Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and invasive brain tumor, for which novel prognostic markers and predictors of therapeutic response are urgently needed. We reported previously that levels of peptide-O-linked mannose ?-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (PomGnT1) in glioma specimens correlated with tumor grade. However, the prognostic significance of PomGnT1 in glioma patients and its function in GBM progression remain unknown.
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has gradually come to be regarded as a preferred option in the treatment of pituitary adenomas because of its advantages of improved visualization and its minimal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
Here we aimed to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on accelerated reendothelialization after carotid balloon injury. A mouse model of carotid arterial injury was established, followed by intragastric administration of atorvastatin at a dose of 0.6 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·d(-1). Pathological sections of carotid artery stained with hematoxylin and eosin were observed under light microscopy. Expression levels of eNOS mRNA and protein were detected with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Proliferation and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were observed after treatment, in vitro. Reendothelialization appeared on the neovascular surface, while intimal hyperplasia was inhibited after treatment with atorvastatin. Numbers of CD31-positive cells increased after atorvastatin treatment, as did the number of leucocyte antigen positive cells. The expression of cell markers, such as CD34, eNOS, and VEGF-R, were higher in the atorvastatin-treated group of mononuclear cells. EPC numbers increased with the concentration of atorvastatin. The expression of eNOS mRNA was reduced in the mice with carotid artery injury that were treated with normal saline. The expression levels of eNOS protein were increased in atorvastatin treatment group. In conclusion, atorvastatin stimulates EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells and promotes the repair of carotid arterial injury.
The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is reported to suppress glutamate release mainly through selective activation of presynaptic Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3). Therefore, strategies of inhibition of NAAG peptidases and subsequent NAAG hydrolysis to elevate levels of NAAG could reduce glutamate release under pathological conditions and be neuroprotective by attenuating excitotoxic cell injury. A series of potent inhibitors of NAAG peptidases has been synthesized and demonstrated efficacy in experimental models of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory pain, diabetic neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and phencyclidine-induced schizophrenia-like behaviors. The excessive glutamatergic transmission has been implicated in all of these neurological disorders. Thus, blockade of NAAG peptidases may augment an endogenous protective mechanism and afford neuroprotection in the brain. This review aims to summarize and provide insight into the current understanding of the novel neuroprotective strategy based on limiting glutamate excitotoxicity for a wide variety of brain injuries and neurological disorders.
The objective of this study was to retrospectively review the postoperative seizure outcome in patients with short duration of epilepsy associated with cavernous malformations and analyze the effect of surgical methods on seizure outcome in such population.
Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCMs) are rare and account for 4-8.5% of central nervous system metastases. Only one case of biopsy-proven ISCM due to prostate cancer has previously been reported. The current study presents an additional unique case of a 74-year-old male who developed symptoms from an intramedullary conus medullaris metastasis as the first manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this scenario is even more rare and has not previously been reported. The tumor was radically resected, followed by androgen blockade treatment. The patient's neurological deficit significantly improved, with no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. In addition, the present study provides an overview of the previous literature concerning ISCMs from prostate cancer, and discusses the treatment options.
Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. ?-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socioeconomic problem worldwide with a high rate of death and long-term disability. Previous studies have summarized evidence from large-scale randomized trials, finding no intervention showing convincing efficacy for acute TBI management. The present empirical study set out to assess another crucial component of evidence base-systematic review, which contributes a lot to evidence-based health care, in terms of clinical issues, methodological aspects, and implication for practice and research. A total of 44 systematic reviews pertaining to therapeutic interventions for acute TBI were identified through electronic database searching, clinical guideline retrieval, and expert consultation, of which 21 were published in Cochrane Library and 23 in peer-reviewed journals. Their methodological quality was generally satisfactory, with the median Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire score of 5.5 (interquartile range 2-7). Cochrane reviews are of better quality than regular journal reviews. Twenty-nine high-quality reviews provided no conclusive evidence for the investigated 22 interventions except for an adverse effect of corticosteroids. Less than one-third of the component trials were reported with adequate allocation concealment. Additionally other methodological flaws in design-for example, ignoring heterogeneity among the TBI population-also contributed to the failure of past clinical research. Based on the above findings, evidence from both systematic reviews and clinical trials does not fully support current management of acute TBI. Translating from laboratory success to clinical effect remains an unique challenge. Accordingly it may be the time to rethink the way in future practice and clinical research in TBI.
