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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Corynebacterium atrinae sp. nov., isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a pen shell, Atrina pectinata.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, facultative anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, strain PSPT56T, was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a pen shell (Atrina pectinata). Optimal growth of strain PSPT56T ascertained at 30 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The major cellular fatty acids were C18:1?9c, C16:0, C17:1?8c and C17:0. Tuberculostearic acid was not present. The major cell-wall sugars were ribose, glactose, glucose and arabinose. Peptidoglycan amino acids were meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The most predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-8(H2). Strain PSPT56T contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified lipids and two unidentified amino-lipids. Mycolic acids were detected as constitutive components of cell-wall. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain PSPT56T was most closely related to Corynebacterium testudinoris M935/96/4T and Corynebacterium felinum M714/95/5T with 98.69 % and 97.01 % similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization experiment indicated less than 29.9 % relatedness to the closest phylogenetic species. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 67.6 mol%. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain PSPT56T is a novel species within the genus Corynebacterium, for which the name Corynebacterium atrinae is proposed. The type strain is PSPT56T (= KACC 17525T= JCM 19266T).
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Short Conserved Sequences of HIV-1 Are Highly Immunogenic and Shift Immunodominance.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Cellular immunity is pivotal in HIV-1 pathogenesis, but hampered by viral sequence diversity. An approach to minimize this diversity is to focus immunity on conserved proteome sequences; therefore we selected four relatively conserved regions (Gag amino acids 148-214 and 250-335, Env 521-606, and Nef 106-148), each created in three mosaics to provide better coverage of M-group HIV-1 sequences. A conserved region vaccine (CRV) delivering genes for these four regions as equal mixtures of three mosaics (each region at a separate injection site) was compared to a whole protein vaccine (WPV) delivering equimolar amounts of genes for whole Gag, Env, and Nef as clade B consensus sequences (separate injection sites). Three rhesus macaques were vaccinated via three DNA primes and a recombinant adenovirus-5 boost (weeks 0, 4, 8, and 24 respectively). Although CRV inserts were about a fifth that of WPV, the CRV generated comparable magnitude blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses against Gag, Env, and Nef. WPV responses preferentially targeted proteome areas outside the selected conserved regions in direct proportion to sequence lengths, indicating similar immunogenicities for the conserved regions versus the outside regions. The CRV yielded conserved region targeting density that was approximately five-fold that of the WPV. A similar pattern was seen in bronchoalveolar lymphocytes, but quadruple the magnitudes in blood. Overall, these findings demonstrated that the selected conserved regions are highly immunogenic, and that anatomically isolated vaccinations with these regions focuses immunodominance compared to full-length protein vaccination. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 sequence diversity is a major barrier limiting the capability of cellular immunity to contain infection and the ability of vaccines to match circulating viral sequences. To date, vaccines tested in humans have delivered whole proteins or genes for whole proteins, and it is unclear whether including only conserved sequences would yield sufficient cellular immunogenicity. We tested a vaccine delivering genes for four small conserved HIV-1 regions compared to a control vaccine with genes for whole Gag, Env, and Nef. Although the conserved regions ranged from 43 to 86 amino acids and comprised less than one fifth of whole Gag/Env/Nef, the vaccines elicited equivalent total magnitudes of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses. These data demonstrate immunogenicity of these small conserved regions, and the potential for a vaccine to steer immunodominance towards conserved epitopes.
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Vulcanisaeta thermophila sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic and acidophilic crenarchaeon isolated from solfataric soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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An anaerobic, rod-shaped, hyperthermophilic and acidophilic crenarchaeon, designated strain CBA1501T, was isolated from solfataric soil of the Mayon volcano in the Republic of the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain CBA1501T is affiliated with the genus Vulcanisaeta in the phylum Crenarchaeota. Sequence similarities between the 16S rRNA gene of strain CBA1501T and those of V. distributa IC-017T and V. souniana IC-059T were 98.5% and 97.4%, respectively. Strain CBA1501T grew between 75-90 °C, over a pH range of 4.0-6.0 and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth occurring at 85 °C, pH 5.0, and with 0% (w/v) NaCl. Fumarate, malate, oxidized glutathione, sulfur, and thiosulfate were used as final electron acceptors, but FeCl3, nitrate, and sulfate were not. The G+C content of strain CBA1501T was 43.1 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain CBA1501T is a novel species of the genus Vulcanisaeta in the phylum Crenarchaeota, for which we propose the name Vulcanisaeta thermophila sp. nov. The type strain is CBA1501T (= ATCC BAA-2415T = JCM 17228T).
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TGF-beta1 Protects Cells from Gamma-IR by Enhancing the Activity of the NHEJ Repair Pathway.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Several groups have reported that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) regulates cellular responses to gamma-irradiation; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the role of TGF-beta1 in cellular responses to gamma-irradiation was investigated in detail. The data indicate that TGF-beta1 pretreatment decreased the aftermath of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage in a SMAD-dependent manner. To determine the underlying mechanism for these effects, the extent of IR-induced DNA repair activity in the presence or absence of TGF-beta1 was examined. Studies reveal that TGF-beta1 up-regulated DNA ligase IV (LIG4), augmented IR-induced nuclear retention of the DNA ligase, and enhanced non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair activity. In addition, knockdown of LIG4 reduced the TGF-beta1-induced protection against IR. Overall, these data indicate that TGF-beta1 facilitates the NHEJ repair process upon gamma-irradiation and thereby enhances long-term survival. Implications: These findings provide new insight and a possible approach to controlling genotoxic stress by the TGF-beta signaling pathway.
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Totally Tubeless Versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Renal Stones: Analysis of Clinical Outcomes and Cost.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the safety and cost-effectiveness of a totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing the clinical outcomes and cost analysis between standard PCNL and totally tubeless PCNL for renal stones. Patients and Methods: From June 2012 to September 2013, a total of 121 patients with renal stones who underwent totally tubeless or standard PCNL by two experienced surgeons were retrospectively evaluated by group. According to the surgeon's preference for the nephrostomy tube and/or ureteral stent, the present study was designed to be divided into Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was performed by one surgeon (H.J. Cho) who preferred a totally tubeless PCNL and Group 2 was performed by the other surgeon (S.H. Hong) who preferred a standard PCNL. We excluded bilateral renal stones, multiple approach, whole staghorn calculi, and previous renal surgery. Patient and stone characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative parameters, and cost analysis were compared between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between groups. Mean stone burden was 501.5±361.1?mm(2) in Group 1 versus 535.2±353.1?mm(2) in Group 2 (P=0.651). Length of hospital stay (1.72±0.58 v 4.10±1.88 days, P<0.001), postoperative pain scores using a visual analog scale (day 0: P<0.001, day 1: P=0.002), and analgesia requirements (33.2±21.3 v 45.2±19.5?mg, P=0.005) for Group 1 versus Group 2 showed significant differences. The stone-free rate was 86.4% versus 89.8% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively (P=0.609). There were no significant differences in overall complications between groups (P=0.213). Mean total medical treatment costs in Groups 1 and 2 were 2398.22±549.1 USD and 2845.70±824.2 USD, respectively (P=0.002). Conclusions: Many clinical outcomes in the totally tubeless PCNL showed comparable or better results than standard PCNL. We believe that totally tubeless PCNL is an acceptable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to standard PCNL for the treatment of renal stones.
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Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai , and emended description of the genus Actibacter.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A novel strain, designated as strain W113T, was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigmented, and rod-shaped bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7, and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and the DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated the strain shared < 18 % genomic relatedness with the closest species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses indicate that strain W113T represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed, where the type strain is W113T (= KACC 17209T = JCM 18868T).
