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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of a selective G-quadruplex DNA binder using a multistep virtual screening approach.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To efficiently identify small molecules binding to a G-quadruplex structure while avoiding binding to duplex DNA, we performed a multistep structure-based virtual screening by simultaneously taking into account G-quadruplex DNA and duplex DNA. Among the 13 compounds selected, one outstanding ligand shows significant selectivity for G-quadruplex binding as determined using SPR, FRET-based competition and luciferase activity assay.
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[Effect of xy2004, a centchroman derivative, on proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro and the mechanism].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the effect of xy2004, a centchroman derivative, on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and the mechanisms.
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Highly diastereo- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed propargylic alkylation of acyclic ketone enamines for the construction of two vicinal stereocenters.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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The first highly diastereo- and enantioselective propargylic alkylation of acyclic ketone enamines to form vicinal tertiary stereocenters has been reported by employing copper catalysis in combination with a bulky and structurally rigid tridentate ketimine P,N,N-ligand.
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[Intervention effect of quercetin on inflammatory secretion of cardiac fibroblasts].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To establish neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast inflammatory secretion model by using LPS 100 microg x L(-1) combined with ATP 5 mmol x L(-1), in order to study the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 of cardiac fibroblasts, further investigate the effect of quercetin on the protein expression of p-NF-kappaB p65 (S276) and p-Akt (S473) by western blot, and discuss the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the inflammatory secretion of cardiac fibroblasts. According to the findings, quercetin with the concentrations between 51.74 micromol x L(-1) and 827.81 micromol x L(-1) had no significant effect on the activity of cardiac fibroblasts. Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39, 20.70 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the increase of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta induced by LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 36 h (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the increase of IL-6 induced LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 36 h (P < 0.05), without any notable effect of quercetin with the concentration of 20.70 micromol x L(-1). Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39, 20. 70 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the NF-kappaB p65 (S276) activation induced by LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 15 min, with the most significant effect in 20.70 micromol x L(-1). Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39, 20.70 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the increase of p-Akt(473) expression induced by LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 240 min (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study believes that quercetin could attenuate the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 of cardiac fibroblasts by inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB p65 (S276) and Akt (473).
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[Protective effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis on myocardial tissues of Chinese mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To study the protective effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis (TYTZ) on myocardial tissues of Chinese mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome.
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Protective Effect of Kaempferol on LPS plus ATP-Induced Inflammatory Response in Cardiac Fibroblasts.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Inflammatory response is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac fibroblasts play a crucial role in cardiac inflammation and might become a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Kaempferol, a flavonoid commonly existing in many edible fruits, vegetables, and Chinese herbs, is well known to possess anti-inflammatory property and thus has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. To date, the effect of kaempferol on cardiac fibroblasts inflammation is unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus ATP-induced cardiac fibroblasts and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that kaempferol at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 ?g/mL significantly suppressed the release of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-18 and inhibited activation of NF-?B and Akt in LPS plus ATP-induced cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that kaempferol attenuates cardiac fibroblast inflammation through suppression of activation of NF-?B and Akt.
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Primary breast lymphoma: A single-institute experience in Taiwan.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Breast is an uncommon location of lymphoma involvement. The most common type of primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Rituximab is the widely used monoclonal antibody against CD20+ B-cell lymphoma, especially DLBCL. We aimed to analyze the clinical features, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome with or without rituximab in primary breast DLBCL.
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Effects of Platelet-rich Plasma and Cell Coculture on Angiogenesis in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been described as platelet concentrate. Growth factors released by activated platelets can improve wound vasculogenesis and enhance wound healing. In this study, we used PRP instead of serum to culture human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and investigated revascularization ability. The effect of hDPSC and EPC coculture on vasculogenesis was also studied.
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Pharmacokinetic profile and first preliminary clinical evaluation of bendamustine in Taiwanese patients with heavily pretreated indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Prior studies found bendamustine is efficacious in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To date, no studies have reported the efficacy of bendamustine in a Chinese population. This multicentre phase II trial evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of bendamustine monotherapy in Chinese patients in Taiwan with pretreated indolent B-cell NHL or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). For PK assessments, patients were randomized (n?=?16; 11 with indolent B-cell NHL and five with MCL) to 90 or 120?mg/m(2) of bendamustine for the first cycle. Plasma levels of bendamustine and its two metabolites were analyzed. For efficacy and safety evaluations, bendamustine 120?mg/m(2) was given to all patients every 3?weeks starting at cycle 2 for a minimum of a total of six cycles. The median age of patients was 61.7?years, and the majority were men (75%). The median number of prior treatments was 4 (range, 1-9 regimens), and all patients were previously treated with rituximab. Bendamustine plasma concentration peaked near the end of infusion and was rapidly eliminated with a mean elimination half-life (t1/2 ) of 0.67-0.8?h. Of the evaluable patients (n?=?14), the overall response rate was 78.6%, including 7.2% of patients having a complete response. Mean progression-free survival was 27.5?weeks. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were leucopenia (56.3%), neutropenia (56.3%) and thrombocytopenia (25%). In conclusion, bendamustine was efficacious and well tolerated in Taiwanese patients with indolent NHL and MCL with a similar PK profile to that of other populations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The cardioprotective effect of protocatechuic acid on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound and one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, has been found to possess various biological activities, and it may have a potential in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. This study explored the cardioprotective effect of PCA on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and the underlying mechanisms. In an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury, myocardial infarct size, serum TNF-a level, and platelet aggregation were measured. In a primary neonatal rat cardiomyocyte model of hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) injury, the apoptotic rate, expressions of cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated Akt were observed. We found that PCA significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum TNF-a level, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that PCA significantly inhibited the apoptotic rate and the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and it upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in cardiomyocytes subjected to H/R injury. Our results suggest that PCA can provide a significant protection against MI/R injury, which may be at least partially attributed to its inhibitions against injury induced by MI/R including the inflammatory response, platelet aggregation, and cardiomyocytes apoptosis.
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Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MEF1 by Hda1p affects salt resistance of bdf1? mutant.