Choriocarcinomas generally develop in females. Non-gestational choriocarcinoma in males is extremely rare. The present study describes two cases of young males who were diagnosed with intracranial choriocarcinoma. One case was of an aggressive choriocarcinoma with multiple metastases to the brain, but with an unidentified origin. The patient was admitted in the terminal stage of the cancer. Although a tumor resection was performed, the condition of the patient rapidly deteriorated and chemotherapy was not recommended. The patient succumbed nine days after the surgery. The second case was of a primary ventricular choriocarcinoma. The patient was hospitalized for acute hydrocephalus caused by a mass that was located in the ventricle. Following a tumor resection, the patient underwent a course of whole-brain and spinal radiotherapy. The patient was followed up for more than half a year and remained in a good condition. The present study describes the two cases and a comprehensive review of the literature that was performed to identify similar studies that document choriocarcinomas in males.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by poor therapeutic response and poor overall survival. It is crucial that more effective therapies be developed for the treatment of GBM. Inhibitor of DNA binding protein-1 (ID1) has been shown to maintain the self-renewal capacity of neural stem cells and might be involved in the therapeutic resistance of GBM. In the present study, we explored survival data from the The Cancer Genome Atalas database that were based on ID1 expression for patients diagnosed with primary GBMs. Interestingly, patients with high ID1 expression had better survival than patients with low ID1 expression, and a strong correlation was found between radiotherapy efficacy, ID1 expression, and overall survival. We further investigated the relationship between ID1 expression and the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma using glioblastoma cell lines. The clonogenic formation assay showed that U87 ID1-shRNA cells were much less sensitive to radiation. Moreover, both the results of the ?H2AX foci staining assay and the comet assay further revealed that ID1 negatively regulates DNA repair processes by downregulating the expression of genes such as DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated. Additionally, ID1 induces G2/M arrest in U87 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that ID1 may be a new prognostic marker for GBM and have important implications for the therapeutic strategies used to treat GBM patients.
Brain ischemic postconditioning is the induction of brief periods of ischemia-reperfusion during the early stages following ischemia, and it has been shown to produce neuroprotective effects. The mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects are poorly understood. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one cause of postischemic neuronal death. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that is expressed in glial cells and may affect glutamate excitotoxicity. We induced global ischemia in rats and performed postconditioning with 6 cycles of 10 seconds reperfusion and 10 seconds reocclusion before final reperfusion. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed extensive neuronal loss (44.0 ± 2.8% cell survival) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Ischemic postconditioning decreased neuronal death (82.0 ± 5.6% cell survival; p<0.05). Western blotting revealed significantly increased GS expression in the hippocampus for the ischemia-reperfusion group over time compared with the sham group (p<0.05). Ischemic postconditioning resulted in significantly increased (p<0.05) GS expression compared with both the sham and ischemia-reperfusion groups, suggesting that upregulation of GS expression after ischemia constitutes a neuroprotective mechanism.
The outcome of surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms may be influenced by incomplete exclusion of the aneurysm or stenosis of the parent vessels. The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of intraoperative microvascular Doppler (IMD) in guiding optimal clip placement in aneurysm surgery.
The objective of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of health-related quality of life (HQOL) parameters combined with baseline clinical factors in patients undergoing neurosurgery for treatment of meningioma. A total of 147 patients (61 male, 86 female; mean age 43 years, range 5-77 years) who underwent resection of a meningioma between January 2002 and December 2004 were studied. HQOL was evaluated using a modified questionnaire based on the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 Scale and the Karnofsky Performance Scale. The relationships between HQOL and clinical history, radiological findings, extent of resection, histological grade and recurrence were investigated using multivariate analysis. The mean HQOL score was 73.94+/-1.79 for preoperative patients with meningioma, 84.88+/-2.14 for postoperative patients, and 91.13+/-1.61 for healthy controls. HQOL for patients with meningioma was significantly lower than that for normal controls (P<0.001), and postoperative patients had a more satisfactory HQOL than preoperative (P<0.05). Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that significant predictors of health-related quality of life were tumor size, extent of surgical excision, and histologic grade. Multivariate backward logistic regression yielded the regression equation HQOL=119.1097 - 1.5002X(3) - 8.6650X(6) - 10.4210X(7) (R=0.7466; where X(3) is tumor size, X(6) is extent of surgical excision, and X(7) is the histologic grade of the tumor). This equation can be used preoperatively to predict the HQOL of meningioma patients after neurosurgery. A specialized HQOL questionnaire for patients with meningioma provides useful information when planning the operative procedure, and may make it more likely that patients have a satisfactory HQOL after surgery.
There are different reports about operative methods for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas. Our experience of transsylvian-transinsular microsurgical approach to hypertensive putaminal hematomas was analyzed.
The extracranial microanatomic features and tissue protection for supraorbital keyhole approach are described in detail to achieve less invasiveness, which has scant reports and is important for craniofacial surgeons.
Surgical ablation of select brain areas has been frequently used to alleviate psychological dependence on opiate drugs in certain countries. However, ablative brain surgery was stopped in China in 2004 due to the related ethical controversy and possible side effects. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a less invasive, reversible and adjustable process of neuromodulation, was adopted to attenuate relapses in studies of drug addiction.
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