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In situ formation of enzyme-free hydrogels via ferromagnetic microbead-assisted enzymatic cross-linking.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In situ formation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-free gelatin hydrogels was achieved via ferromagnetic microbead-assisted enzymatic cross-linking. Gelation time and mechanical stiffness of the hydrogels can be tuned in situ, which makes HRP-free gelatin hydrogels suitable for injectable cell delivery.
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Glial GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B, mediates tonic inhibition.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain and is released not only from a subset of neurons but also from glia. Although neuronal GABA is well known to be synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the source of glial GABA is unknown. After estimating the concentration of GABA in Bergmann glia to be around 5-10 mm by immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that GABA production in glia requires MAOB, a key enzyme in the putrescine degradation pathway. In cultured cerebellar glia, both Ca(2+)-induced and tonic GABA release are significantly reduced by both gene silencing of MAOB and the MAOB inhibitor selegiline. In the cerebellum and striatum of adult mice, general gene silencing, knock out of MAOB or selegiline treatment resulted in elimination of tonic GABA currents recorded from granule neurons and medium spiny neurons. Glial-specific rescue of MAOB resulted in complete rescue of tonic GABA currents. Our results identify MAOB as a key synthesizing enzyme of glial GABA, which is released via bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel to mediate tonic inhibition in the brain.
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Hand-assisted and pure laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy: a matched-cohort comparison over 10 yr at a single institute.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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To compare outcomes between matched patients who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (PLDN) from living donors.
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The Anti-inflammatory and Antifibrosis Effects of Anthocyanin Extracted From Black Soybean on a Peyronie Disease Rat Model.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To evaluate the potential of anthocyanin as a supplement for the treatment of Peyronie disease (PD) by examining the anti-inflammatory and antifibrosis activities of anthocyanin in a PD animal model.
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Bariatric surgery improves the cavernosal neuronal, vasorelaxation, and contraction mechanisms for erectile dysfunction as result of amelioration of glucose homeostasis in a diabetic rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for both obesity and obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, little is known regarding the effects of bariatric surgery on erectile dysfunction among patients with T2DM. Therefore, we investigated whether bariatric surgery would lead to structural and biochemical changes in the corpus cavernosum.
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Nuclear translocation of hARD1 contributes to proper cell cycle progression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Arrest defective 1 (ARD1) is an acetyltransferase that is highly conserved across organisms, from yeasts to humans. The high homology and widespread expression of ARD1 across multiple species and tissues signify that it serves a fundamental role in cells. Human ARD1 (hARD1) has been suggested to be involved in diverse biological processes, and its role in cell proliferation and cancer development has been recently drawing attention. However, the subcellular localization of ARD1 and its relevance to cellular function remain largely unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that hARD1 is imported to the nuclei of proliferating cells, especially during S phase. Nuclear localization signal (NLS)-deleted hARD1 (hARD1?N), which can no longer access the nucleus, resulted in cell morphology changes and cellular growth impairment. Notably, hARD1?N-expressing cells showed alterations in the cell cycle and the expression levels of cell cycle regulators compared to hARD1 wild-type cells. Furthermore, these effects were rescued when the nuclear import of hARD1 was restored by exogenous NLS. Our results show that hARD1 nuclear translocation mediated by NLS is required for cell cycle progression, thereby contributing to proper cell proliferation.
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A retrospective study of short- and long-term effects on renal function after acute renal infarction.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Acute renal infarction is often missed or diagnosed late due to its rarity and non-specific clinical manifestations. This study analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of patients diagnosed with renal infarction to determine whether it affects short- or long-term renal prognosis.
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HDAC6 sustains growth stimulation by prolonging the activation of EGF receptor through the inhibition of rabaptin-5-mediated early endosome fusion in gastric cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The aberrant regulation of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) contributes to malignant progression in various types of cancer, but the mechanism underlying gastric carcinogenesis remains unknown. Aberrant HDAC6 overexpression was observed in a subset of human gastric cancer cells. HDAC6 knockdown caused the significant inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth without affecting the transition of cell cycles or the processing of cell death. We demonstrate that an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling through decreased EGFR degradation was mediated by HDAC6 in gastric carcinogenesis. These results establish a molecular mechanism responsible for oncogenic HDAC6, explaining how EGFR signaling induced by the growth factor is sustained during the malignant progression of gastric cancer.
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Bizionia psychrotolerans sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A novel Gram-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated PB-M7(T), was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber collected from Pohang, South Korea. Growth was observed at 4-30 °C (optimum, 25 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0), and with 2.0-6.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0%). In a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain PB-M7(T) was found to belong to the genus Bizionia and to be most closely related to Bizionia echini KMM 6177(T) (99.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Bizionia hallyeonensis T-y7(T) (97.9%), Bizionia algoritergicola APA-1(T) (97.5%), Bizionia argentinensis JUB59(T) (97.5%) and Bizionia myxarmorum ADA-4(T) (97.1%). The predominant fatty acids of strain PB-M7(T) were identified as iso-C(15:0) (22.2%), iso-C(15:1) G (10.8%), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (16.7%) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1) ?7c and/or C(16:1) ?6c; 11.2%). The major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile of strain PB-M7(T) was found to contain phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G + C content of strain PB-M7(T) was determined to be 33.4 mol% and the mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of B. echini, B. hallyeonensis, B. algoritergicola, B. argentinensis, and B. myxarmorum were 52.9, 48.5, 46.5, 37.1 and 26.6%, respectively. Based on the data presented, strain PB-M7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bizionia, for which the name Bizionia psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. psychrotolerans is PB-M7(T) (= KCCM 43042 (T) = JCM 19924 (T)).
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Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with paraquat intoxication.
J Clin Apher
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with paraquat intoxication resulting in the requirement for hemoperfusion, hemodialysis, and plasma exchange. His initial serum paraquat level was 0.24 µg/mL (0.0-0.1 µg/mL). Activated charcoal (50 g) was administered orally, and high-dose N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. In addition, immediate 4 h hemoperfusion was also performed for three consecutive days after admission. Hemodialysis was started on the 4th day after admission because of uremia. On the 9th day after admission, laboratory findings demonstrated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia, elevated reticulocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Plasma exchange was performed three times consecutively. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were improved, and LDH was normalized after plasma exchange. Urine output increased to 2240 mL/day on the 18th day after admission, and hemodialysis was discontinued. He is currently being observed at our follow-up clinic without renal impairment or pulmonary dysfunction for 1.5 years since discharge. We should suspect paraquat-associated HUS when thrombocytopenia and anemia are maintained for a long time after paraquat intoxication.
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Change in renal function following laparoscopic donor nephrectomy using 99 mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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We assessed the change in remaining kidney function after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy using serial technetium 99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) scans and investigated the factors affecting the course.
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Early Structural Anomalies Observed by High-Resolution Imaging in Two Related Cases of Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:xxx-xxx.].
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Association of restrictive ventilatory dysfunction with the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in Koreans.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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This study was performed to investigate whether ventilatory dysfunction is a predictor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in Koreans.
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Relationship of simple renal cyst to hypertension.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension.
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Genome sequence of the chromate-resistant bacterium Leucobacter salsicius type strain M1-8(T.).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Leucobacter salsicius M1-8(T) is a member of the Microbacteriaceae family within the class Actinomycetales. This strain is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and was previously isolated from a Korean fermented food. Most members of the genus Leucobacter are chromate-resistant and this feature could be exploited in biotechnological applications. However, the genus Leucobacter is poorly characterized at the genome level, despite its potential importance. Thus, the present study determined the features of Leucobacter salsicius M1-8(T), as well as its genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprised 3,185,418 bp with a G+C content of 64.5%, which included 2,865 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA genes. This strain possessed two predicted genes associated with chromate resistance, which might facilitate its growth in heavy metal-rich environments.
