SMB-PS. Moreover, accompanying with increase of Sirt1 level and decrease of acetyl-P53 level, treatments with Sirt1 activators SRT1720 and resveratrol in SMB-S15 cells significantly reduced PrP(Sc); at the same time, the cellular distribution of PrP proteins became normal, and the cell proliferating state was slightly improved. These data indicate that prion infection notably attenuates the Sirt1 activity in host cells. Sensitivity of the PrP(Sc) to Sirt1 activators highlights a potential role of Sirt1 in prion therapeutics.
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An improved method for evaluating ecological suitability of hydropower development by considering water footprint and transportation connectivity in Tibet, China.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Ecological suitability evaluation for hydropower development is effective in locating the most suitable area for construction and emphasizes a clear direction for water resources governance. In this paper, water footprints and transportation connectivity were introduced to improve the existing ecological suitability evaluation application for hydropower development by revising the defects of the traditional indicator system. The following conclusions were reached. (1) Tibet was in a state of water use surplus; the prospect of further hydropower development is positive. (2) Chamdo, Lhasa and Nyingchi excelled in water use efficiency, and Ali was placed last. Nakchu was slightly superior to Ali, but it lagged behind the southern regions. Lhasa, Chamdo, Nyingchi, Xigaze and Shannan were suitable for hydropower development, which could further meet local needs and benefit other regions of China. (3) The evaluation results were in accordance with the actual eco-environmental conditions of the built hydropower projects, indicating that current hydropower development planning was basically reasonable.
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[Determination of 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A method for the simultaneous detection of 21 plant growth regulators in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were initially extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, followed by clean-up using the powder of magnesium sulfate and C18. The resulting samples were separated on a C18 column, and detected under positive and negative multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode through polarity switching between time segments. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative analysis. The linearities of chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride, cyclanilide, forchlorfenuron, thidiazuron, inabenfide, paclobutrazol, uniconazole and triapenthenol were in the concentration range of 0.1-500 microg/L, daminozide and 6-benzylaminopurine in the concentration range of 1.0-500 microg/L, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, 2,4-D, cloprop, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) and trinexapac-ethyl in the concentration range of 2.0-1 000 microg/L, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA) in the concentration range of 10-1000 microg/L, with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.990. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification of the method were 0.020-6.0 microg/kg and 0.10-15.0 microg/kg, respectively. For all the samples, the average spiked recoveries ranged from 73.0% to 111.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were in the range of 3.0% - 17.2%. The method is quick, easy, effective, sensitive and accurate, and can meet the requirements for the determination of the 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits.
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Significant promotion effect of carbon nanotubes on the electrocatalytic activity of supported Pd NPs for ethanol oxidation reaction of fuel cells: the role of inner tubes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The inner tubes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a significant promotion effect on the electrocatalytic activity of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for the ethanol oxidation of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) and Pd NPs supported on CNTs with 3-7 walls show a much higher activity as compared to that supported on typical single-walled and multi-walled CNTs.
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[Preparation and in vitro embolic efficiency evaluation of hydroxycamptothecine-loaded liquid embolic agent].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the preparation of hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT)-loaded cubic crystal liquid embolic precursor solution, and evaluate its in vitro embolic efficiency. Phytantriol was used as cubic crystal liquid embolic material, and the optimal formulation was selected according to ternary phase diagram. Polarized light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to characterize the cubic crystal structure. High performance liquid chromatography and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to investigate the lactone ring of HCPT. In vitro dissolution was preliminary evaluated, and the simulation embolic model was constructed to evaluate the embolic efficiency of precursor solution. Meanwhile, the gelation time and adhesion force were investigated. The results showed that HCPT-loaded precursor solution for embolization had been successfully prepared with low viscosity which was injectable. The precursor solution could transform into Pn3m structure liquid crystal phase gel rapidly when contracting with excess water. The formed HPCT gel remained its lactone form as the same in precursor solution, and expressed the good ability to block the saline flow, and HCPT could keep sustained releasing drug over 30 days. The prepared drug-loaded embolic precursor solution showed a promising potential for vascular embolization and application in clinical treatment of tumor.
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A redox active triad nanorod constructed from covalently interlinked organo-hexametalates.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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A novel nanorod-like inorganic-organic hybrid compound based on polyoxometalate architectures and organic linkers was successfully synthesized, which exhibits reversible reduction-oxidation properties and fascinating photochromism under sunlight illumination.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) was sequenced and reported for the first time using muscle tissue. Sequence analysis showed its genome structure was in accordance with other Accipitridae species, which contains 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 1 control region and 1 extra pseudo-control region, and its total length is 18,647?bp. An extra nucleotide (C) was determined at position 174 relative to the ND3 sequence, and an insertion of three adenines was found directly preceding the stop codon of Cytb.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Merlin (Falco columbarius).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Merlin (Falco columbarius) was sequenced and reported for the first time using muscle tissue. The total length is 17,516?bp and sequence analysis showed its structure is similar to the other raptors, which contains 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 1 control region and 1 extra pseudo-control region. An extra nucleotide (C) is determined at position 174 relative to the ND3 sequence of the Merlin, which is similar to other Falco.
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Adiponectin regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell niche through a unique signal transduction pathway - an approach for treating bone disease in diabetes.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine that exerts well-characterized anti-diabetic properties. Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are characterized by reduced APN levels in circulation and impaired stem cell and progenitor cell mobilization from the bone marrow for tissue repair and remodeling. In this study, we found that APN regulates the mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to participate in tissue repair and regeneration. APN facilitated BMSCs migrating from the bone marrow into the circulation to regenerate bone by regulating stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 in a mouse bone defect model. More importantly, we found that systemic APN infusion ameliorated diabetic mobilopathy of BMSCs, lowered glucose concentration and promoted bone regeneration in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. In vitro studies allowed us to identify Smad1/5/8 as a novel signaling mediator of APN receptor (AdipoR)-1 in BMSCs and osteoblasts. APN stimulation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells led to Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and nuclear localization and increased SDF-1 mRNA expression. Although APN-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 occurred independently from adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, pleckstrin homology domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1), it correlated with the disassembly of protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) and AdipoR1 in immunoprecipitation experiments. Taken together, this study identified APN as a regulator of BMSCs migration in response to bone injury. Therefore, our findings suggest APN signaling could be a potential therapeutic target to improve bone regeneration and homeostasis, especially in obese and T2D patients. Stem Cells 2014.
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The histone acetyltransferase hMOF suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belongs to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. In mammals, MOF plays critical roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4K16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF can also acetylate transcription factor p53 on K120, which is important for activation of pro-apoptotic genes; and TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, on K633. However, the role of hMOF in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here we find that the expression of hMOF is significantly down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma and cell lines. Furthermore, our survival analysis indicates that low hMOF expression predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. We demonstrate that hMOF knockdown promotes hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo, while hMOF overexpression reduces hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we show that hMOF regulates the expression of SIRT6 and its downstream genes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that hMOF participates in human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting SIRT6, and hMOF activators may serve as potential drug candidates for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.