FEMS Yeast Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Bromodomain factor 1 (Bdf1p) is a transcriptional regulator. The absence of Bdf1p causes salt sensitivity with abnormal nucleus and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we reported that the salt sensitivity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and nuclear instability of bdf1? mutant were suppressed by HDA1 deletion or MEF1 overexpression. Hda1p overexpression inhibited the relieving effects of low-copy overexpression of MEF1. Further analysis showed that Bdf1p regulated HDA1 transcription positively by binding to its promoter at ?201 to +6 bp, whereas Hda1p modulated MEF1 expression negatively by binding to its promoter at ?201 to +6 bp. These results suggested that Bdf1p likely regulated MEF1 expression negatively by regulating HDA1 positively. Mitochondrial proteomics analysis showed that the expression levels of six mitochondrial proteins were significantly changed by MEF1 overexpression. Among the six genes, over-expression of PDB1, ILV5, or ATP2 partially recovered the salt stress sensitivity of bdf1?. However, none of these mitochondrial proteins could recover mitochondrial respiration indicating that the individual functional proteins could not replace Mef1p activity. It indicated that positive regulation of MEF1 was important in recovering the salt sensitivity of bdf1? mutant.
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[Sacrococcygeal gap injection for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To explore the clinical effect of the sacrococcygeal space injection for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome.
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Improved production of a heterologous amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inverse metabolic engineering.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pathway, which has not been fully exploited. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic engineering to identify novel targets for improving protein secretion. Screening that combined UV-random mutagenesis and selection for growth on starch was performed to find mutant strains producing heterologous amylase 5-fold above the level produced by the reference strain. Genomic mutations that could be associated with higher amylase secretion were identified through whole-genome sequencing. Several single-point mutations, including an S196I point mutation in the VTA1 gene coding for a protein involved in vacuolar sorting, were evaluated by introducing these to the starting strain. By applying this modification alone, the amylase secretion could be improved by 35%. As a complement to the identification of genomic variants, transcriptome analysis was also performed in order to understand on a global level the transcriptional changes associated with the improved amylase production caused by UV mutagenesis.
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Rigorous microlens design using vector electromagnetic method combined with simulated annealing optimization.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In this paper, finite-aperture diffractive optical element with its critical dimension smaller than illumination wavelength is modeled and optimized using an integrated method. This method employs rigorous analysis model based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD), and simulated annealing (SA) global search algorithm. Numerical results reveal that the diffraction efficiency of the 8-step microlens quickly climbs to its global optimum along with the optimization process, which manifests its global search ability. The design algorithm and implementation are discussed in details. Considering its time consuming efficiency and global search ability, our method provides valuable reference value in practical multistep microlens design.
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Pseudaboydins A and B: novel isobenzofuranone derivatives from marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii associated with starfish Acanthaster planci.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Two novel isobenzofuranone derivatives, pseudaboydins A (1) and B (2), along with five known compounds, including (R)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (3), (R)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxybenzofuran (4), 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether (5), 3-(3-methoxy-5-methylphenoxy)-5-methylphenol (6) and (-)-regiolone (7), were isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus, Pseudallescheria boydii, associated with the starfish, Acanthaster planci. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were determined by CD spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of 1-4 were evaluated. Pseudaboydin A (1) showed moderate cytotoxic activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HONE1, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line SUNE1 and human glandular lung cancer cell line GLC82 with IC50 values of 37.1, 46.5 and 87.2 ?M, respectively.
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Development and trunk segmentation of early instars of a ptychopariid trilobite from Cambrian Stage 5 of China.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Many three-dimensionally preserved exoskeletons found from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Gaotai Formation in Guizhou, southern China, have been assigned to the ptychopariid trilobite Gunnia sp. They represent mainly a series of early instars, exhibiting some delicate structures and morphological variation associated with their trunk segmentation and early development. Morphometric and statistical analyses indicate that the transverse joint appears to occur with the full growth of the third axial ring of the protopygidium, which increases in size much more rapidly than its corresponding protocephalon with growth. The 'one by one' sequential release of thoracic segments from a transitory pygidium does not progress exactly in accordance with the development of the pygidial axis, whose axial rings increase at a relatively faster rate, and an 'immature ring' always appears initially at the rear end of the axis. These new data set up a testable model for revealing trilobite segmentation and provide fresh insights into the development, evolution and taphonomic surroundings associated with the Cambrian trilobites.
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A retrospective study on sequential desensitization-rechallenge for antituberculosis drug allergy.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug allergy often involves multiple concurrently administered drugs which subsequently need to be reinitiated as no better alternatives exist.
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High vanillin tolerance of an evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain owing to its enhanced vanillin reduction and antioxidative capacity.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The phenolic compounds present in hydrolysates pose significant challenges for the sustainable lignocellulosic materials refining industry. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate were obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate mutation and adaptive evolution. Among them, strain EMV-8 exhibits specific tolerance to vanillin, a phenolic compound common in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The EMV-8 maintains a specific growth rate of 0.104 h(-1) in 2 g L(-1) vanillin, whereas the reference strain cannot grow. Physiological studies revealed that the vanillin reduction rate of EMV-8 is 1.92-fold higher than its parent strain, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of EMV-8 is 15 % higher than its parent strain. Transcriptional analysis results confirmed an up-regulated oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity in this strain. Our results suggest that enhancing the antioxidant capacity and oxidoreductase activity could be a strategy to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved vanillin tolerance.
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Gene mutation patterns in patients with minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) is a rare subtype of AML with poor prognosis. Although genetic alterations are increasingly reported in AML, the gene mutations have not been comprehensively studied in AML-M0. We aimed to examine a wide spectrum of gene mutations in patients with AML-M0 to determine their clinical relevance. Twenty gene mutations including class I, class II, class III of epigenetic regulators (IDH1, IDH2, TET2, DNMT3A, MLL-PTD, ASXL1, and EZH2), and class IV (tumor suppressor genes) were analyzed in 67 patients with AML-M0. Mutational analysis was performed with polymerase chain reaction-based assays followed by direct sequencing. The most frequent gene mutations from our data were FLT3-ITD/FLT3-TKD (28.4%), followed by mutations in IDH1/IDH2 (28.8%), RUNX1 (23.9%), N-RAS/K-RAS (12.3%), TET2 (8.2%), DNMT3A (8.1%), MLL-PTD (7.8%), and ASXL1 (6.3%). Seventy-nine percent (53/67) of patients had at least one gene mutation. Class I genes (49.3%) were the most common mutated genes, which were mutually exclusive. Class III genes of epigenetic regulators were also frequent (43.9%). In multivariate analysis, old age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.029, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.013-1.044, P=.001) was the independent adverse factor for overall survival, and RUNX1 mutation (HR 2.326, 95% CI 0.978-5.533, P=.056) had a trend toward inferior survival. In conclusion, our study showed a high frequency of FLT3, RUNX1, and IDH mutations in AML-M0, suggesting that these mutations played a role in the pathogenesis and served as potential therapeutic targets in this rare and unfavorable subtype of AML.