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Insect gut bacterial diversity determined by environmental habitat, diet, developmental stage, and phylogeny of host.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Insects are the most abundant animals on Earth, and the microbiota within their guts play important roles by engaging in beneficial and pathological interactions with these hosts. In this study, we comprehensively characterized insect-associated gut bacteria of 305 individuals belonging to 218 species in 21 taxonomic orders, using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In total, 174,374 sequence reads were obtained, identifying 9,301 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 3% distance level from all samples, with an average of 84.3 (± 97.7) OTUs per sample. The insect gut microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria (62.1% of the total reads, including 14.1% Wolbachia sequences) and Firmicutes (20.7%). Significant differences were found in the relative abundances of anaerobes in insects and were classified according to the criteria of host environmental habitat, diet, developmental stage, and phylogeny. Gut bacterial diversity was significantly higher in omnivorous insects than in stenophagous (carnivorous and herbivorous) insects. This insect-order-spanning investigation of the gut microbiota provides insights into the relationships between insects and their gut bacterial communities.
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Comparison of efficacy and safety between a segmental thermo-expandable metal alloy spiral stent (Memokath 051) and a self-expandable covered metallic stent (UVENTA) in the management of ureteral obstructions.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To determine the efficacy and safety of the Memokath 051™ (PNN Medical, Glostrup, Denmark) and UVENTA™ (Taewoong Medical, Seoul, Korea) metal stents, we reviewed our experience with these two metallic ureteral stents for treating benign and malignant ureteral obstructions.
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Ninjurin1 enhances the basal motility and transendothelial migration of immune cells by inducing protrusive membrane dynamics.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Ninjurin1 is involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, by mediating leukocyte extravasation, a process that depends on homotypic binding. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms of Ninjurin1 during inflammation are largely undefined. We therefore examined the pro-migratory function of Ninjurin1 and its regulatory mechanisms in macrophages. Interestingly, Ninjurin1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages exhibited reduced membrane protrusion formation and dynamics, resulting in the impairment of cell motility. Furthermore, exogenous Ninjurin1 was distributed at the membrane of filopodial structures in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. In Raw264.7 cells, RNA interference of Ninjurin1 reduced the number of filopodial projections, whereas overexpression of Ninjurin1 facilitated their formation and thus promoted cell motility. Ninjurin1-induced filopodial protrusion formation required the activation of Rac1. In Raw264.7 cells penetrating an MBEC4 endothelial cell monolayer, Ninjurin1 was localized to the membrane of protrusions and promoted their formation, suggesting that Ninjurin1-induced protrusive activity contributed to transendothelial migration. Taking these data together, we conclude that Ninjurin1 enhances macrophage motility and consequent extravasation of immune cells through the regulation of protrusive membrane dynamics. We expect these findings to provide insight into the understanding of immune responses mediated by Ninjurin1.
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The inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of the spores of Lygodium japonicum on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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We investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of Lygodii spora (LS) as a preventive and therapeutic agent for experimentally induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis with ethylene glycol (EG) in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into preventive (n = 18, for 28 days) and therapeutic (n = 24, for 42 days) groups. The preventive group was further subdivided into three groups of six rats each: preventive control, preventive lithiatic control (EG) and preventive lithiatic LS (EG + 400 mg/kg LS). Similarly, the therapeutic group was subdivided into four groups of six rats each: therapeutic control, therapeutic lithiatic control, therapeutic lithiatic untreated, and therapeutic lithiatic LS. Lithiasis was induced by adding 0.75% EG to the drinking water of all groups except the preventive and therapeutic control groups. Preventive and therapeutic subjects also received the LS ethanol extract in drinking water at a dose of 400 mg/kg, since day 0 or day 28, respectively. At the end of the each experimental period, various biochemical parameters were measured in urine and kidney homogenates. The kidneys were subjected to histopathological analysis. The results revealed that treatment with the LS preventive protocol significantly decreased the levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and uric acid, and increased the levels of urinary citrate as compared to those in the EG control. No significant changes in the urinary parameters except oxalate and citrate levels were observed in the rats in the therapeutic protocol. In both preventive and therapeutic protocols, the extract significantly decreased kidney peroxides, renal calcium, oxalate content, and the number of kidney oxalate deposits as compared to those in the EG group. We conclude that LS is useful as a preventive and therapeutic agent against the formation of oxalate kidney stones.
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Effects of KH-204 on the expression of heat shock protein 70 and germ cell apoptosis in infertility rat models.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Idiopathic infertility is a significant number of causes of male infertility. Empirical treatments are used for idiopathic male infertility, and antioxidant supplementation is a kind of management of oxidative stress related infertility. We investigated the antioxidant effects of the modified Ojayeonjonghwan (KH-204) in a rat model of cryptorchidism.
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Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated UB-M7(T) was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) collected from Pohang in South Korea. Strain UB-M7(T) displayed optimal growth at 25 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and with 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UB-M7(T) clustered with Phaeobacter arcticus DSM 23566(T), Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 16374(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107(T), and Phaeobacter leonis 306(T), exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.8, 96.6, 96.4, and 96.2 %, respectively. Strain UB-M7(T) was found to exhibit the highest gyrB sequence similarity value of 80.6 % to the type strain of P. arcticus. The major respiratory quinone of strain UB-M7(T) was found to be ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) are summed features 8 (comprising C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c), 11-methyl C18:1 ?7c, and cyclo C19:0 ?8c. The DNA G+C content was found to be 58.5 mol% and DNA-DNA relatedness value with P. arcticus JCM 14644(T) was 17.2 ± 2.4 %. The major polar lipids of strain UB-M7(T) were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine; one phospholipid, and three other lipids remain unidentified. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties it is concluded that strain UB-M7(T) represents a novel species in the genus Phaeobacter, for which the name Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UB-M7(T) (=KCCM 43045(T) = JCM 19926(T)).
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Endozoicomonas atrinae sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a comb pen shell Atrina pectinata.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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A novel bacterium, designated strain WP70(T), was isolated from the gut of a comb pen shell (Atrina pectinata) collected from the southern sea of Yeosu in Korea. The isolate was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain WP70(T) belonged to the genus Endozoicomonas. The highest level of sequence similarity (98.4%) was shared with Endozoicomonas elysicola MKT110(T). Optimal growth occurred in 2% (w/v) NaCl at 30 °C and at pH 7. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?7c and/or C16 : 1?6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1?7c and/or C18 : 1?6c) and C16 : 0. The main respiratory quinone was Q-9. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 50.5 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated <11% genomic relatedness to the closest species. Physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WP70(T) represents a novel species of the genus Endozoicomonas, for which the name Endozoicomonas atrinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WP70(T) (?= KACC 17474(T)? = JCM 19190(T)).