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Low enhancement on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images: an independent predictor of the presence of high tumor grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between tumor enhancement on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images and Fuhrman grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
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Apoptotic induction of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells infected by recombinant RVG Newcastle disease virus (rL?RVG) in vitro.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the genus Avulavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family and its antitumor properties depend on its ability to kill malignant cells while not affecting normal cells. The present study investigated a recombinant avirulent NDV LaSota strain (wild?type NDV strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rL?RVG), examined its oncolytic effect on the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against lung cancer. A549 cells were infected with the rL?RVG virus and analyzed by MTT, western blot, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and flow?cytometric analyses. PCR, western blot and immuno?uorescence showed that the RVG gene and protein were stably expressed in A549 cells following infection with rL?RVG. The growth of A549 cells in the rL?RVG group was inhibited more effectively compared to those infected with the wild?type NDV strain. MTT results showed that cell growth inhibition rates in the rL?RVG group were significantly higher than those in the NDV group (P<0.05). Early apoptosis in the rL?RVG group was also more evident, with the apoptotic index being increased in rL?RVG group. The expression of the pro?apoptotic proteins caspase?3, ?8 and ?9 increased. The expression of caspase?3 decreased following application of the broad?speci?city caspase inhibitor Z?VAD?FMK. However, the expression of the inhibitory apoptosis protein B?cell lymphoma 2 (bcl?2) did not change, but bcl?2?associated X/bcl?2 ratio was higher in the rL?RVG group than that in the NDV group. The rL?RVG strain was able to suppress lung cancer cell growth and promote lung cancer cell apoptosis to a greater extent than the wild?type NDV strain. Therefore, the rL?RVG strain is a potent antitumor agent.
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The qualitative and quantitative source apportionments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size dependent road deposited sediment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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This study showcases the qualitative and quantitative source apportionments of size-dependent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road deposited sediment by means of molecular diagnostic ratio (MDR) and positive matrix factorisation (PMF) approaches. The MDR was initially used to narrow the PAH source candidates. PMF modelling was subsequently used to provide more precise source apportionment with the assistance of a multiple linear regression analysis. Through a combined qualitative and quantitative source apportionment, different potential source contributors were identified at different size fractions. Explicitly, three major contributors to sorption at the size fraction of 1000-400?m were tentatively identified as incineration (26%), coal combustion (53%) and gasoline-powered vehicle (20%). Four major contributors to the size fraction of 400-100?m were identified as gasoline-powered vehicle (25%), surface pavement (15%), diesel-powered vehicle (37%) and industrial boiler (24%). Four major contributors to the size fraction of 100-63?m were identified as cogeneration emission (13%), diesel-powered vehicle (28%), tire debris (45%) and wood combustion (14%). The potential contributors in the size fraction 63-0.45?m were identified as diesel-powered vehicle (21%), heterogeneous sources (41%) and biomass burning (38%). In addition, the highest ?16PAH concentration was found in the smallest size fraction of 63-0.45?m, which is also where the highest BaPE and TEF values for potential risk assessment occurred.
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hMSH2 expression is associated with paclitaxel resistance in ovarian carcinoma, and inhibition of hMSH2 expression in vitro restores paclitaxel sensitivity.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between paclitaxel resistance, gene copy number, and gene expression in ovarian carcinoma, and to restore paclitaxel sensitivity in a paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line by using hMSH2-targeting siRNA. Paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines OC3/TAX300 and OC3/TAX50 and their parental cell lines were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization, and the expression levels of hMSH2 in ovarian carcinoma cell lines and tissues were determined. An siRNA targeted to hMSH2 mRNA was used to transfect a paclitaxel-resistant cell line. We assessed the morphological features, proliferation, and susceptibility to apoptosis of the transfected cells after paclitaxel treatment. Chromosome 2p21 (gene locus of hMSH2) was amplified in OC3/TAX300 cells. hMSH2 was overexpressed in 93.9 and 47.6% of paclitaxel-treated and untreated ovarian carcinoma tissue samples (P=0.0001), respectively. hMSH2 was overexpressed in 93.3 and 54.2% of low-differentiated and moderate-to-highly differentiated ovarian carcinoma tissue samples (P=0.0008), respectively. hMSH2 expression was inhibited in the OC3/TAX300 cells transfected with hMSH2 siRNA. hMSH2 siRNA increased paclitaxel sensitivity, inhibited OC3/TAX300 cell proliferation (G2/M arrest), and increased susceptibility to apoptosis. hMSH2 expression was upregulated in ovarian carcinoma cell lines and tissues after paclitaxel treatment. hMSH2 overexpression is related to paclitaxel resistance and poor prognosis. Inhibition of hMSH2 expression in vitro restores paclitaxel sensitivity in paclitaxel?resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines and indicates a new direction in adjuvant therapy for ovarian carcinoma.
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Three-Dimensional Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbons Aerogel as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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A highly conductive, ultralight, neat and versatile nitrogen-doped GNRs aerogel has been fabricated by a new hydrothermal method for the first time. The newly developed aerogel shows a very promising performance when used as a novel ORR catalyst in both alkaline and acidic solutions.
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Toward a systems-level view of dynamic phosphorylation networks.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To better understand how cells sense and respond to their environment, it is important to understand the organization and regulation of the phosphorylation networks that underlie most cellular signal transduction pathways. These networks, which are composed of protein kinases, protein phosphatases and their respective cellular targets, are highly dynamic. Importantly, to achieve signaling specificity, phosphorylation networks must be regulated at several levels, including at the level of protein expression, substrate recognition, and spatiotemporal modulation of enzymatic activity. Here, we briefly summarize some of the traditional methods used to study the phosphorylation status of cellular proteins before focusing our attention on several recent technological advances, such as protein microarrays, quantitative mass spectrometry, and genetically-targetable fluorescent biosensors, that are offering new insights into the organization and regulation of cellular phosphorylation networks. Together, these approaches promise to lead to a systems-level view of dynamic phosphorylation networks.