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Articulated Wiwaxia from the Cambrian Stage 3 Xiaoshiba lagerstätte.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Wiwaxia is a bizarre metazoan that has been interpreted as a primitive mollusc and as a polychaete annelid worm. Extensive material from the Burgess Shale provides a detailed picture of its morphology and ontogeny, but the fossil record outside this lagerstätte is scarce, and complete wiwaxiids are particularly rare. Here we report small articulated specimens of Wiwaxia foliosa sp. nov. from the Xiaoshiba fauna (Cambrian Stage 3, Hongjingshao Formation, Kunming, south China). Although spines are absent, the fossils' sclerites - like those of W. corrugata - are symmetrically arranged in five distinct zones. They form rows across the body, and were individually added and shed throughout growth to retain an approximately symmetrical body shape. Their development pattern suggests a molluscan affinity. The basic body plan of wiwaxiids is fundamentally conserved across two continents through Cambrian Stages 3-5 - revealing morphological stasis in the wake of the Cambrian explosion.
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia presenting with ascites diagnosed by clonality analysis via gene rearrangement assay: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presenting with ascites is predominantly based on the morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics, which are comparable to peripheral blood and bone marrow cells. However, it is relatively difficult to diagnose CLL due to the pleomorphism of the lymphocytes in ascites. The current study presents an 80-year-old male with a prior diagnosis of CLL who developed large ascites. Predominant T lymphocytes rendered morphological and immunophenotypic diagnosis difficult. Clonality analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements was performed on the lymphocytes from the ascites to diagnose the involvement of CLL, a laparotomy and biopsy from the peritoneal node confirmed the involvement of small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL. The clonality analysis of Ig gene rearrangements may provide a powerful and accurate method for diagnosing CLL presenting with ascites.
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Small GTPase RBJ mediates nuclear entrapment of MEK1/MEK2 in tumor progression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Ras-related small GTPases play important roles in cancer. However, the roles of RBJ, a representative of the sixth subfamily of Ras-related small GTPases, in tumorigenesis and tumor progression remain unknown. Here, we report that RBJ is dysregulated in human gastrointestinal cancers and can promote carcinogenesis and tumor progression via nuclear entrapment of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)1/MEK2 and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Nucleus-localized RBJ interacts with MEK/ERK and prolongs the duration of MEK/ERK activation. Rbj deficiency abrogates nuclear accumulation of MEK1/MEK2, attenuates ERK1/ERK2 activation, and impairs AOM/DSS-induced colonic carcinogenesis. Moreover, Rbj knockdown inhibits growth of established tumors. Our data suggest that RBJ may be an oncogenic Ras-related small GTPase mediating nuclear accumulation of active MEK1/MEK2 in tumor progression.
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Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.
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[Compatibility of geniposide and ginsenoside rgl: their regulating roles in secretion of anoxia induction injured microglia inflammatory cytokines].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To clarify the protective roles of compatibility of geniposide and ginsenoside (Rg1) in regulating ischemia injured microglia homeostasis by comparing the difference in regulatory roles of geniposide, Rg1, or ginsenoside + Rg1 in balancing secretion of oxygen glucose deprivation induced microglia inflammatory cytokines.
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TCM-based new drug discovery and development in China.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Over the past 30 years, China has significantly improved the drug development environment by establishing a series of policies for the regulation of new drug approval. The regulatory system for new drug evaluation and registration in China was gradually developed in accordance with international standards. The approval and registration of TCM in China became as strict as those of chemical drugs and biological products. In this review, TCM-based new drug discovery and development are introduced according to the TCM classification of nine categories.
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Fine-tuning of NADH oxidase decreases byproduct accumulation in respiration deficient xylose metabolic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Efficiently utilizing all available carbon from lignocellulosic feedstock presents a major barrier to the production of economically feasible biofuel. Previously, to enable xylose utilization, we introduced a cofactor-dependent xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway, or a cofactor-independent xylose isomerase (XI) pathway, into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting strains metabolized xylose with high efficiency. However, in both pathway recombinant strains, the cofactor imbalance caused accumulation of the byproducts glycerol and/or xylitol and reduced the ethanol production efficiency.
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Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and ?-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines.
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Induced marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. as a means of producing new sesquiterpenoids chondrosterins I and J by using glycerol as the carbon source.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Chondrostereum sp., a marine fungus isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum, can yield hirsutane framework sesquiterpenoids. However, the metabolites profiles vary dramatically with the composition change of the culture media. This fungus was cultured in a liquid medium containing glycerol as the carbon source, and two new metabolites, chondrosterins I and J (1 and 2), were obtained. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS, NMR and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. By comparison with the known hirsutane sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins I and J have unique structural features, including a methyl was migrated from C-2 to C-6, and the methyl at C-3 was carboxylated. Compound 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against the cancer cell lines CNE-1 and CNE-2 with the IC50 values of 1.32 and 0.56 ?M.
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Genome-Wide Classification and Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of Citrus MYB Transcription Factor Families in Sweet Orange.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.
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A novel small deletion mutation in RUNX2 gene in one Chinese family with cleidocranial dysplasia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a skeletal dysplasia with autosomal-dominant inheritance. The runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause CCD. We report identification of a novel small deletions mutation in the RUNX2 gene in a Chinese family with CCD. A 29-year-old female was diagnosed as proband of CCD based on the clinical findings, which show delayed closure of the fontanels, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles and dental anomalies. Similar dental and skeletal symptoms were also observed in the other three affected individuals. We prepared genomic DNA from all four affected individuals, unaffected individual from her family members, as well as 100 unrelated healthy controls. PCR was conducted using the above genomic DNA as template and the RUNX2 gene-specific primers. The PCR product was subjected to direct sequencing and the sequence was compared to that of RUNX2 gene within the NCBI database. We detected a small deletion CCTA from nucleotide 635 to nucleotide 638 in exon 3 of RUNX2 gene of the proband. This will lead to the introduction of a translational stop codon at codon 220, resulting in a truncated RUNX2 protein, and therefore within the runt domain of the RUNX2 protein. We detected the same mutation in the the other three affected individuals, and did not detect any mutation in the unaffected family members or the 100 unrelated healthy controls, demonstrating that this is a novel missense mutation in RUNX2 gene and therefore, contributes to the molecular diagnosis of CCD.