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Halapricum salinum gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from non-purified solar salt.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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A halophilic archaeal strain, designated CBA1105(T), was isolated from non-purified solar salt. Strain CBA1105(T) was found to have three 16S rRNA genes, rrnA, rrnB and rrnC; similarities between the 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.5-99.7 %. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CBA1105(T) forms a distinct clade with the strains of the closely related genera, Halorientalis and Halorhabdus, with similarities of 94.2 % and 93.9-94.2 %, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis confirmed that strain CBA1105(T) is closely related to the genus Halorhabdus or Halorientalis. Growth of the strain was observed in 15-30 % NaCl (w/v; optimum 20 %), at 30-45 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-0.5 M MgCl2·6H2O (optimum 0.05-0.2 M). The cells of the strain were observed to be Gram-stain negative and pleomorphic with coccoid or ovoid-shape. The cells lysed in distilled water. Tweens 20, 40 and 80 were found to be hydrolysed but starch, casein and gelatine were not. The cells were unable to reduce nitrate under aerobic conditions. Assays for indole formation and urease activity were negative and no growth was observed under anaerobic conditions. Cells were found to be able to utilize L-glutamate, D-glucose, L-maltose, D-mannose and sucrose as sole carbon sources. The polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The G+C content of strain CBA1105(T) was determined to be 66.0 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that the strain represents a novel species of a novel genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, for which the name Halapricum salinum is proposed with CBA1105(T) (= KCTC 4202(T) = JCM 19729(T)) as the type strain.
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Characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures of drug-induced liver injury in a rat model.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern during drug development and remains one of the main reasons for withdrawal of drugs from the market. Although it is crucial to develop methods that will detect potential hepatotoxicity of drug candidates as early and as quickly as possible, there is still a lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for DILI that consequently leads to a scarcity of reliable hepatotoxic data. Hence, in this study, we assessed characteristic molecular signatures in rat liver treated with drugs (pyrazinamide, ranitidine, enalapril, carbamazepine and chlorpromazine) that are known to cause DILI in humans. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of transcriptome changes induced by DILI-causing drugs resulted in three different subclusters on dendrogram, i.e., hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed type of DILI at early time points (2?days), and multiclassification analysis suggested 31 genes as discernible markers for each DILI pattern. Further analysis for characteristic molecular signature of each DILI pattern provided a molecular basis for different modes of DILI action. A proteomics study of the same rat livers was used to confirm the results, and the two sets of data showed 60 matching classifiers. In conclusion, the data of different DILI-causing drug treatments from genomic analysis in a rat model suggest that DILI-specific molecular signatures can discriminate different patterns of DILI at an early exposure time point, and that they provide useful information for mechanistic studies that may lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of DILI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Halobellus rufus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from non-purified solar salt.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A halophilic archaeon, designed strain CBA1103(T), was isolated from non-purified solar salt. The cells of strain CBA1103(T) were observed to be Gram-stain negative and pleomorphic, and the colonies appear red. Strain CBA1103(T) was observed to grow between 20 and 55 °C (optimum 37 °C), and in NaCl concentrations of 10-30 % (w/v) (optimum 15 %) with 0-0.5 M MgSO4·7H2O (optimum 0.1 M) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). Additionally, the cells lyse in distilled water. The major polar lipids of strain CBA1103(T) are phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and two glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and manosyl glucosyl diether. Strain CBA1103(T) is shown to belong to the Halobellus genus and exhibits similarity to related taxa; the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CBA1103(T) and Halobellus rarus 18362(T), Hbs. limi 16811(T), Hbs. litoreus JCM 17118(T), Hbs. inordinatus YC20(T), Hbs. clavatus TNN18(T) and Hbs. salinus CSW2.24.4(T) is 97.3, 96.5, 96.5, 94.5, 94.5 and 93.7 %, respectively. The RNA polymerase subunit B gene sequence of strain CBA1103(T) shows 93.7 % similarity with the sequence of Hbs. litoreus JCM 17118(T); the similarity is lower with sequences from the type strains of other species of Halobellus. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CBA1103(T) was determined to be 67.0 mol% a value which is in the range of the genomic DNA G+C content of members of the genus Halobellus (61.5-69.2 mol%). These results suggest that strain CBA1103(T) should be considered to represent a new taxon for which the name Halobellus rufus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CBA1103(T) (=CECT 8423(T) =JCM 19434(T)).
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Dyella jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from soil of Hallasan Mountain in Jeju Island.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A novel bacterium, designated JP1(T), was isolated from soil of Hallasan Mountain in Jeju Island. The isolate was a Gramnegative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped (0.2-0.4 × 1.2-2.0 ?m) bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain JP1(T) was closely related to Dyella koreensis with 97.6% similarity. Growth of strain JP1(T) occurred at 10-37°C, pH 5-7 and 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JP1(T) was 62.1 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C16:0, iso-C17:1 ?9c, and iso-C15:0. The predominant quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major polar lipids of strain JP1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, unidentified aminolipids and unidentified aminophospholipids. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain JP1(T) and previously reported Dyella species were <10%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic distinctness, strain JP1(T) represents a novel species in the genus Dyella, for which the name Dyella jejuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JP1(T) (=KACC 17701(T) =JCM 19615(T)).
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Halolamina rubra sp. nov., a haloarchaeon isolated from non-purified solar salt.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Two Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped and motile extreme halophiles, designated CBA1107(T) and CBA1108, were isolated from non-purified solar salt. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, strains CBA1107(T) and CBA1108 were shown to belong to the genus Halolamina, with similarities for the 16S rRNA gene sequences between strains CBA1107(T) and Halolamina pelagica TBN21(T) , Halolamina salina WSY15-H3(T) and Halolamina salifodinae WSY15-H1(T) of 98.3, 97.6 and 97.3 %, respectively; the similarities for the rpoB' gene sequences between the same strains were 96.0, 95.3 and 94.6 %, respectively. The colonies of both strains were observed to be red pigmented on growth medium. Strain CBA1107(T) was observed to grow at 20-50 °C, in the presence of 15-30 % NaCl, at pH 6.0-9.0, and with 0.005-0.5 M Mg(2+). The cells of both strains lysed in distilled water. The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that strain CBA1107(T) shared 97 % relatedness with CBA1108 and <50 % relatedness with H. pelagica JCM 16809(T), H. salina JCM 18549(T) and H. salifodinae JCM 18548(T). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CBA1107(T) was determined to be 65.1 mol%. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and glycolipids including sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and mannosyl glucosyl diether. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic analyses, the strains are considered to represent a new taxon for which the name Halolamina rubra sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CBA1107(T) (=CECT 8421(T) =JCM 19436(T)).
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Acinetobacter apis sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee, Apis mellifera.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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A novel Gram-negative, obligate aerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped bacterium, designated strain HYN18(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). The isolate was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Strain HYN18(T) showed optimum growth at 25°C, pH 6-7, and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl in trypticase soy broth medium. The isolate was negative for hydrolyses of starch, casein, gelatin and urea, indole production from tryptone and hemolysis on sheep blood agar. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequence showed that strain HYN18(T) was most closely related to Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) and A. boissieri SAP 284.1(T) with 98.3% and 98.1% similarity (16S rRNA gene), respectively, and 84.4% similarity with Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) (rpoB gene). The major cellular fatty acids were summed features 3 (comprising C16:1?7c /C16:1?6c ), C12:0 and C16:0. The main isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q-9). The polar lipids of strain HYN18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated less than 33 ± 10% relatedness to the closest phylogenetic species, Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T). Thus, the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses indicate that strain HYN18(T) is a novel species within the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter apis is proposed. The type strain is HYN18(T) (=KACC 16906(T) =JCM 18575(T)).
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Polaribacter atrinae sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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A novel Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WP25T, was isolated from the intestine of a comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata, which was collected from the South Sea near Yeosu in Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 20 °C, at pH 7 and with 2% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain WP25T belonged to the genus Polaribacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and the highest sequence similarity was shared with the type strain of Polaribacter sejongensis (98.5%). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C15:1?6c and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The main respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-6. The polar lipids of strain WP25T were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 31.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated <12.6% genomic relatedness with closely related strains. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses, strain WP25T represents a novel species in the genus Polaribacter, for which the name Polaribacter atrinae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WP25T (=KACC 17473T=JCM 19202T).