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Effect of human interferon-?1 recombinant adenovirus on a gastric cancer orthotopic transplantation model.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of human interferon-?1 recombinant adenovirus (r-Ad-hIFN-?1) on gastric carcinoma. Human SGC-7901 cells were utilized to create an orthotopic implantation model of gastric cancer in nude mice through sterile surgery. The mice were randomly divided into three groups: Phosphate-buffered saline control (blank), adenovirus encoding bacterial ?-galactosidase (Ad-Lac Z) empty vector and r-Ad-hIFN-?1. Tumor size was measured every seven days. After three weeks of treatment, the tumors in the mice were detected by abdominal B ultrasound. The cDNA of IFN-?1 expression in skeletal muscle was detected by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and IFN-?1 protein expression in the tumors was detected by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were conducted to analyze the proportion of natural killer (NK) cells in the spleen and the rate of cell apoptosis in tumor paraffin sections. Prior to sacrifice, the size of the tumors in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1, Ad-Lac Z and blank groups was 184.29±10.84 mm(3), 234.62±10.59 mm(3) and 253.18±7.69 mm(3), respectively (P<0.001). The lymph node metastasis in the abdominal cavity was 0% in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1 group, 50% in the Ad-Lac Z group and 80% in the blank group (P<0.005). Furthermore, IFN-?1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1 group, and the apoptosis rate in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1 group was higher than that in the Ad-Lac Z and blank groups. The proportion of NK cells in the spleens of nude mice in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1, Ad-Lac Z and blank groups was 26.53±1.54, 17.70±1.09 and 16.35±1.43%, respectively (P<0.001). The TUNEL results showed there was significantly more severe apoptosis in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1 group than that in the two other groups. The apoptosis indices in the r-Ad-hIFN-?1, Ad-Lac Z and blank groups were 0.772±0.075, 0.329±0.169 and 0.265±0.049, respectively. In conclusion, the r-Ad-hIFN-?1 significantly inhibited human gastric cancer, possibly by promoting apoptosis of the tumors and stimulating immunological function.
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Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov., a novel anaerobic bacterium isolated from the pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A novel Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain S11-3-10(T), was isolated from the pit mud used for Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain formed a monophyletic clade with the closely related type strains of Clostridium cluster I and was most closely related to Clostridium amylolyticum JCM 14823(T) (94.38%). The temperature, pH, and NaCl range for growth was determined to be 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), 4.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.3), and 0-3.0% (w/v), respectively. The strain was able to tolerate up to 7.5 % (v/v) ethanol. Yeast extract or peptone was found to be required for growth. Acids were found to be produced from glucose, mannose and trehalose. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as ethanol, acetate and hydrogen. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified phospholipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids (>5%) were identified as iso-C(15:0), C(16:0), C(16:0)dma, C(14:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(13:0). No respiratory quinone was detected. The diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were found to include galactose and glucose as major components. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.4 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium for which the name Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S11-3-10(T) (=DSM 27788(T) = JCM 19606(T) = CICC 10730(T)).
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Characterization and Development of EST-SSR Markers Derived from Transcriptome of Yellow Catfish.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is one of the most important freshwater fish due to its delicious flesh and high nutritional value. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has hampered the progress of genetic selection breeding and molecular research for yellow catfish. To this end, we aimed to develop and characterize polymorphic expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSRs from the 454 pyrosequencing transcriptome of yellow catfish. Totally, 82,794 potential EST-SSR markers were identified and distributed in the coding and non-coding regions. Di-nucleotide (53,933) is the most abundant motif type, and AC/GT, AAT/ATT, AAAT/ATTT are respective the most frequent di-, tri-, tetra-nucleotide repeats. We designed primer pairs for all of the identified EST-SSRs and randomly selected 300 of these pairs for further validation. Finally, 263 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 57 primer pairs were found to be consistently polymorphic when four populations of 48 individuals were tested. The number of alleles for the 57 loci ranged from 2 to 17, with an average of 8.23. The observed heterozygosity (HO), expected heterozygosity (HE), polymorphism information content (PIC) and fixation index (fis) values ranged from 0.04 to 1.00, 0.12 to 0.92, 0.12 to 0.91 and -0.83 to 0.93, respectively. These EST-SSR markers generated in this study could greatly facilitate future studies of genetic diversity and molecular breeding in yellow catfish.
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Blocking macrophage migration inhibitory factor activity alleviates mouse acute otitis media in vivo.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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This study was to investigate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in mouse acute otitis media (AOM), we hypothesize that blocking MIF activity will relieve mouse AOM. A mouse AOM model was constructed by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the middle ear of C57BL/6 mice through the tympanic membrane (TM). MIF levels were measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and ELISA after LPS application. Normal or AOM mice were given PBS or ISO-1 (MIF antagonist) every day for 10 days and the hearing levels were determined by measuring auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold. After the ABR test finished, H&E staining was conducted and the inflammation was also measured by detecting interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels with RT-PCR and ELISA. TLR-4 expression was determined by western blotting and NF-?B activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Compared with the normal control, MIF levels in the middle ear of LPS-induced AOM mice were significant increased. The ABR results showed that mean ABR thresholds in ISO-1 treated AOM mice were significantly reduced compared with PBS treated AOM mice since day 7, indicating that ISO-1 treatment potentially improved the hearing levels of AOM mice. H&E staining showed that ISO-1 treatment could reduce the mucosal thickness of AOM mice. In ISO-1 treated mice, TLR-4 expression and levels of IL-1?, TNF-? and VEGF were significantly lower compared with PBS treated AOM mice. ISO-1 treatment also significantly inhibited NF-?B activation in AOM mice compared with PBS treated AOM mice. These results suggested that blocking the activity of MIF by ISO-1 could reduce the inflammation in AOM mice in which process TLR-4 and NF-?B were involved. The reduction in MIF activity is conducive to alleviate mouse AOM, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AOM.
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Genetic variation in the tissue factor gene is associated with clinical outcome in severe sepsis patients.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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IntroductionActivation of inflammation and coagulation was closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. Tissue factor (TF) and its endogenous inhibitor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) was the main regulators of the initiation of coagulation process. Altered plasma levels of TF and TFPI have been related to worse outcome in sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TF and TFPI genes were associated with risk and outcome for patients with severe sepsis.MethodsSeventeen SNPs in TF and TFPI were genotyped in samples of sepsis (n =577) and severe sepsis patients (n =476), and tested for association in this case¿control collection. We then investigated correlation between the associated SNPs and the mRNA expression, and protein level of the corresponding gene. The mRNA levels of TF were determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the soluble plasma levels of TF were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.ResultsAssociation analysis revealed that three TF SNPs in perfect linkage disequilibrium, rs1361600, rs3917615 and rs958587, were significantly associated with outcome of severe sepsis. G allele frequency of rs1361600 in survivor patients was significantly higher than that in nonsurvivor severe sepsis patients (P =4.91¿×¿10¿5, odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.69). The association remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. Lipopolysaccharide-induced TF-mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects carrying rs1361600 AG and GG genotypes, were significantly lower than those subjects carrying AA genotype (P =0.0012). Moreover, severe sepsis patients of GG and GA genotypes showed lower serum levels of TF than patients with AA genotype (P adj =0.02). The plasma levels of TF were also associated with outcome of severe sepsis patients (P adj =0.01). However, genotype and allele analyses did not show any significant difference between sepsis and severe sepsis patients.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that common genetic variation in TF was significantly associated with outcome of severe sepsis in Chinese Han population.