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Copy number changes of 4-gene set may predict early relapse in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after initial platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), time to recurrence (TTR) is an important indicator to gauge the therapeutic efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to determine the genes that could potentially distinguish patients with short versus long TTR after initial administration of platinum-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in advanced EOC. Tumor samples of 159 patients were obtained during the primary cytoreduction. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried with genomic DNA from 17 EOC samples (8 with TTR > 15 months and 9 with TTR ? 6 months) to screen candidate gene set, copy-number changes (CNC) of which were significantly different between early and late relapse cases. Seventeen candidate genes were identified by array CGH. The analysis of consistency between real-time PCR and array CGH revealed that 4 genes displayed consistent results, namely GSTT1, ISG20L1, STARD5 and FREM1. In a 142-case validation set, CNC of 4 candidate genes was evaluated and verified by real-time PCR. Sixty five point five percent of the patients were correctly divided into early (TTR ? 10 months) and late (TTR > 10 months) recurrent group by CNC of the 4 genes using discriminant analysis. The results showed that CNC of 4-gene set could potentially determine early (TTR ? 10 months) or late relapse (TTR > 10 months) after initial platinum-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in advanced EOC.
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[Detection and significance of CXCL8 and IL-10 in serum and tissue of the patients with OSAHS].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Detection and significance of CXCL8, IL-10 in serum and tissue of the patients with OSHAS.
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miR-139 targets CXCR4 and inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of laryngeal squamous carcinoma cells.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Our previous studies have showed that chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) was over-expressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). However, the mechanism underlying aberrant CXCR4 expression remains unclear. To investigate the roles played by miRNAs in CXCR4 over-expression in LSCC, putative miR-139 was predicted through computational algorithms, including TargetScan, PicTar and miRBase, and luciferase reporter assay was explored to confirm that whether CXCR4 was directly regulated by miR-139. Then, quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods were employed to detect the expression of miR-139 and CXCR4 in primary LSCC tissues, normal adjacent mucosal tissues and metastatic lesions derived from 40 LSCC patients in the Second Hospital, XiAn JiaoTong University. Finally, gain- and loss-of-function assays were adopted to explore the effects of miR-139 and CXCR4 on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the human LSCC cell line Hep-2 in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that miR-139 dampened CXCR4 expression, and CXCR4 was directly targeted by miR-139. Additionally, the expression of miR-139 was reduced in alignment with the progression of primary to metastatic LSCC. Moreover, an inverse correlation was observed between miR-139 and CXCR4 protein levels in LSCC specimens. Functional analyses demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-139 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and metastasis of Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo. Similar to the observations seen in restoring miR-139 expression, dampening of CXCR4 expression inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion, whereas miR-139 over-expression reversed the pro-metastatic effect of CXCR4. Taken together, we conclude that miR-139 targets CXCR4 and inhibits proliferation and metastasis of LSCC.
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[Analysis of the blood loss in perioperative period of femoral intertrochanteric fractures in old patients treated with different internal fixations].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To analyze blood loss in perioperative period of femoral intertrochanteric fractures in old patients treated with Gamma interlocking intramedullary nail (Gamma3), proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) and dynamic hip screw (DHS), and to comprehend the character of blood loss in perioperative period of femoral intertrochanteric fractures.
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[Multi-center study on the treatment for intermediate and high-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To analyze the therapeutic effect of treatment for intermediate and high-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL).
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Clonal leukemic evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes with TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Somatic mutations of TET2, IDH1, and IDH2 have been described in myelodysplastic syndrome. The impact of these mutations on outcome of myelodysplastic syndrome and their progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia remains unclear. Mutation status of TET2, IDH1 and IDH2 was investigated in a cohort of 46 paired myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia samples and 122 non-paired cases with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome, to clarify their roles in the evolution of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia. Among the 168 de novo myelodysplastic syndrome patients, the frequency of TET2, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations was 18.5%, 4.2% and 6.0%, respectively. TET2/IDH mutations had no impact on survivals, while TET2 mutations were significantly associated with rapid progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Seventeen of the 46 paired myelodysplastic syndrome/secondary acute myeloid leukemia samples harbored TET2/IDH mutations, none acquired these mutations in acute myeloid leukemia phase. Progression to acute myeloid leukemia was accompanied by evolution of a novel clone or expansion of a minor pre-existing subclone of one or more distinct mutations in 12 out of the 17 cases with TET2/IDH mutations. A minor subclone in 3 cases with biallelic TET2 inactivation subsequently expanded, indicating a role of biallelic TET2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia progression. Twelve patients acquired other genetic lesions, and/or showed increased relative mutant allelic burden of FLT3-ITD, N/K-RAS, CEBPA or RUNX1 during acute myeloid leukemia progression. Our findings provide a novel insight into the role of TET2/IDH mutation in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome and subsequent progression to acute myeloid leukemia.
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Type I IFN inhibits innate IL-10 production in macrophages through histone deacetylase 11 by downregulating microRNA-145.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Innate immune responses must be tightly regulated to avoid overactivation and subsequent inflammatory damage to host tissue while eliminating invading pathogens. IL-10 is a crucial suppressor of inflammatory responses and its expression is under precise regulation involving complex regulatory networks and multiple feedback loops. MicroRNAs are now emerging as critical regulators in immune response. Our previous work showed that miR-143/145 cluster was markedly downregulated in macrophages upon vesicular stomatitis virus infection. However, the particular role of miR-143/145 cluster in the regulation of innate immune response remains unknown. In this study, we found that miR-143/145 cluster expression was also downregulated dramatically by TLR signals in macrophages, which was dependent on the subsequent type I IFN (IFN-I) production and downstream IFN-I receptor-JAK1-STAT1 signal cascade. Further studies demonstrated that miR-145, but not miR-143, promoted IL-10 expression in TLR4-triggered macrophages through directly targeting the epigenetic Il10 gene silencer histone deacetylase 11. Therefore, we demonstrate that miR-145, downregulated by IFN-I, targets histone deacetylase 11 to promote innate IL-10 expression in macrophages. Our findings suggest a new IFN-I-mediated negative feedback loop in the fine-tuning of innate IL-10 production that creates precise coordination of innate immune responses.