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Horseradish peroxidase-catalysed in situ-forming hydrogels for tissue-engineering applications.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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In situ-forming hydrogels are an attractive class of implantable biomaterials that are used for biomedical applications. These injectable hydrogels are versatile and provide a convenient platform for delivering cells and drugs via minimally invasive surgery. Although several crosslinking methods for preparing in situ forming hydrogels have been developed over the past two decades, most hydrogels are not sufficiently versatile for use in a wide variety of tissue-engineering applications. In recent years, enzyme-catalysed crosslinking approaches have been emerged as a new approach for developing in situ-forming hydrogels. In particular, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalysed crosslinking approach has received increasing interest, due to its highly improved and tunable capacity to obtain hydrogels with desirable properties. The HRP-catalysed crosslinking reaction immediately occurs upon mixing phenol-rich polymers with HRP and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in aqueous media. Based on this unique gel-forming feature, recent studies have shown that various properties of formed hydrogels, such as gelation time, stiffness and degradation rate, can be easily manipulated by varying the concentrations of HRP and H2 O2 . In this review, we outline the versatile properties of HRP-catalysed in situ-forming hydrogels, with a brief introduction to the crosslinking mechanisms involved. In addition, the recent biomedical applications of HRP-catalysed in situ-forming hydrogels for tissue regeneration are described. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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HDAC2 provides a critical support to malignant progression of hepatocellular carcinoma through feedback control of mTORC1 and AKT.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Aberrant regulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) contributes to malignant progression in various cancers, but the underlying mechanism leading to the activation of oncogenic HDAC2 remains unknown. In this study, we show that HDAC2 expression is upregulated in a large cohort of patients with human hepatocellular carcinoma, and that high expression of HDAC2 was significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We found that mTORC1/NF-?Bp50 signaling is necessary for the growth factor-induced HDAC2 and is sustained in hepatocellular carcinoma, but not in normal hepatic cells. Growth factor-induced mTORC1 activates the nuclear translocation of NF-?Bp50, where it binds to the intragenic sequences of the HDAC2 gene and promotes its transcription. Hepatocellular carcinoma tissues derived from chemical-induced mouse and rat liver cancer models validated that mTORC1 activation and NF-?Bp50 nuclear translocation are essential for the transcriptional activation of oncogenic HDAC2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, we demonstrate that HDAC2 is required to maintain mTORC1 activity by stabilizing the mTOR/RAPTOR complex. Elevated expression of HDAC2 triggers a positive feedback loop that activates AKT phosphorylation via the transcriptional modulation of phosphoinositide signaling molecules. Bioinformatics analysis of HDAC2 signature and immunoblot analysis of mesenchymal genes also evidenced that HDAC2 plays a role in the malignant behavior of tumor cells by Snail induction and simultaneously E-cadherin suppression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. These findings establish a molecular mechanism responsible for the activation of oncogenic HDAC2, which explains how growth factor-induced HDAC2 maintains mitogenic signaling and function during hepatocellular malignant progression and provide a novel strategy for therapeutic intervention in liver cancer. Cancer Res; 74(6); 1728-38. ©2014 AACR.
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Vaginal adhesions in a woman with the history of dystocia.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Postpartum genital tract adhesions are unusual, and their cause has not been evaluated. However, severe dystocia and numerous pelvic examinations have been suggested as possible causes. Here, we report a case of vaginal adhesions following a difficult labor that presented as dyspareunia for 5 months. Pelvic examination and ultrasonography revealed a transverse vaginal septum that obstructed the vaginal cavity, and fluid collection proximal to this septum. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection and administration of antibiotics.
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GABA from reactive astrocytes impairs memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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In Alzheimer's disease (AD), memory impairment is the most prominent feature that afflicts patients and their families. Although reactive astrocytes have been observed around amyloid plaques since the disease was first described, their role in memory impairment has been poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes aberrantly and abundantly produce the inhibitory gliotransmitter GABA by monoamine oxidase-B (Maob) and abnormally release GABA through the bestrophin 1 channel. In the dentate gyrus of mouse models of AD, the released GABA reduces spike probability of granule cells by acting on presynaptic GABA receptors. Suppressing GABA production or release from reactive astrocytes fully restores the impaired spike probability, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory in the mice. In the postmortem brain of individuals with AD, astrocytic GABA and MAOB are significantly upregulated. We propose that selective inhibition of astrocytic GABA synthesis or release may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating memory impairment in AD.
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Halorubrum halophilum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a salt-fermented seafood.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A novel, red-pigmented, pleomorphic and short rod-shaped haloarchaeon, designated B8(T), was isolated from a salt-fermented seafood. Strain B8(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-45 °C, in the presence of 15-30 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0-9.0. The optimum requirements were found to be a temperature range of 35-40 °C, pH 8.0 and the presence of 25 % NaCl. The cells of strain B8(T) were observed to be Gram-staining negative and lysed in distilled water. Anaerobic growth did not occur in the presence of nitrate, L-arginine, dimethyl sulfoxide or trimethylamine N-oxide. The catalase and oxidase activities were found to be positive and nitrate was reduced in aerobic conditions. Tween 20, 40 and 80 were found to be hydrolyzed, whereas casein, gelatin and starch were not hydrolyzed. Indole or H2S was not formed and urease activity was not detected. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain B8(T) is most closely related to members of the genus Halorubrum in the family Halobacteriaceae. Strain B8(T) was found to have three 16S rRNA genes, rrnA, rrnB and rrnC; similarities between the 16S rRNA gene sequences are 99.0-99.8 %. Strain B8(T) shared 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Halorubrum (Hrr.) lipolyticum JCM 13559(T) and Hrr. saccharovorum DSM 1137(T), 98.8 % with Hrr. kocurii JCM 14978(T), 98.3 % with Hrr. lacusprofundi DSM 5036(T), 98.0 % with Hrr. arcis JCM 13916(T), 97.7 % with Hrr. aidingense JCM 13560(T) and 97.0 % with Hrr. aquaticum JCM 14031(T), as well as 93.7-96.5 % with other type strains in the genus Halorubrum. The RNA polymerase subunit B' gene sequence similarity of strain B8(T) with Hrr. kocurii JCM 14978(T) is 97.2 % and lower with other members of the genus Halorubrum. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that strain B8(T) shared equal or lower than 50 % relatedness with reference species in the genus Halorubrum. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain B8(T) was determined to be 64.6 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone of strain B8(T) was identified as menaquinone-8 and the major polar lipids as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and an unidentified phospholipid. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain B8(T) is considered to represent a new species in the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Hrr. halophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B8(T) (=JCM 18963(T) = CECT 8278(T)).
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Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN) and the spinal dorsal horn (DH). To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7%) and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%), suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and A? afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from A? and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and A? afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.
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Ninjurin1 deficiency attenuates susceptibility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Ninjurin1 is a homotypic adhesion molecule that contributes to leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of Multiple sclerosis (MS). However, in vivo gene-deficiency animal studies have not yet been done. Here, we constructed Ninjurin1 knockout (KO) mice and investigated the role of Ninjurin1 on leukocyte trafficking under inflammation conditions such as EAE and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Ninjurin1 KO mice attenuated EAE susceptibility by reducing leukocyte recruitment into the injury regions of the spinal cord and showed less adhesion of leukocytes on inflamed retinal vessels in EIU mice. Moreover, the administration of a custom-made antibody (Ab26-37) targeting the Ninjurin1 binding domain ameliorated the EAE symptoms, showing the contribution of its adhesion activity to leukocyte trafficking. In addition, we addressed the transendothelial migration (TEM) activity of bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and Raw264.7 cells according to the expression level of Ninjurin1. TEM activity was decreased in Ninjurin1 KO BMDMs and siNinj1 Raw264.7 cells. Consistent with this, GFP-tagged mNinj1 overexpressing Raw264.7 cells increased their TEM activity. Taken together, we have clarified the contribution of Ninjurin1 to leukocyte trafficking in vivo and delineated its direct functions to TEM, emphasizing Ninjurin1 as a beneficial therapeutic target against inflammatory diseases such as MS.