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Spatiotemporal Expression of Cdx4 in the Developing Anorectum of Rat Embryos with Ethylenethiourea-Induced Anorectal Malformations.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Cdx4 (caudal-type homeobox gene-4) during anorectal development in normal and ethylenethiourea (ETU)-induced anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos with a view to establishing the possible role of Cdx4 in ARM pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: ARM was induced by ETU on the 10th gestational day (GD10) in rat embryos. Cesarean deliveries were then performed to harvest the embryos. Spatiotemporal expression of Cdx4 was evaluated in normal rat embryos (n = 354) and ARM embryos (n = 378) from GD13 to GD16. Results: Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence revealed that, in normal embryos, Cdx4 expression was extensively detected on the epithelium of the cloaca on GD13. On GD14, the Cdx4-positive cells were intensively detected on the hindgut. On GD15, the anal membrane was constantly immunoreactive to Cdx4. On GD16, Cdx4-labeled cells were observed on the epithelium of the anus. In the ARM embryos, the epithelium of the cloaca, urorectal septum (URS) and anorectum was negative or faint for Cdx4. In the normal embryo group, Cdx4 protein and mRNA expression showed time-dependent changes in the developing hindgut from GD13 to GD16 on Western blot and real-time reverse transcription plus polymerase chain reaction. Once the URS divided the cloaca into the primitive rectum and urogenital sinus (UGS) on GD15, Cdx4 expression began to decrease. In addition, the expression level of Cdx4 in the ARM group from GD13 to GD15 was significantly lower than that in the normal group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In ARM embryos, an imbalance in the spatiotemporal expression of Cdx4 was noted during anorectal morphogenesis from GD13 to GD16. This suggests that ETU may cause downregulation of Cdx4 expression. Downregulation of Cdx4 at the time of cloacal separation into the primitive rectum and UGS might thus be related to the development of ARM. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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A double-negative feedback loop between MicroRNA-422a and FOXG1/Q1/E1 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth and metastasis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Growing evidence indicates that the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumor development; however, the function of miRNAs in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely undefined. In this study, we report that microRNA-422a (miR-422a) is significantly down-regulated in HCC tumor samples and cell lines compared with normal controls, and its expression level is negatively correlated with pathological grading, recurrence, and metastasis. The restoration of miR-422a expression in HCC tumor cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration in vitro. At the same time, the overexpression of miR-422a in HCC tumor cells significantly inhibits tumor growth and liver metastasis in xenograft tumor models. A mechanistic study identified three genes, forkhead box G1 (FOXG1), FOXQ1, and FOXE1, as miR-422a targets in the regulation of HCC development. We also investigated the function of the three targets themselves in HCC tumorigenesis using RNAi manipulation and demonstrated that the knockdown of these targets led to significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. More interestingly, a potential miR-422a promoter region was identified. Both the promoter activity and miR-422a expression were negatively regulated by the three targets, indicating that a double-negative feedback loop exists between miR-422a and its targets. Moreover, we explored the therapeutic potential of miR-422a in HCC treatment and found that the therapeutic delivery of miR-422a significantly inhibited tumor development in a xenograft tumor model and a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced primary HCC model. Conclusion: Our findings show the critical roles of miR-422a and its targets-FOXG1, FOXQ1, and FOXE1-in the regulation of HCC development and provide new potential candidates for HCC therapy. (Hepatology 2014).
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Synthesis of novel CeO2-BiVO4/FAC composites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic properties.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To utilize visible light more effectively in photocatalytic reactions, a fly ash cenosphere (FAC)-supported CeO2-BiVO4 (CeO2-BiVO4/FAC) composite photocatalyst was prepared by modified metalorganic decomposition and impregnation methods. The physical and photophysical properties of the composite have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra. The XRD patterns exhibited characteristic diffraction peaks of both BiVO4 and CeO2 crystalline phases. The XPS results showed that Ce was present as both Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) oxidation states in CeO2 and dispersed on the surface of BiVO4 to constitute a p-n heterojunction composite. The absorption threshold of the CeO2-BiVO4/FAC composite shifted to a longer wavelength in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum compared to the pure CeO2 and pure BiVO4. The composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for Methylene Blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the 7.5wt.% CeO2-BiVO4/FAC composite showed the highest photocatalytic activity for MB dye wastewater treatment.
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Aliphatic Organoimido Derivatives of Polyoxometalates Containing a Bioactive Ligand.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A series of aliphatic organoimido derivatives of hexamolybdate based on amantadine, namely (nBu4 N)2 [Mo6 O18 (?NC10 H15 )] (1), (nBu4 N)2 {cis-[Mo6 O17 (?NC10 H15 )2 ]} (2), (nBu4 N)2 {trans-[Mo6 O17 (?NC10 H15 )2 ]} (3), and (nBu4 N)2 [Mo6 O16 (?NC10 H15 )3 ] (4), was synthesized in reasonable yield by dehydration with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). They were characterized by IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The spectral and structural similarities and differences between monosubstituted, cis-disubstituted, and trans-disubstituted organoimido derivatives were elucidated and may provide guidance for related work on organoimido-functionalized Lindqvist-type polyoxometalates. In addition, trans-disubstituted and polysubstituted derivatives containing aliphatic organoimido ligands have not yet been reported, and the crystal structure of the trans isomer may lead us to a deeper understanding of disubstituted derivatives. Furthermore, proliferation and morphology of MCF-7 cells were studied with compound 1. The present results show that the DCC-dehydrating protocol could be an efficient approach to covalently graft bioactive ligands such as amantadine onto POMs and enhance their application in clinical cancer treatment.
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CMP Aerogels: Ultrahigh-Surface-Area Carbon-Based Monolithic Materials with Superb Sorption Performance.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Monolithic conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) aerogels are obtained in an extremely facile way by selection of adequate reaction conditions and a freeze-drying technique. The aerogels possess an ultrahigh specific surface area and hierarchical interconnected pores, exhibiting superb gas/oil adsorption performance compared with all microporous organic polymers to date.
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Fabrication of low-density GaN/AlN quantum dots via GaN thermal decomposition in MOCVD.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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With an appropriate high anneal temperature under H2 atmosphere, GaN quantum dots (QDs) have been fabricated via GaN thermal decomposition in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Based on the characterization of atomic force microscopy (AFM), the obtained GaN QDs show good size distribution and have a low density of 2.4?×?10(8) cm(-2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrates that the GaN QDs were formed without Ga droplets by thermal decomposition of GaN.
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Advances in kinase targeting: current clinical use and clinical trials.