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Identification of IFN-?-producing innate B cells.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Although B cells play important roles in the humoral immune response and the regulation of adaptive immunity, B cell subpopulations with unique phenotypes, particularly those with non-classical immune functions, should be further investigated. By challenging mice with Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, vesicular stomatitis virus and Toll-like receptor ligands, we identified an inducible CD11a(hi)Fc?RIII(hi) B cell subpopulation that is significantly expanded and produces high levels of IFN-? during the early stage of the immune response. This subpopulation of B cells can promote macrophage activation via generating IFN-?, thereby facilitating the innate immune response against intracellular bacterial infection. As this new subpopulation is of B cell origin and exhibits the phenotypic characteristics of B cells, we designated these cells as IFN-?-producing innate B cells. Dendritic cells were essential for the inducible generation of these innate B cells from the follicular B cells via CD40L-CD40 ligation. Increased Brutons tyrosine kinase activation was found to be responsible for the increased activation of non-canonical NF-?B pathway in these innate B cells after CD40 ligation, with the consequent induction of additional IFN-? production. The identification of this new population of innate B cells may contribute to a better understanding of B cell functions in anti-infection immune responses and immune regulation.Cell Research advance online publication 3 December 2013; doi:10.1038/cr.2013.155.
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High ?-Glucosidase Secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Improves the Efficiency of Cellulase Hydrolysis and Ethanol Production in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Bioethanol production from lignocellulose is considered as a sustainable biofuel supply. However, the low cellulose hydrolysis efficiency limits the cellulosic ethanol production. The cellulase is strongly inhibited by the major end product cellobiose, which can be relieved by the addition of ?-glucosidase. In this study, three ?-glucosidases from different organisms were respectively expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the ?-glucosidase from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera showed the best activity (5.2 U/ml). The recombinant strain with S. fibuligera ?-glucosidase could metabolize cellobiose with a specific growth rate similar to the control strain in glucose. This recombinant strain showed higher hydrolysis efficiency in the cellulose simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, when using the Trichoderma reesei cellulase, which is short of the ?-glucosidase activity. The final ethanol concentration was 110% (using Avicel) and 89% (using acid-pretreated corncob) higher than the control strain. These results demonstrated the effect of ?-glucosidase secretion in the recombinant S. cerevisiae for enhancing cellulosic ethanol conversion.
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HPLC/qTOF-MS-oriented characteristic components data set and chemometric analysis for the holistic quality control of complex TCM preparations: Niuhuang Shangqing pill as an example.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The quality control of Da-Fu-Fang (DFF), referring to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations comprising more than 10 TCMs, is challenging due to their extreme chemical complexity. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the holistic quality control of DFFs based on HPLC/qTOF-MS-oriented characteristic components data set (CCDS) and chemometric analysis. Niuhuang Shangqing pill (NHSQP), composed of 19 TCMs, is used to illustrate this strategy. The fingerprint profiling of NHSQP by HPLC/qTOF-MS resulted in the characterization of 190 compounds, comprising 47 unambiguously identified by reference standard comparison. A CCDS containing 60 characteristic components was constructed by analyzing the MS spectral differentiation of the crude drugs, a laboratory-made NHSQP powder, and negative control preparations. With the established CCDS, it was possible to simultaneously monitor 16 out of the 19 drugs involved in NHSQP. Subsequently, 26 NHSQP samples from different vendors were evaluated by the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of their LC/MS fingerprint data. The 60 characteristic components were detected in all of the NHSQP samples, which demonstrated their authenticity. When compared with the standard sample No. 3, however, 15 of the NHSQP samples exhibited inferior quality. Samples No. 21 and No. 13 differed significantly based on a PCA score plot, and the components responsible for the differentiation were confirmed to originate from different TCMs. This strategy is a powerful and easy method to implement and provides a potential approach to establishing the holistic quality control of complex TCM preparations.
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Enhanced xylose fermentation capacity related to an altered glucose sensing and repression network in a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Bioengineered
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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The co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is one of the issues in decreasing the price of biofuel or chemicals produced from lignocellulosic materials. A glucose and xylose co-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained through rational genetic manipulation. Non-rational evolution in xylose was performed, and the xylose utilization efficiency of the engineered strain was significantly enhanced. The results of transcriptome study suggested that Snf1/Mig1-mediated regulation, a part of glucose sensing and repression network, was altered in the evolved strain and might be related to the enhancement of xylose utilization.
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Improvement of L-arabinose fermentation by modifying the metabolic pathway and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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The L-arabinose utilization pathway was established in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by expressing the codon-optimized araA, araB, and araD genes of Lactobacillus plantarum. After overexpressing the TAL1, TKL1, RPE1, RKI1, and GAL2 genes and adaptive evolution, the L-arabinose utilization of the recombinant strain became efficient. The resulting strain displayed a maximum specific growth rate of 0.075?h(-1), a maximum specific L-arabinose consumption rate of 0.61?g?h(-1)?g(-1) dry cell weight, and a promising ethanol yield of 0.43?g?g(-1) from L-arabinose fermentation.
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Management of the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activation of the heat shock response in yeast.
FEMS Yeast Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by Hac1p. The heat shock response (HSR) mediated by Hsf1p, mainly regulates cytosolic processes and protects the cell from stresses. Here, we find that a constitutive activation of the HSR could increase ER stress resistance in both wild-type and UPR-deficient cells. Activation of HSR decreased UPR activation in the WT (as shown by the decreased HAC1 mRNA splicing). We analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional response in order to propose regulatory mechanisms that govern the interplay between UPR and HSR and followed up for the hypotheses by experiments in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the regulation of ER stress response via HSR is (1) only partially dependent on over-expression of Kar2p (ER resident chaperone induced by ER stress); (2) does not involve the increase in protein turnover via the proteasome activity; (3) is related to the oxidative stress response. From the transcription data, we also propose that HSR enhances ER stress resistance mainly through facilitation of protein folding and secretion. We also find that HSR coordinates multiple stress-response pathways, including the repression of the overall transcription and translation.