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Iodine-induced thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis after ingestion of Salicornia herbace.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Abstract A 56-year-old Korean man visited to emergency room due to paroxysmal flaccid paralysis in his lower extremities. There was no family or personal history of periodic paralysis. His initial potassium levels were 1.8?mmol/L. The patient had been taking Salicornia herbacea for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Results of a thyroid function test were as follows: T3?=?130.40?ng/dL, TSH?=?0.06?mIU/L, and free T4?=?1.73?ng/dL. A thyroid scan exhibited a decreased uptake (0.6%). His symptoms clearly improved and serum potassium levels increased to 4.4?mmol/L by intravenous infusion of only 40?mmol of potassium chloride. Eight months after the discontinuation of only Salicornia herbacea, the patients thyroid function tests were normalized. Large amounts of iodine can induce hypokalemic thyrotoxic paralysis and it may be necessary to inquire about the ingestion of iatrogenic iodine compounds, such as Salicornia herbacea.
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Characteristic molecular signatures of early exposure to volatile organic compounds in rat liver.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Abstract Objective: Investigation on whether the characteristic molecular signatures can discriminate individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and provide predictive markers for the detection of VOC exposure. Methods: Transcriptomic analysis of liver tissues was performed 48?h after the single oral administration of three VOCs doses at LD25 or LD5 values, to Sprague-Dawley. Results: Combination analysis of different multi-classifications suggested that 145 genes predicted VOC exposure. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of genes deregulated by VOCs revealed that T cell prolymphatic leukemia signaling was inactivated in all VOCs. Conclusions: These molecular markers could be widely implemented to assess and predict environmental exposure to VOCs.
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The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of anthocyanin extracted from black soybean on chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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To investigated the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on the chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) rat model.
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Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A novel, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, non-motile and coccus-shaped bacterium, strain WL80T, was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. Optimal growth occurred at 30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain WL80T fell within the cluster of the genus Actinomyces, with highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Actinomyces radicidentis (98.8 % similarity) and Actinomyces urogenitalis (97.0 % similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were C18:1 ?9c and C16:0. Menaquinone-10 was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 70.4 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values with the closely-related strains indicated less than 10.8 ± 1.8 % genomic relatedness. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WL80T represents a novel species of Actinomyces, for which the name Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WL80T (= KACC 17211T = JCM 18848T).
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Cloacibacterium haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone Haliotis discus hannai.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WB5T, was isolated from the intestinal tract of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain WB5T was clustered in the genus Cloacibacterium and it shared the highest sequence similarity with C. normanense (98.2 % similarity). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. Menaquinone-6 was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content was 29.6 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated < 22 % genomic relatedness with other members of the genus Cloacibacterium. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses showed that strain WB5T represents a novel species of Cloacibacterium, for which the name Cloacibacterium haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WB5T (=KACC 17210T =JCM 18869T).
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MiR-101 functions as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting nemo-like kinase in liver cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Nemo-like kinase (NLK), an evolutionarily conserved MAP kinase-related kinase, has been reported to be involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanisms leading to oncogenic NLK are poorly understood. A comprehensive microRNA (miRNA) profiling analysis on human HCC tissues identified four downregulated miRNAs that may target NLK. Ectopic expression of miRNA mimics suggested that miR-101 could suppress NLK in HCC cells. Notably, ectopic miR-101 expression repressed cancer cell growth and proliferation and imitated NLK knockdown effect on HCC cells. In conclusion, we suggest that miR-101 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating abnormal NLK activity in liver.
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Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and epidemiology of female urinary tract infections in South Korea, 2010-2011.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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This study aimed to (i) investigate the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) in outpatient and inpatient settings and (ii) evaluate the risk factors for emerging antimicrobial drug resistance in UTIs in South Korea. In total, 3,023 samples without duplication were collected from females between 25 and 65 years of age who had been diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. Multicenter patient data were collected using a Web-based electronic system and then evaluated. The isolation rates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecium in the outpatient setting were 78.1, 4.7, and 1.3%, respectively; in the inpatient setting, the isolation rates of these microorganisms were 37.8, 9.9, and 14.8%, respectively. The susceptibilities of E. coli to amikacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem in the outpatient setting were 99.4, 79.8, 89.4, 92.8, 69.8, 96.9, and 100.0%, respectively; in the inpatient setting, the susceptibilities to these antibiotics were 97.8, 73.9, 73.7, 82.1, 53.6, 93.2, and 100.0%, respectively. The most unique and common risk factor for emerging antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. faecium was previous exposure to antimicrobials. On the basis of these data, the use of fluoroquinolones should be reserved until culture data are available for the treatment of UTIs in South Korea. The present study will serve as a useful reference for Far Eastern Asia.
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Microbiological etiology of bacterial prostatitis in general hospital and primary care clinic in Korea.
Prostate Int
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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The National Institutes of Health classification of prostatitis reported the proportion of chronic bacterial prostatitis, especially category II, at 3% to 10%. Because of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis technique, chronic prostatitis syndrome (CPS) with a known bacterial origin has increased recently. In this study, we evaluated the proportion of chronic bacterial prostatitis in a general hospital and a primary care clinic (PCC) in addition to the distribution of the microorganism in chronic bacterial prostatitis in Korea.
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Pseudoruegeria haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM67(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) collected from the northern coast of Jeju Island in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain WM67(T) clustered in the genus Pseudoruegeria, and the highest sequence similarity was shared with Pseudoruegeria lutimaris (98.0?% similarity to the type strain). Optimal growth of the isolate occurred at 30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 1?% (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c) and C16?:?0. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain WM67(T) comprised phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 66.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated <17?% genomic relatedness to other members of the genus Pseudoruegeria. The physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WM67(T) represents a novel species of Pseudoruegeria, for which the name Pseudoruegeria haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM67(T) (?=?KACC 17214(T)?=?JCM 18872(T)).
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Halococcus sediminicola sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a marine sediment.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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A novel, red-pigmented and coccoid haloarchaeon, designated strain CBA1101(T), was isolated from a marine sediment. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CBA1101(T) is most closely related to the genus Halococcus in the family Halobacteriaceae. Strain CBA1101(T) had a highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.4 % with Halococcus dombrowskii DSM 14522(T), followed by 93.7-98.3 % with sequences of other type strains in the genus Halococcus. The RNA polymerase subunit B gene sequence similarity of strain CBA1101(T) with that of Halococcus qingdaonensis JCM 13587(T) is 89.5 % and lower with those of other members of the genus Halococcus. Strain CBA1101(T) was observed to grow at 25-40 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and in the presence of 15-30 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth at 35-40 °C, pH 7.0 and with 20 % NaCl. The cells of strain CBA1101(T) are Gram-negative and did not lyse in distilled water. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglyerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, sulfated diglycosyl diether, unidentified phospholipids and unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined 66.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization experiment showed that there was less than 40 % relatedness between strain CBA1101(T) and the reference species in the genus Halococcus. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain CBA1101(T) is considered to represent a new species in the genus Halococcus, for which the name Halococcus sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBA1101(T) (=JCM 18965(T) = CECT 8275(T)).