Trends Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Phosphotransferases, also known as kinases, are the most intensively studied protein drug target category in current pharmacological research, as evidenced by the vast number of kinase-targeting agents enrolled in active clinical trials. This development has emerged following the great success of small-molecule, orally available protein kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, starting with the introduction of imatinib (Gleevec®) in 2003. The pharmacological utility of kinase-targeting has expanded to include treatment of inflammatory diseases, and rapid development is ongoing for kinase-targeted therapies in a broad array of indications in ophthalmology, analgesia, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and the complications of diabetes, osteoporosis, and otology. In this review we highlight specifically the kinase drug targets and kinase-targeting agents being explored in current clinical trials. This analysis is based on a recent estimate of all established and clinical trial drug mechanisms of action, utilizing private and public databases to create an extensive dataset detailing aspects of more than 3000 approved and experimental drugs.
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XAGE-1b expression is associated with the diagnosis and early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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XAGE-1b is a 470 bp transcript of the XAGE-1 gene, which belongs to the cancer-testis antigens that exhibit a restricted pattern of expression in normal tissues. Recently, the expression of XAGE-1b has been shown to be frequent in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To investigate the role of XAGE-1b in HCC diagnosis and postoperative evaluation, the expression level of XAGE-1b was first examined in the tissue and peripheral blood of HCC patients and controls by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the associations between XAGE-1b and the clinical variables were assessed using ?(2) or Kaplan-Meier tests. The data showed that HCC tissues had increased XAGE-1b expression when compared to paired non-tumorous tissues. The blood samples from the HCC patients showed upregulated XAGE-1b mRNA, as compared to non-HCC patients. The patients with portal vein tumor thrombus or higher tumor-node metastasis stages (II~IV) were more likely to have increased levels of XAGE-1b mRNA. Furthermore, the 1-year recurrence rate of the patients with a high level of XAGE-1b mRNA was significantly greater compared to the patients with a low level. All these findings indicate that XAGE-1b is associated with the aggressive biological behavior of HCC cells and it may be a potential biomarker for HCC diagnosis and prognosis.
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Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy.
AAPS J
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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As one targeting strategy of prodrug delivery, gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) promises to realize the targeting through its three key features in cancer therapy-cell-specific gene delivery and expression, controlled conversion of prodrugs to drugs in target cells, and expanded toxicity to the target cells' neighbors through bystander effects. After over 20 years of development, multiple GDEPT systems have advanced into clinical trials. However, no GDEPT product is currently marketed as a drug, suggesting that there are still barriers to overcome before GDEPT becomes a standard therapy. In this review, we first provide a general introduction of this prodrug targeting strategy. Then, we utilize the four most thoroughly studied systems to illustrate components, mechanisms, preclinical and clinical results, and further development directions of GDEPT. These four systems are herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir, cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine, cytochrome P450/oxazaphosphorines, and nitroreductase/CB1954 system. Later, we focus our discussion on bystander effects including local and distant bystander effects. Lastly, we discuss carriers that are used to deliver genes for GDEPT including virus carriers and non-virus carriers. Among these carriers, the stem cell-based gene delivery system represents one of the newest carriers under development, and may brought about a breakthrough to the gene delivery issue of GDEPT.
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An effective way of J wave separation based on multilayer NMF.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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J wave is getting more and more important in the clinical diagnosis as a new index of the electrocardiogram (ECG) of ventricular bipolar, but its signal often mixed in normal ST segment, using the traditional electrocardiograph, and diagnosed by experience cannot meet the practical requirements. Therefore, a new method of multilayer nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) in this paper is put forward, taking the hump shape J wave, for example, which can extract the original J wave signal from the ST segment and analyze the accuracy of extraction, showing the characteristics of hump shape J wave from the aspects of frequency domain, power spectrum, and spectral type, providing the basis for clinical diagnosis and increasing the reliability of the diagnosis of J wave.
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Calcium influx activates adenylyl cyclase 8 for sustained insulin secretion in rat pancreatic beta cells.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Insulin is a key metabolic regulator in health and diabetes. In pancreatic beta cells, insulin release is regulated by the major second messengers Ca(2+) and cAMP: exocytosis is triggered by Ca(2+) and mediated by the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway. However, the causal link between these two processes in primary beta cells remains undefined.
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Energy barrier at the N719-dye/CsSnI3 interface for photogenerated holes in dye-sensitized solar cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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This report is to address the question if black ?-polymorph of cesium tin tri-iodide (B-?-CsSnI3) can be used as a solid-state hole-transport material in the conventional DSSCs with the N719 dye to replace the liquid electrolyte as reported by I. Chung et al. on Nature 485, 486, (2012). Here we demonstrate rigorously that B-?-CsSnI3 is not energetically possible to collect photogenerated holes because of the large energy barrier at the interface of N719/B-?-CsSnI3. Therefore, it cannot serve as a hole-transporter for the conventional DSSCs although it is a good hole-conducting material. A solution-based method was employed to synthesize the B-?-CsSnI3 polycrystalline thin-films used for this work. These thin-films were then characterized by X-ray diffraction, Hall measurements, optical reflection, and photoluminescence (PL). Particularly, spatially resolved PL intensity images were taken after B-?-CsSnI3 was incorporated in the DSSC structure to insure the material integrity. The means of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) was used to reveal why B-?-CsSnI3 could not act as the substitute of liquid electrolyte in the conventional DSSCs. For the completeness, other two related compounds, one is the yellow polymorph of CsSnI3 and other is Cs2SnI6 with tetravalent tin instead of double-valent tin in CsSnI3 were also investigated by UPS.
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A Comprehensive Transcriptome Provides Candidate Genes for Sex Determination/Differentiation and SSR/SNP Markers in Yellow Catfish.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Sex dimorphic growth pattern has significant theory and application implications in fish. Recently, a Y- and X-specific allele marker-assisted sex control technique has been developed for mass production of all-male population in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), but the genetic information for sex determination and sex control breeding has remained unclear. Here, we attempted to provide the first insight into a comprehensive transcriptome covering multiple tissues from XX females, XY males, and YY super-males of yellow catfish by using 454 GS-FLX platform, for a better assembly and gene coverage. A total of 1,202,933 high quality reads (about 540 Mbp) were obtained and assembled into 28,297 contigs and 141,951 singletons. BLASTX searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database (nr) led a total of 52,564 unique sequences including 18,748 contigs and 33,816 singletons to match 25,669 known or predicted unique proteins. All of them with annotated function were categorized by gene ontology (GO) analysis, and 712 were assigned to reproduction and reproductive process. Some potential genes relevant to reproductive system including steroid hormone biosynthesis and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signaling pathway were further identified by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis; and at least 21 sex determination and differentiation-related genes, such as Dmrt1, Sox9a/b, Cyp19b, WT1, and AMH were identified and characterized. Additionally, a total of 82,794 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 26,450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and 4,145 insertions and deletions (INDELs) were revealed from the transcriptome data. Therefore, the current transcriptome resources highlight further studies on sex-control breeding in yellow catfish and will benefit future studies on reproduction and sex determination in teleost fish.