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miRNomes of haematopoietic stem cells and dendritic cells identify miR-30b as a regulator of Notch1.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical to initiate the immune response and maintain tolerance, depending on different status and subsets. The expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various DC subsets and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which generate DCs, remain to be fully identified. Here we examine miRNomes of mouse bone marrow HSCs, immature DCs, mature DCs and IL-10/NO-producing regulatory DCs by deep sequencing. We identify numerous stage-specific miRNAs and histone modification in HSCs and DCs at different differentiation stages. miR-30b, significantly upregulated via a TGF-beta/Smad3-mediated epigenetic pathway in regulatory DCs, can target Notch1 to promote IL-10 and NO production, suggesting that miR-30b is a negative regulator of immune response. We also identify miRNomes of in vivo counterparts of mature DCs and regulatory DCs and systematically compare them with DCs cultured in vitro. These results provide a resource for studying roles of miRNAs in stem cell biology, development and functional regulation of DC subsets.
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Hepatic RIG-I Predicts Survival and Interferon-? Therapeutic Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), biomarkers for prediction of prognosis and response to immunotherapy such as interferon-? (IFN-?) would be very useful in the clinic. We found that expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), an IFN-stimulated gene, was significantly downregulated in human HCC tissues. Patients with low RIG-I expression had shorter survival and poorer response to IFN-? therapy, suggesting that RIG-I is a useful prognosis and IFN-? response predictor for HCC patients. Mechanistically, RIG-I enhances IFN-? response by amplifying IFN-? effector signaling via strengthening STAT1 activation. Furthermore, we found that RIG-I deficiency promotes HCC carcinogenesis and that hepatic RIG-I expression is lower in men than in women. RIG-I may therefore be a tumor suppressor in HCC and contribute to HCC gender disparity.
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A single, multi-faceted, enhanced strategy to quantify the chromatographically diverse constituents in the roots of Euphorbia kansui.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Kansui radix is a famous poisonous traditional Chinese medicine. However, due to its different types of constituents with broad polarity, a variety of UV absorptions and lack of the reference standards, it was difficult to simultaneously determine the main component in kanui radix. A single, multi-faceted, enhanced strategy, exogenous reference standard - single standard to determine multi-components method (ERS-SSDMC), was proposed. Thirteen major components of kansui radix, including three jatrophane diterpenoids, eight ingenane diterpenoids and two triterpenes, among which there were three pairs of isomers, were simultaneously assayed. A C8 column, packed with 2.7?m core-shell particles, was optimized to separate these constituents in 25min on HPLC instrument detected at a program wavelength. Ethyl benzoate employed as single exogenous reference standard. The method was fully validated with respect to linearity (r(2)>0.9995), LOQs (0.1-0.4?g/mL), precision, accuracy (92-114%, RSD<4.4%) and stability. The robustness of the method was performed by Plackett-Burmantest tests which eight primary chromatographic parameters were investigated. It was found that the two factors, wavelength and flow rate, should be strictly controlled. A total of 75 batches of kansui radix and its three different processing products were successfully analyzed and discriminated by applying the proposed method. This work demonstrates an effective strategy for the SSDMC method making the simultaneous assay of complex multi-component TCM system achievable.
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An assay for functional xylose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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It has been considered that more efficient uptake of xylose could promote increased xylose metabolic capacity of several microorganisms. In this study, an assay to screen xylose transporters was established in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which expresses the xylosidase gene of Bacillus pumilus intracellularly. The absorbed xylose analog p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX) rapidly hydrolyzed to p-nitrophenol (pNP), which displayed a yellow tint when exposed to xylosidase in vivo. The xylose transporter activities of the strain were computed using the pNP production rate, which was detected extracellularly. This method could be used for both high-throughput screening and smaller scale investigations. AraEp, which is a pentose transporter of Corynebacterium glutamicum, was expressed in S. cerevisiae and exhibited better transport capacity than the endogenous transporters Hxt7p and Gal2p. Moreover, a mutant of AraEp with 103% greater transport capacity was screened out, and the computer simulation suggested that transmembrane domain 5 was an important factor for the transport capacity of AraEp in S. cerevisiae.
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Long-term relapse-free rurvival rate and predictive factors of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults undergoing splenectomy.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Our aim is to identify the long-term relapse-free rate and predictive factors of response to splenectomy in adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).
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A dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for the multiple components quantification of complex traditional Chinese medicine preparations: Niuhuang Shangqing pill as an example.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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It is a challenging task to simultaneously and quantitatively analyze multiple components in DFF [Da-Fu-Fang, namely, complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations containing more than ten TCMs] due to their numerous and extreme complex chemical compositions possessing a wide variety of chemical and physical features, and their very low content. Rather than using a conventional mass spectrometry (MS) method with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), in the current study, this challenge was addressed by using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM). Using a DFF, Niuhuang Shangqing pill, which is composed of 19 TCMs, as a model, a rapid (one run in 20min), sensitive [lower limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved comparable with MRM] and accessible (a standard HPLC/MS/MS instrumentation was employed) MS method was successfully developed for the simultaneous quantification of 41 bioactive components which represented 15 of the 19 medicinal plants. A comparison of LOD and LOQ using MRM and DMRM was made to quantitatively reveal that the latter demonstrated advantages over the former. Meanwhile, a standard operating procedure concerning the development of a new DMRM method was recommended. The MS data were obtained in the positive ion mode with electrospray ionization as the ion source, acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and a Kinetex C18 core-shell column (100mm×2.10mm, 2.6?m, Phenomenex Inc.) as the analytical column. This method was then applied to 32 batches of samples. It transpired, through principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, that the consistency of the products was relatively good within one company, but poor among different companies among the 32 samples; one failed to qualify in terms of the Chinese Pharmacopeia. This work illustrated that the proposed DMRM method was particularly suitable for quantifying the trace components in DFF and capable of ensuring the quality of DFF.
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Trichodermaerin, a new diterpenoid lactone from the marine fungus Trichoderma erinaceum associated with the sea star Acanthaster planci.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Trichodermaerin (1), a novel diterpenoid lactone, together with the known compound, harziandione (2) were isolated from the culture broth of the fungus Trichoderma erinaceum associated with the sea star Acanthaster planci. Their structures were determined by analysis of the NMR and MS data. 1 was the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase catalyzed oxidation product of 2. Compound 2 did not show cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines.