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Enterococcus diestrammenae sp. nov., isolated from the gut of Diestrammena coreana.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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A novel Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and lactic-acid-producing bacterium, designated strain ORL-24(T), was isolated from the gut of the camel cricket, Diestrammena coreana. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 8 and with 0?% (w/v) NaCl. The ratio of l-lactate to d-lactate in strain ORL-24(T) was 96?:?4. Lancefield antigen D was not detected. The strain was negative for oxidase activity and catalase activity. According to a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain ORL-24(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Enterococcus asini (96.9?% similarity). Comparative pheS and rpoA sequence analyses of strain ORL-24(T) indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Enterococcus. The major fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C18?:?1?9c. The DNA G+C content was 41.3 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain ORL-24(T) represents a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus diestrammenae is proposed. The type strain is ORL-24(T) (?=?KACC 16708(T)?=?JCM 18359(T)).
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Shimia haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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A novel Gram-stain-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM35(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The cells of the isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7, and with 3?% (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain WM35(T) was grouped in the genus Shimia and was closely related to the type strains of Shimia isoporae (98.7?% similarity) and Shimia marina (97.8?% similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 and C16?:?0 2-OH. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain WM35(T) comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 53.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated <16?% genomic relatedness with members of the genus Shimia. The physiological, chemical and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WM35(T) represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM35(T) (?=?KACC 17212(T)?=?JCM 18870(T)).
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An increase in the Akkermansia spp. population induced by metformin treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Recent evidence indicates that the composition of the gut microbiota contributes to the development of metabolic disorders by affecting the physiology and metabolism of the host. Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed type 2 diabetes (T2D) therapeutic agents.
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Strict vegetarian diet improves the risk factors associated with metabolic diseases by modulating gut microbiota and reducing intestinal inflammation.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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Low-grade inflammation of the intestine results in metabolic dysfunction, in which dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is intimately involved. Dietary fibre induces prebiotic effects that may restore imbalances in the gut microbiota; however, no clinical trials have been reported in patients with metabolic diseases. Here, six obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension were assigned to a strict vegetarian diet (SVD) for 1 month, and blood biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolisms, faecal microbiota using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, faecal lipocalin-2 and short-chain fatty acids were monitored. An SVD reduced body weight and the concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and haemoglobin A1c, and improved fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels. An SVD reduced the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiota, but did not alter enterotypes. An SVD led to a decrease in the pathobionts such as the Enterobacteriaceae and an increase in commensal microbes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium species belonging to clusters XIVa and IV, resulting in reduced intestinal lipocalin-2 and short-chain fatty acids levels. This study underscores the benefits of dietary fibre for improving the risk factors of metabolic diseases and shows that increased fibre intake reduces gut inflammation by changing the gut microbiota.
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Genome sequence of the moderately halophilic bacterium Salinicoccus carnicancri type strain Crm(T) (= DSM 23852(T)).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Salinicoccus carnicancri Jung et al. 2010 belongs to the genus Salinicoccus in the family Staphylococcaceae. Members of the Salinicoccus are moderately halophilic and originate from various salty environments. The halophilic features of the Salinicoccus suggest their possible uses in biotechnological applications, such as biodegradation and fermented food production. However, the genus Salinicoccus is poorly characterized at the genome level, despite its potential importance. This study presents the draft genome sequence of S. carnicancri strain Crm(T) and its annotation. The 2,673,309 base pair genome contained 2,700 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes with an average G+C content of 47.93 mol%. It was notable that the strain carried 72 predicted genes associated with osmoregulation, which suggests the presence of beneficial functions that facilitate growth in high-salt environments.
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The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of synapse formation and maintenance. Many known synaptic adhesion molecules localize at excitatory synapses, whereas relatively little is known about inhibitory synaptic adhesion molecules. Here we report that IgSF9b is a novel, brain-specific, homophilic adhesion molecule that is strongly expressed in GABAergic interneurons. IgSF9b was preferentially localized at inhibitory synapses in cultured rat hippocampal and cortical interneurons and was required for the development of inhibitory synapses onto interneurons. IgSF9b formed a subsynaptic domain distinct from the GABAA receptor- and gephyrin-containing domain, as indicated by super-resolution imaging. IgSF9b was linked to neuroligin 2, an inhibitory synaptic adhesion molecule coupled to gephyrin, via the multi-PDZ protein S-SCAM. IgSF9b and neuroligin 2 could reciprocally cluster each other. These results suggest a novel mode of inhibitory synaptic organization in which two subsynaptic domains, one containing IgSF9b for synaptic adhesion and the other containing gephyrin and GABAA receptors for synaptic transmission, are interconnected through S-SCAM and neuroligin 2.
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Functional and molecular changes of the bladder in rats with crushing injury of nerve bundles from major pelvic ganglion to the bladder: role of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Voiding dysfunction is a common complication after radical pelvic surgery. To reduce this complication, nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery was introduced. However, several patients experienced voiding difficulty despite nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. Thus, we investigated the functional and molecular changes of the bladder in rats, which demonstrated voiding dysfunction induced by nerve damage during nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. Male rats were used and assigned to normal, sham-operated, and bilateral crushing nerve bundles from major pelvic ganglion (MPG) to bladder group. After one, two, and four-week crushing injury, significantly decreased contractile response and increased connective tissue of the detrusor were observed and these results were reliable findings with voiding difficulty following nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. After crushing injury, significantly increased M2 muscarinic receptor expression was observed and this might be regarded as the compensatory response. However, M3 muscarinic receptor expression was not significantly changed. The expression of RhoA, ROCK-?, and ROCK-? was significantly increased after one, two, and four-week crushing injury. From these results, the down-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway might lead to the decreased bladder contractility after crushing injury of nerve bundles from MPG to the bladder despite of the compensated up-regulation of M2 muscarinic receptor.
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Comparative viral metagenomics of environmental samples from Korea.
Genomics Inform
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The introduction of metagenomics into the field of virology has facilitated the exploration of viral communities in various natural habitats. Understanding the viral ecology of a variety of sample types throughout the biosphere is important per se, but it also has potential applications in clinical and diagnostic virology. However, the procedures used by viral metagenomics may produce technical errors, such as amplification bias, while public viral databases are very limited, which may hamper the determination of the viral diversity in samples. This review considers the current state of viral metagenomics, based on examples from Korean viral metagenomic studies-i.e., rice paddy soil, fermented foods, human gut, seawater, and the near-surface atmosphere. Viral metagenomics has become widespread due to various methodological developments, and much attention has been focused on studies that consider the intrinsic role of viruses that interact with their hosts.
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Gillisia marina sp. nov., from seashore sand, and emended description of the genus Gillisia.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated CBA3202(T), was isolated from seashore sand on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CBA3202(T) was allocated to the genus Gillisia (family Flavobacteriaceae) and was most closely related to the type strain of Gillisia mitskevichiae (99.0?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C and with 3?% NaCl. The only isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6), the predominant fatty acids were C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?1 G, iso-C16?:?0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), and the DNA G+C content was 34.9 mol%. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and several unidentified polar lipids. Based on phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, we conclude that strain CBA3202(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gillisia, for which the name Gillisia marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBA3202(T) (?=?KACC 16693(T)?=?KCTC 32030(T)?=?JCM 18402(T)). An emended description of the genus Gillisia is also provided.