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Characterizing the Chiral Index of a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) mainly depend on their geometry. However, there are still formidable difficulties to determine the chirality of SWCNTs accurately. In this review, some efficient methods to characterize the chiral indices of SWCNTs are illuminated. These methods are divided into imaging techniques and spectroscopy techniques. With these methods, diameter, helix angle, and energy states can be measured. Generally speaking, imaging techniques have a higher accuracy and universality, but are time-consuming with regard to the sample preparation and characterization. The spectroscopy techniques are very simple and fast in operation, but these techniques can be applied only to the particular structure of the sample. Here, the principles and operations of each method are introduced, and a comprehensive understanding of each technique, including their advantages and disadvantages, is given. Advanced applications of some methods are also discussed. The aim of this review is to help readers to choose methods with the appropriate accuracy and time complexity and, furthermore, to put forward an idea to find new methods for chirality characterization.
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Surgical site infection after laparoscopic and open appendectomy: a multicenter large consecutive cohort study.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has been rapidly applied worldwide recently. The issue of surgical site infection (SSI) after appendectomy needs to be re-investigated and analyzed along with this trend. This study aimed to identify risk factors of SSI after appendectomy in recent years.
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Development of Refractoriness of HO-1 Induction to a Second Treatment with UVA Radiation and the Involvement of Nrf2 in Human Skin Fibroblasts.
Photochem. Photobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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UVA treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts (FEK4) has been shown previously to reduce transcriptional activation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) following a second dose of UVA radiation, a phenomenon known as refractoriness. This study demonstrates that the levels of HO-1 protein are also reduced after a second dose of UVA radiation as are Nrf2 levels, and there is less accumulation of Nrf2 in the nucleus where as Bach1 does accumulate in the nucleus. Cell viability is further reduced and cell membrane damage increased as compared with a single UVA treatment when an initial UVA treatment was followed by a second dose. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA (siNrf2) targeting caused additional refractoriness of HO-1 protein induction to a second UVA or heme treatment and this treatment also further enhanced cell damage by a second dose of UVA radiation. However, transfection with Nrf2 caused less refractoriness of HO-1 to a second dose of UVA and reduced cell damage by a second dose of UVA radiation. These findings are consistent with the proposal that Nrf2 is involved in HO-1 refractoriness and could serve as a cytoprotective factor against cell damage caused by repeated exposure to moderate doses of UVA radiation. We propose that protection by the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway protection may have clinical relevance since human skin is exposed repeatedly to UVA radiation.
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Clinical Outcome of Simultaneous High Tibial Osteotomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction for Medial Compartment Osteoarthritis in Young Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees: A Systematic Review.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been a well-established procedure addressing tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in young patients. However, for physically active patients with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, simultaneous HTO and ACL reconstruction is considered a salvage procedure. Controversy exists regarding the subjective and objective evaluations and the prevalence of complications.
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Evaluation of clinical outcomes of antiangiogenic-targeted therapy in patients with pulmonary metastatic renal cell carcinoma using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to assess whether changes to radiographic parameters before and after treatment with antiangiogenic drugs would improve performance in predicting tumor response with non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCECT) compared to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).
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Safety and efficacy of high-dose cyclophosphamide, etoposide and ranimustine regimen followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Abstract We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, etoposide and ranimustine (CEM) with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in 55 adult patients with relapsed or high-risk de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or DLBCL associated with follicular lymphoma. This included 36 patients in the upfront setting in their first complete remission. The median follow-up of 42 patients surviving at the time of the analysis was 52 months (range 1-159). Relapse or disease progression after PBSCT was a frequent cause of death, but no therapy-related mortality associated with PBSCT was observed. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.0-82.1) and 57.0% (95% CI, 39.5-71.2), respectively. Chronic renal impairment, therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and prostate cancer were the major late complications. The CEM regimen is a tolerable, effective conditioning regimen for autologous PBSCT for DLBCL, with no therapy-related mortality observed.
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Overexpression of monoubiquitin improves photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants following high temperature stress.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (Ub/26S) is implicated in abiotic stress responses in plants. In this paper, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 from wheat were used to study the functions of Ub in the improvement of photosynthesis under high temperature (45°C) stress. We observed higher levels of Ub conjugates in transgenic plants under high temperature stress conditions compared to wild type (WT) as a result of the constitutive overexpression of Ta-Ub2, suggesting increased protein degradation by the 26S proteasome system under high temperature stress. Overexpressing Ub increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic tobacco plants, consistent with the improved ATPase activity in the thylakoid membrane and enhanced efficiency of PSII photochemistry. The higher D1 protein levels following high temperature stress in transgenic plants than WT were also observed. These findings imply that Ub may be involved in tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature stress in plants. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants showed lower protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature stress. These findings suggest that the improved antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants may be one of the most important mechanisms underlying Ub-regulated high temperature tolerance.
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Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells contribute to periodontal regeneration in beagle dogs.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (GMSCs) have been considered as a promising alternative strategy for periodontal regeneration based on their potential for multilineage differentiation in vitro and the ability to form new bone in vivo. In order to investigate the capacity of GMSCs for periodontal regeneration and the fate of GMSCs during periodontal tissue repair, enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled GMSCs were transplanted into class III furcation defects created in beagle dogs. The results showed that the transplanted GMSCs significantly enhanced the regeneration of the damaged periodontal tissue, including the alveolar bone, cementum and functional periodontal ligament (PDL). Moreover, GMSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, cementoblasts and PDL fibroblasts in vivo. These findings indicate that GMSCs represent a novel cell source for periodontal tissue reconstruction.
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Solid hypo-echoic thyroid nodules on ultrasound: the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solid hypo-echoic thyroid nodules (SHTNs) on ultrasound. In this retrospective study, 183 histologically proven SHTNs in 159 patients were enrolled. Conventional US, as well as Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI) and Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) of ARFI elastography, was performed on each nodule. The VTI features of SHTNs were divided into six grades, where higher grades represent harder tissue. VTQ was expressed as shear wave velocity, where higher shear wave velocity values indicate stiffer tissue. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden index for ultrasound and ARFI were assessed. The 183 pathologically proven SHTNs included 117 benign and 66 malignant lesions. Nodules classified as VTI grades IV to VI were more frequently malignant (49/66, 74.2%) than benign (10/117, 8.5%) (p < 0.001). The mean shear wave velocity of VTQ for malignant SHTNs (mean ± standard deviation, 4.65 ± 2.68 m/s; range, 1.36-9 m/s) was significantly higher than that for benign SHTNs (2.34 ± 0.85 m/s, 0-5.7 m/s) (p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden index were 27.3%-84.8%, 13.7%-89.7%, 39.3%-69.4%, 35.7%-60%, 61.5%-78.5%, and -0.015 to 0.37 for ultrasound; 68.2%, 76.9%, 73.8%, 62.5%, 81.1% and 0.451 for VTQ; and 74.2%, 91.5%, 85.2%, 83.1%, 86.3% and 0.657 for VTI, respectively. ARFI elastography performed at a superior level, compared with conventional ultrasound, in the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign SHTNs. The diagnostic performance of VTI is higher than that of VTQ.