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Interplay between BDF1 and BDF2 and their roles in regulating the yeast salt stress response.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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The homologous genes BDF1 and BDF2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode bromodomain-containing transcription factors. Although double deletion of BDF1 and BDF2 is lethal, single deletion does not affect cell viability. The bdf2? cells showed normal growth upon salt stress. However, the absence of Bdf1p resulted in a salt-sensitive phenotype, and the salt sensitivity was suppressed by overexpression of BDF2. In this study, we further demonstrated that BDF2 shows dosage compensation in suppressing the salt sensitivity of bdf1?. None of the tested domains replaced the function of intact Bdf1p. The 494-626 region in Bdf1p was more important than the other domains for salt resistance. In addition, Bdf1p negatively regulated the expression of BDF2 by binding its promoter at loci -387 to -48. However, Bdf2p did not affect the expression of BDF1. In addition, Bdf1p and its defective functional domain mutants could combine with Bdf2p. This physical interaction increased the salt tolerance of bdf1?. The mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by BDF1 deletion were restored by overexpression of BDF2 under salt stress conditions.
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Anaerobic ?-amylase production and secretion with fumarate as the final electron acceptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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In this study, we focus on production of heterologous ?-amylase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions. We compare the metabolic fluxes and transcriptional regulation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the objective of identifying the final electron acceptor for protein folding under anaerobic conditions. We find that yeast produces more amylase under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions, and we propose a model for electron transfer under anaerobic conditions. According to our model, during protein folding the electrons from the endoplasmic reticulum are transferred to fumarate as the final electron acceptor. This model is supported by findings that the addition of fumarate under anaerobic (but not aerobic) conditions improves cell growth, specifically in the ?-amylase-producing strain, in which it is not used as a carbon source. Our results provide a model for the molecular mechanism of anaerobic protein secretion using fumarate as the final electron acceptor, which may allow for further engineering of yeast for improved protein secretion under anaerobic growth conditions.
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Secretory pathway engineering enhances secretion of cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma reesei in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Improving the cellulase secretion is beneficial for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic ethanol. In this study, protein secretory pathway, including protein folding, disulfide bond formation, and protein trafficking and sorting, was modified in S. cerevisiae. The effects of these modifications on the secretion of cellobiohydrolase I (Tr-Cel7A) with its native signal peptide from Trichoderma reesei were investigated. The results showed that overexpression of the protein disulfide isomerase Sc-PDI1 and the plasma membrane targeting soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor Sc-SSO1, and disruption of the sorting receptor Sc-VPS10 and a Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) ATPase Sc-PMR1, improved respectively the extracellular Tr-Cel7A activities. Among them, disruption of Sc-PMR1 showed better improvement of 162% in the extracellular activity and decreased the glycosylation of Tr-Cel7A. Multiple modifications generally resulted in higher activities. The extracellular activities of the quadruple-modified strain (vps10?/pmr1?/SSO1/PDI1/cel7AF) using p-nitrophenyl-?-d-cellobioside (pNPC) and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) as the substrates, respectively, were 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold higher than that of the reference strain cel7AF. The results indicated that engineering of the protein secretory pathway is an effective approach to improve the Tr-Cel7A secretion in S. cerevisiae.
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3D-QSAR studies of azaoxoisoaporphine, oxoaporphine, and oxoisoaporphine derivatives as anti-AChE and anti-AD agents by the CoMFA method.
J. Mol. Graph. Model.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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In the present study, a series of novel azaoxoisoaporphine derivatives were reported and their inhibitory activities toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and A? aggregation were evaluated. The new compounds remained high inhibitory potency on A? aggregation, with inhibitory activity from 29.42% to 89.63% at a concentration of 10?M, but had no action on AChE or BuChE, which was very different from our previously reported oxoaporphine and oxoisoaporphine derivatives. By 3D-QSAR studies, we constructed a reliable CoMFA model (q(2)=0.856 and r(2)=0.986) based on the inhibitory activities toward AChE and discovered key information on structure and anti-AChE activities among the azaoxoisoaporphine, oxoaporphine, and oxoisoaporphine derivatives. The model was further confirmed by the test-set validation (q(2)=0.873, r(2)=0.937, and slope k=0.902) and Y-randomization examination. The statistically significant and physically meaningful 3D-QSAR/CoMFA model provided better insight into understanding the inhibitory behaviors of those chemicals, which may provide useful information for the rational molecular design of azaoxoisoaporphine derivatives anti-AChE and anti-AD agents.
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Predictive Factors For Do-Not-Resuscitate Designation Among Terminally Ill Cancer Patients Receiving Care From a Palliative Care Consultation Service.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Since the development of palliative care in the 1980s, "do not resuscitate" (DNR) has been promoted worldwide to avoid unnecessary resuscitation in terminally ill cancer patients.
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Clinical Features of Testicular Lymphoma.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Testicular lymphoma is a rare condition, so large scale prospective studies are difficult to conduct. Consensus regarding standard treatment is lacking. This study retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with testicular lymphoma. One patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis. Two patients with Burkitts lymphoma had poor outcomes regardless of treatment. Thus, we analyzed the clinical features, treatments, and outcomes of 19 patients with DLBCL. The median progression-free and overall survival was 28.3 and 36.3 months, respectively. A good response to treatment was a favorable prognostic factor. Because of the high relapse rate, the outcome is poor for testicular lymphoma. Therefore, long-term follow-up is strongly recommended. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated thrombosis.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are prone to both bleeding and thrombosis. The bleeding complications are well known. In contrast, APL-associated thrombosis is relatively underappreciated. We aimed to explore the issue of APL-associated thrombosis events. In the past 20 years, 127 cases with APL were found in our hospital database. We collected their coagulation laboratory profiles, including leukemia burdens, white blood cell and platelet counts, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen levels, and disseminated intravascular coagulation scores. Data were compared between patients with or without thrombosis. Clinical outcomes and potential risk factors were obtained for analysis. Ten cases with APL-associated thrombosis were found. The incidence of thrombosis was 7.9% in our cohort. Five patients had cerebral infarction, 5 had catheter-related thrombosis and 1 had acute myocardial infarction. No laboratory data were associated with clinical thrombosis. Three patients died during the induction phase but thrombosis was not the direct cause of death for any of them. We conclude that patients with APL are susceptible to thrombosis in addition to bleeding. Laboratory coagulation parameters did not predict thrombosis in our series. Ischemic stroke and catheter-related thrombosis were the most common events in our Taiwanese cohort. Such a thrombosis pattern is unique and worth further investigation.