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Rhodopirellula rosea sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from an ark clam Scapharca broughtonii.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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A novel Gram-negative, motile, and ovoid-shaped strain, LHWP3(T), which belonged to the family Planctomycetaceae in the phylum Planctomycetes, was isolated from a dead ark clam Scapharca broughtonii collected during a mass mortality event on the south coast of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to the type strain of Rhodopirellula baltica, with a shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.8%. The isolate grew optimally at 30°C in 4-6% (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 7. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The dominant polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unidentified polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 ?9c, and C18:0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain LHWP3(T) was 53.0 mol%. Based on polyphasic taxonomic analyses, strain LHWP3(T) should be classified as a novel species in the genus Rhodopirellula in the family Planctomycetaceae, for which the name Rhodopirellula rosea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LHWP3(T) (=KACC 15560(T) =JCM 17759(T)).
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Paenibacillus marinisediminis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from marine sediment.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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A Gram-negative, nonmotile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain LHW35(T), which belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, was isolated from marine sediment collected from the south coast of the Republic of Korea. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LHW35(T) was most closely related to Paenibacillus taiwanensis G-soil-2-3(T) (97.2% similarity). The optimal growth conditions for strain LHW35(T) were 37°C, pH 6.0, and 0% (w/v) NaCl. The main isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major polyamine was spermidine. The diamino acid present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified amino-hospholipids, unidentified phospholipids, and unidentified polar lipids. A DNA-DNA hybridization experiment using the type strain of P. taiwanensis indicated <40% relatedness. The DNA G+C content was 45.0 mol%. Based on these phylogenetic, genomic, and phenotypic analyses, strain LHW35(T) should be classified as a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus marinisediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LHW35(T) (=KACC 16317(T) =JCM 17886(T)).
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MiR-145 functions as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting histone deacetylase 2 in liver cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Aberrant regulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but, the underlying mechanism leading to HDAC2 overexpression is not well understood. We performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling analysis in a subset of HCCs, and identified four down-regulated miRNAs that may target HDAC2 in HCC. Ectopic expression of miRNA mimics evidenced that miR-145 suppresses HDAC2 expression in HCC cells. This treatment repressed cancer cell growth and recapitulated HDAC2 knockdown effects on HCC cells. In conclusion, we suggest that loss or suppression of miR-145 may cause aberrant overexpression of HDAC2 and promote HCC tumorigenesis.
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Ferrimonas pelagia sp. nov., isolated from seawater.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain CBA4601(T), was isolated from a seawater sample obtained off the coast of Jeju Island, Korea. The organism grew in the presence of 0-4% (w/v) NaCl and at 20-35 °C and pH 7.0-9.0, with optimal growth in 2% NaCl, and at 25 °C and pH 8.0. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CBA4601(T) was related to the genus Ferrimonas within the class Gammaproteobacteria. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CBA4601(T) and Ferrimonas marina A4D-4(T), the most closely related species, was 96.9%. The G+C content of the genomic DNA from strain CBA4601(T) was 54.2 mol%, and the isoprenoid quinones menaquinone 7 (MK-7), ubiquinone 7 (Q-7) and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) were detected. The major fatty acids were C(17:1)?8c, C(18:1)?9c and C(16:0), and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified ninhydrin-positive phospholipid. On the basis of this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain CBA4601(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ferrimonas, for which the name Ferrimonas pelagia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBA4601(T) (?=KACC 16695(T)?=KCTC 32029(T)?=JCM 18401(T)).
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Another option for laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy: a single center experience comparing two-port versus hand-assisted technique.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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To compare the clinical outcomes of two-port laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (TPLDN) vs hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN).
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Sirtuin7 oncogenic potential in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its regulation by the tumor suppressors MiR-125a-5p and MiR-125b.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized form (NAD(+) )-dependent deacetylases and function in cellular metabolism, stress resistance, and aging. For sirtuin7 (SIRT7), a role in ribosomal gene transcription is proposed, but its function in cancer has been unclear. In this study we show that SIRT7 expression was up-regulated in a large cohort of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. SIRT7 knockdown influenced the cell cycle and caused a significant increase of liver cancer cells to remain in the G1 /S phase and to suppress growth. This treatment restored p21(WAF1/Cip1) , induced Beclin-1, and repressed cyclin D1. In addition, sustained suppression of SIRT7 reduced the in vivo tumor growth rate in a mouse xenograft model. To explore mechanisms in SIRT7 regulation, microRNA (miRNA) profiling was carried out. This identified five significantly down-regulated miRNAs in HCC. Bioinformatics analysis of target sites and ectopic expression in HCC cells showed that miR-125a-5p and miR-125b suppressed SIRT7 and cyclin D1 expression and induced p21(WAF1/Cip1) -dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, treatment of HCC cells with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine or ectopic expression of wildtype but not mutated p53 restored miR-125a-5p and miR-125b expression and inhibited tumor cell growth, suggesting their regulation by promoter methylation and p53 activity. To show the clinical significance of these findings, mutations in the DNA binding domain of p53 and promoter methylation of miR-125b were investigated. Four out of nine patients with induced SIRT7 carried mutations in the p53 gene and one patient showed hypermethylation of the miR-125b promoter region. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the oncogenic potential of SIRT7 in hepatocarcinogenesis. A regulatory loop is proposed whereby SIRT7 inhibits transcriptional activation of p21(WAF1/Cip1) by way of repression of miR-125a-5p and miR-125b. This makes SIRT7 a promising target in cancer therapy. (HEPATOLOGY 2013).
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Weissella diestrammenae sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a camel cricket (Diestrammena coreana).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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A novel, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic, rod- or coccoid-shaped bacterium, designated strain ORY33(T), was isolated from the gut of a camel cricket (Diestrammena coreana). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ORY33(T) belonged to the genus Weissella, with highest sequence similarity to Weissella koreensis S-5623(T) (97.7 %). The strain grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7 in the presence of 0 % (w/v) NaCl. Catalase and oxidase activities were negative. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain ORY33(T) was 45.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain ORY33(T) and closely related members of the genus Weissella were less than 27 %. The major fatty acids of strain ORY33(T) were C18 : 1?9c, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. Based on these phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses, strain ORY33(T) represents a novel species belonging to the genus Weissella, for which the name Weissella diestrammenae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ORY33(T) (= KACC 16890(T) = JCM 18559(T)).
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Enzymatically in situ shell cross-linked micelles composed of 4-arm PPO-PEO and heparin for controlled dual drug delivery.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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We report a controlled dual drug delivery system using heparinized 4-arm poly(propylene oxide) (PPO)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) micelles (cHTM) that are sterically stabilized by enzymatic shell cross-linking (SCL). Tyramine (TA) was chemically conjugated to 4-arm PPO-PEO (Tetronic) and heparin, resulting in Tetronic-TA (Tet-TA) and heparin-TA (Hep-TA), respectively. To prepare a series of cHTM, different amounts of Hep-TA were added to a micellar solution of Tet-TA, followed by addition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to trigger SCL between TA groups at the micellar surfaces. Increasing the feed amount of Hep-TA led to increased heparin content of cHTM, thereby resulting in increased micelle size with more negatively charged surfaces. All SCL micelles were found to be highly stable over 4weeks, showing negligible changes in their sizes and zeta potentials. Dual drug-loaded cHTM containing indomethacin (IMC) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were prepared via a one-pot procedure. With favorable IMC loading, the loading efficiencies of bFGF into cHTM were much higher than those in the controls due to the presence of heparin on the micellar surface. After bFGF was added to IMC loaded cHTM the surface of HTM became less negative with an increase in size, suggesting successful binding of positively charged bFGF to heparinized micelle surfaces. In vitro release data clearly showed more sustained release of IMC and bFGF as compared with non-cross-linked micelles. Based on these results, we suggest that cHTM can be used as a new drug delivery platform for controlled dual drug release.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.