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Effect of recombinant Newcastle disease virus transfection on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vivo.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been reported to selectively duplicate in and then destroy tumor cells, whilst sparing normal cells. However, the effect of NDV on lung cancer has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, recombinant NDV (rl-RVG) was applied to lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell tumor-bearing mice to explore its effect on the proliferation of the cells and the immune response of the mice. Following rl-RVG transfection, RVG and NDV gene expression, decreased tumor growth, subcutaneous tumor necrosis, tumor apoptosis and an increased number of cluster of differentiation (CD)3(-)/CD49(+) natural killer cells were more evident in the rl-RVG group. The present study demonstrated that rl-RVG transfection effectively restrained lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell growth in vivo, which may have been accomplish by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and regulating the cell immune response.
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Induced Differentiation of Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells into M2 Macrophages by Combined Treatment with Retinoic Acid and 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Retinoids and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells into granulocyte and macrophage lineages, respectively. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, can induce differentiation of other types of myeloid leukemia cells, and combined treatment with retinoid and 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively enhances the differentiation of leukemia cells into macrophage-like cells. Recent work has classified macrophages into M1 and M2 types. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined treatment with retinoid and 1,25(OH)2D3 on differentiation of myeloid leukemia THP-1 and HL60 cells. 9-cis Retinoic acid (9cRA) plus 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited proliferation of THP-1 and HL60 cells and increased myeloid differentiation markers including nitroblue tetrazolium reducing activity and expression of CD14 and CD11b. ATRA and the synthetic retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 exhibited similar effects in combination with 1,25(OH)2D3 but less effectively than 9cRA, while the retinoid X receptor agonist HX630 was not effective. 9cRA plus 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively increased expression of M2 macrophage marker genes, such as CD163, ARG1 and IL10, increased surface CD163 expression, and induced interleukin-10 secretion in myeloid leukemia cells, while 9cRA alone had weaker effects on these phenotypes and 1,25(OH)2D3 was not effective. Taken together, our results demonstrate selective induction of M2 macrophage markers in human myeloid leukemia cells by combined treatment with 9cRA and 1,25(OH)2D3.
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How Noise and Language Proficiency Influence Speech Recognition by Individual Non-Native Listeners.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%-92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise.
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Ca(2+) signaling in arterioles and small arteries of conscious, restrained, optical biosensor mice.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two-photon fluorescence microscopy and conscious, restrained optical biosensor mice were used to study smooth muscle Ca(2+) signaling in ear arterioles. Conscious mice were used in order to preserve normal mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). ExMLCK mice, which express a genetically-encoded smooth muscle-specific FRET-based Ca(2+) indicator, were equipped with blood pressure telemetry and immobilized for imaging. MAP was 101 ± 4 mmHg in conscious restrained mice, similar to the freely mobile state (107 ± 3 mmHg). Oscillatory vasomotion or irregular contractions were observed in most arterioles (71%), with the greatest oscillatory frequency observed at 0.25 s(-1). In a typical arteriole with an average diameter of ~35 ?m, oscillatory vasomotion of a 5-6 ?m magnitude was accompanied by nearly uniform [Ca(2+)] oscillations from ~0.1 to 0.5 ?M, with maximum [Ca(2+)] occurring immediately before the rapid decrease in diameter. Very rapid, spatially uniform "Ca(2+) flashes" were also observed but not asynchronous propagating Ca(2+) waves. In contrast, vasomotion and dynamic Ca(2+) signals were rarely observed in ear arterioles of anesthetized exMLCK biosensor mice. Hexamethonium (30 ?g/g BW, i.p.) caused a fall in MAP to 74 ± 4 mmHg, arteriolar vasodilation, and abolition of vasomotion and synchronous Ca(2+) transients.
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Chikungunya virus glycoproteins pseudotype with lentiviral vectors and reveal a broad spectrum of cellular tropism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Outbreaks of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has been documented in over 40 countries, resulting in clinical symptoms characterized by fever and joint pain. Diagnosing CHIKV in a clinical lab setting is often omitted because of the high lab safety requirement. An infection system that mimics CHIKV infection will permit clinical evaluation of the production of neutralizing antibody for both disease diagnostics and treatment.
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Transcriptome sequencing and identification of cold tolerance genes in hardy Corylus species (C. heterophylla Fisch) floral buds.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The genus Corylus is an important woody species in Northeast China. Its products, hazelnuts, constitute one of the most important raw materials for the pastry and chocolate industry. However, limited genetic research has focused on Corylus because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a turning point for Corylus research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive database for the Corylus heterophylla Fisch floral buds.
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Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.
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An approach to identify microRNAs involved in neuropathic pain following a peripheral nerve injury.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Peripheral nerve injury alters the expression of hundreds of proteins in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Targeting some of these proteins has led to successful treatments for acute pain, but not for sustained post-operative neuropathic pain. The latter may require targeting multiple proteins. Since a single microRNA (miR) can affect the expression of multiple proteins, here, we describe an approach to identify chronic neuropathic pain-relevant miRs. We used two variants of the spared nerve injury (SNI): Sural-SNI and Tibial-SNI and found distinct pain phenotypes between the two. Both models induced strong mechanical allodynia, but only Sural-SNI rats maintained strong mechanical and cold allodynia, as previously reported. In contrast, we found that Tibial-SNI rats recovered from mechanical allodynia and never developed cold allodynia. Since both models involve nerve injury, we increased the probability of identifying differentially regulated miRs that correlated with the quality and magnitude of neuropathic pain and decreased the probability of detecting miRs that are solely involved in neuronal regeneration. We found seven such miRs in L3-L5 DRG. The expression of these miRs increased in Tibial-SNI. These miRs displayed a lower level of expression in Sural-SNI, with four having levels lower than those in sham animals. Bioinformatic analysis of how these miRs could affect the expression of some ion channels supports the view that, following a peripheral nerve injury, the increase of the seven miRs may contribute to the recovery from neuropathic pain while the decrease of four of them may contribute to the development of chronic neuropathic pain. The approach used resulted in the identification of a small number of potentially neuropathic pain relevant miRs. Additional studies are required to investigate whether manipulating the expression of the identified miRs in primary sensory neurons can prevent or ameliorate chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injuries.