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Isolation and structural elucidation of chondrosterins F-H from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F-H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.
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Hirsutanol A, a novel sesquiterpene compound from fungus Chondrostereum sp., induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth through mitochondrial-independent ROS production: hirsutanol A inhibits tumor growth through ROS production.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Hirsutanol A is a novel sesquiterpene compound purified from fungus Chondrostereum sp. in Sarcophyton tortuosum. Our previous studies had demonstrated that hirsutanol A exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on many kinds of cancer cell lines. In the current study, the antitumor activity of hirsutanol A and its molecular mechanisms were investigated.
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Clinical and laboratory significance of defective P2Y(12) pathway function in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: a pilot study.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) have an increased risk for thrombosis and bleeding and show a defect in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. This risk of thrombosis is further increased in MPN patients bearing the JAK2V617F mutation. Two ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12, are present on platelets. Although the pattern of defective ADP-induced platelet aggregation in MPN suggests an abnormality in the P2Y12 pathway, no previous studies have specifically evaluated P2Y12 function in MPN or the relationship between P2Y12 function and the JAK2V617F mutation.
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Correlation of cell growth and heterologous protein production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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With the increasing demand for biopharmaceutical proteins and industrial enzymes, it is necessary to optimize the production by microbial fermentation or cell cultures. Yeasts are well established for the production of a wide range of recombinant proteins, but there are also some limitations; e.g., metabolic and cellular stresses have a strong impact on recombinant protein production. In this work, we investigated the effect of the specific growth rate on the production of two different recombinant proteins. Our results show that human insulin precursor is produced in a growth-associated manner, whereas ?-amylase tends to have a higher yield on substrate at low specific growth rates. Based on transcriptional analysis, we found that the difference in the production of the two proteins as function of the specific growth rate is mainly due to differences in endoplasmic reticulum processing, protein turnover, cell cycle, and global stress response. We also found that there is a shift at a specific growth rate of 0.1 h(-1) that influences protein production. Thus, for lower specific growth rates, the ?-amylase and insulin precursor-producing strains present similar cell responses and phenotypes, whereas for higher specific growth rates, the two strains respond differently to changes in the specific growth rate.
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Characteristics of patients with hematologic malignancies who received palliative care consultation services in a medical center.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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This study aimed to compare the characteristics of patients with hematologic malignancies and solid cancers who received palliative care. A total of 124 patients with hematologic malignancy and 3032 patients with solid cancer, who received palliative care consultation services between 2006 and 2010 in a medical center in Taiwan, were retrospectively analyzed. Higher prevalence of oral stomatitis, diarrhea, and hematologic symptoms including infection, fever, severe anemia, and bleeding, and lower prevalence of constipation, abdominal distension, and pain were observed in patients with hematologic malignancies compared to that in patients with solid cancer. The interval from hospital admission to palliative care referral was longer for patients with hematologic malignancy than that for patients with solid cancer. Hematologists should refer patients earlier, and palliative care specialists should understand the specific needs of patients with hematologic malignancy.
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Hal2p functions in Bdf1p-involved salt stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bdf1p associates with the basal transcription complexes TFIID and acts as a transcriptional regulator. Lack of Bdf1p is salt sensitive and displays abnormal mitochondrial function. The nucleotidase Hal2p detoxifies the toxic compound 3 -phosphoadenosine-5-phosphate (pAp), which blocks the biosynthesis of methionine. Hal2p is also a target of high concentration of Na(+). Here, we reported that HAL2 overexpression recovered the salt stress sensitivity of bdf1?. Further evidence demonstrated that HAL2 expression was regulated indirectly by Bdf1p. The salt stress response mechanisms mediated by Bdf1p and Hal2p were different. Unlike hal2?, high Na(+) or Li(+) stress did not cause pAp accumulation in bdf1? and methionine supplementation did not recover its salt sensitivity. HAL2 overexpression in bdf1? reduced ROS level and improved mitochondrial function, but not respiration. Further analyses suggested that autophagy was apparently defective in bdf1?, and autophagy stimulated by Hal2p may play an important role in recovering mitochondrial functions and Na(+) sensitivity of bdf1?. Our findings shed new light towards our understanding about the molecular mechanism of Bdf1p-involved salt stress response in budding yeast.
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[Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL28B gene and response to interferon treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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To explore the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs12979860 and rs8099917 in IL28B gene and the response to interferon treatment in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B patients.
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Fabrication of CoPt ultra-sharp single atom tips.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
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Two kinds of new nano tips with potential to magnetic application are fabricated. One is a PtCo alloy pyramidal tip formed by surface faceting, the other is a Pt based Co tip formed by the epitaxy with a proper growth mode. Ultra high vacuum-field ion microscopy with atomic resolution is used to investigate the atomic structures of the tip apex after various sharpen treatments.
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[Transient elastography accurately predicts the severity of disease in patients with chronic hepatitis B].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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To evaluate the value of transient elastography (TE) for predicting severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
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[The cloning and sequencing of SD rat Atoh1 gene CDS region].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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To clone Atoh1 gene coding sequence of SD rat and construct the Eukaryotic expression plasmid pAtoh1-IRES2-EGFP,and to study its expression in 293T cells.
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[Identification the relationship between mutation patterns of rtM204I/V in the polymerase gene and genotypes of hepatitis B virus].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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To investigate the relationship between the mutation patterns of rtM204V/I (methionine to valine or isoleucine at position rt204 of reverse transcriptase domain) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase gene and HBV genotypes.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma: insight from animal models.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks as the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Although major risk factors for the development of HCC have been defined, many aspects of the evolution of hepatocellular carcinogenesis and metastasis are still unknown. Suitable animal models are, therefore, essential to promote our understanding of the molecular, cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms of HCC and for the development of new therapeutic strategies. This Review provides an overview of animal models that are relevant to HCC development, metastasis and treatment. For HCC development, this Review focuses on transgenic mouse models of HBV and HCV infection, which provide experimental evidence that viral genes could initiate or promote liver carcinogenesis. Animal models of HCC metastasis provide platforms to elucidate the mechanisms of HCC metastasis, to study the interaction between the microenvironment and HCC invasion and to conduct intervention studies. In addition, animal models have been developed to investigate the effects of new treatment modalities. The criteria for establishing ideal HCC animal models are also discussed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.