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[Study on applicability of kinetic model for water extracts from puerariae radix].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To establish an appropriate experimental and data processing method on the basis of the general kinetic model for extraction of traditional Chinese medicines, in order to study the effect of total flavonoids in water extracts from Puerariae Radix on the adaptability of the model, with total flavonoids of Puerariae Radix as the determination indicator. The results showed that the natural logarithm of mass concentration of total flavonoids showed a good linearity with the changes in extraction time and solvent volume. Through calculating and fitting, we successfully established the kinetic model for water extraction of total flavonoids from Puerariae Radix, and verified its accuracy. Its good fitting degree and controllable deviation within the range of industrial production requirements indicated a good adaptability of the model. However, its equation correction factors require further studies.
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RNA-binding protein RBM24 regulates p63 expression via mRNA stability.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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P63, a p53 family member, plays pivotal roles in epidermal development, aging, and tumorigenesis. Thus, understanding how p63 expression is controlled has biological and clinical importance. RBM24 is an RNA-binding protein and shares a high sequence similarity with RBM38, a critical regulator of p63. In the current study, we investigated whether RBM24 is capable of regulating p63 expression. Indeed, we found that ectopic expression of RBM24 decreased, whereas knockdown of RBM24 increased, the levels of p63 transcript and protein. To explore the underlying mechanism, we found that RBM24 was able to bind to multiple regions in the p63 3 untranslated region and subsequently, destabilize p63 transcript. Furthermore, we showed that the 3 untranslated region in p63 transcript and the RNA-binding domain in RBM24 were required for RBM24 to bind p63 transcript and consequently, inhibit p63 expression. Taken together, our data provide evidence that RBM24 is a novel regulator of p63 via mRNA stability. Implications: Our study suggests that p63 is regulated by RBM24 via mRNA stability, which gives an insight into understanding how posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms contribute to p63 expression.
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Rbm24, an RNA-binding protein and a target of p53, regulates p21 via mRNA stability.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is necessary for proper control of the cell cycle and premature senescence. Thus, p21 expression needs to be tightly controlled. In this study, we found that Rbm24, an RNA-binding protein and a target gene of the p53 protein, can regulate p21 expression via mRNA stability. Specifically, we showed that Rbm24 is induced by DNA damage and Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. We also found that p53 protein binds to and activates the promoter of the Rbm24 gene. Moreover, we found that overexpression of Rbm24 increases, whereas knockdown of Rbm24 decreases, p21 mRNA and protein expression. In addition, we demonstrated that overexpression of Rbm24 enhances the half-life of p21 transcript. Consistent with this, we provided evidence that Rbm24 binds to the 3 untranslated region (3 UTR) of p21 transcript and an AU/U-rich element in the p21 3 UTR is necessary for Rbm24 to increase p21 expression. Finally, we showed that the RNA recognition motif in Rbm24 is required for binding to p21 transcript and subsequently for inducing p21 expression. Altogether, we uncover that Rbm24 is a novel player in the p53 pathway, which may be explored to restore proper cell cycle control in p53-deficient tumors via p21.
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Prevalence, severity and risk factors of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in a large group of Chinese schoolchildren.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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ABSTRACT Background: There is a lack of information on the prevalence, severity and risk factors of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in Chinese children. Objective: To establish baseline data for a major longitudinal study of factors affecting asthma, rhinitis and eczema in a large group of children from the industrialized city of Shijiazhuang, China. Methods: We used the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and studied 10?338 children, ages 6-18, from Shijiazhuang. Results: The prevalence of childhood asthma, rhinitis and eczema is 1.2%, 13.5% and 11.8%, respectively. Boys had higher prevalence of these conditions than girls and younger children had higher prevalence of asthma and eczema but lower prevalence of rhinitis than older children. Breastfed children had lower prevalence of asthma and rhinitis, but not eczema, than non-breastfed children. Overweight children had higher prevalence of asthma and rhinitis than those who were not overweight. Children exposed to paternal smoking had higher prevalence of rhinitis and eczema than those not exposed; children exposed to pets had higher prevalence of asthma and rhinitis than those not exposed. Conclusions: The prevalence of asthma in this study group is low, but the prevalence of rhinitis is high, and could be considered a major public health problem. The prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema is generally higher in boys and younger children generally have higher prevalence of asthma and eczema but lower prevalence of rhinitis. Exposure to pets is a risk factor for rhinitis, being overweight is a risk factor for asthma and rhinitis, and exposure to parental smoking is a risk factor for asthma, rhinitis and eczema in these children.
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[Expression of Notch3 and hypertensive renal fibrosis].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Objective: To examine the expression of notch3 in the kidneys of patients with primary hypertension and rats with spontaneous hypertension, and to explore the relationship of notch3 and hypertension renal fibrosis. Methods: Thirteen patients with primary hypertension served as a primary hypertension group (HP group), and 15 patients with kidney tumor served as a control group (CP group). The spontaneous hypertensive rats served as a primary hypertension group (SHR group, n=6), and WKY rats served as a control group (WKY group, n=6). Masson stainning was used to examine the collagen in the kidneys in the SHR group and the WKY group. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the levels of Notch3 in kidneys of the patients and the rats. The expression of snail mRNA in the kidneys in the SHR group and the WKY group was examined by real-time PCR. Results: Masson staining showed much more collagen in the SHR group than that in the WKY group (P<0.05); the expression of Notch3 in the HP group was much higher than that in the CP group ( 6.741±0.231 vs 0.763±0.358, P<0.01). The expression of Notch3 in the SHR group was much higher than that in the WKY group (5.487±0.774 vs 0.421±0.163, P<0.01), and The expression of snail mRNA was much higher in the SHR group than that in the WKY group (0.996±0.120 vs 0.208±0.090, P<0.01 ). Conclusion: Notch3 may be related to the occurrence of hypertension renal fibrosis.
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[Manipulation and comprehensive application of reinforcing-reducing methods according to numbers and directions of rotation].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To trace to the source of the needling technique called "dragon and tiger warring" so as to bring its immediate effect of pain relieving into full play. Taking contents of Huangdi Neijiig (Yellow Emperors Internal Classic), Nanjing (Classic of Questioning) and analyses of various schools in Zhenjiu Dacheng (Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) as references, thoughts of "principles of yin-yang inter-transformation", "yin-yang numbers of six and nine" as well as "the mysterious principles of reinforcing-reducing" in "dragon and tiger warring" technique are further studied. "Dragon and tiger warring" technique combined with "twirling reinforcing and reducing method according to clockwise or anticlockwise direction", "qi lifting method" and "theory of nine and six circles" can communicate the meridian qi exteriorly, interiorly, upper and lower. Taking professor ZHANG Jins experiences on clinical application of "reinforcing and reducing according to number six and nine circles of rotation", the cores of reducing and reinforcing methods of "dragon and tiger warring", "back and forth method" as well as "qi lifting method" are applied comprehensively, so as to bring the immediate pain relieving effect of "dragon and tiger warring" technique into full play.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.