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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Human procaspase-1 variants with decreased enzymatic activity are associated with febrile episodes and may contribute to inflammation via RIP2 and NF-?B signaling.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The proinflammatory enzyme caspase-1 plays an important role in the innate immune system and is involved in a variety of inflammatory conditions. Rare naturally occurring human variants of the caspase-1 gene (CASP1) lead to different protein expression and structure and to decreased or absent enzymatic activity. Paradoxically, a significant number of patients with such variants suffer from febrile episodes despite decreased IL-1? production and secretion. In this study, we investigate how variant (pro)caspase-1 can possibly contribute to inflammation. In a transfection model, such variant procaspase-1 binds receptor interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2) via Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD)/CARD interaction and thereby activates NF-?B, whereas wild-type procaspase-1 reduces intracellular RIP2 levels by enzymatic cleavage and release into the supernatant. We approach the protein interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy and show that NF-?B activation is inhibited by anti-RIP2-short hairpin RNA and by the expression of a RIP2 CARD-only protein. In conclusion, variant procaspase-1 binds RIP2 and thereby activates NF-?B. This pathway could possibly contribute to proinflammatory signaling.
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Autophagy proteins stabilize pathogen-containing phagosomes for prolonged MHC II antigen processing.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Antigen preservation for presentation is a hallmark of potent antigen-presenting cells. In this paper, we report that in human macrophages and dendritic cells, a subset of phagosomes gets coated with Atg8/LC3, a component of the molecular machinery of macroautophagy, and maintains phagocytosed antigens for prolonged presentation on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. These Atg8/LC3-positive phagosomes are formed around the antigen with TLR2 agonists and require reactive oxygen species production by NOX2 for their generation. A deficiency in the NOX2-dependent formation of these antigen storage phagosomes could contribute to compromise antifungal immune control in chronic granulomatous disease patients.
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Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell-dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10- and IL-21-mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21-induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells.
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations underlying autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome impair human CD8(+) T-cell memory formation and function.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The capacity of CD8(+) T cells to control infections and mediate antitumor immunity requires the development and survival of effector and memory cells. IL-21 has emerged as a potent inducer of CD8(+) T-cell effector function and memory development in mouse models of infectious disease. However, the role of IL-21 and associated signaling pathways in protective CD8(+) T-cell immunity in human subjects is unknown.
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Somatic loss of heterozygosity, but not haploinsufficiency alone, leads to full-blown autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in 1 of 12 family members with FAS start codon mutation.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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We describe a family with 12 members carrying a heterozygous germline FAS c.3G>T start codon mutation leading to FAS haploinsufficiency. One patient had autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), one had recovered from ALPS, and ten mutation-positive relatives (MPRs) were healthy. FAS-mediated apoptosis and surface expression of FAS in single-positive T cells were lower for MPRs but did not discriminate between them and the ALPS patient. However, double-negative (DN) T cells of the ALPS patient had no FAS expression due to somatic loss of heterozygosity. Our results in this kindred suggest that FAS haploinsufficiency does not cause ALPS-FAS, but that modifying genetic events are crucial for its pathogenesis. FAS surface expression on DN T cells should be assessed routinely and FAS haploinsufficient patients should be followed as its potential for lymphomagenesis is not well defined and a second hit might occur later on.
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Gain-of-function human STAT1 mutations impair IL-17 immunity and underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) may be caused by autosomal dominant (AD) IL-17F deficiency or autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17RA deficiency. Here, using whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous germline mutations in STAT1 in 47 patients from 20 kindreds with AD CMCD. Previously described heterozygous STAT1 mutant alleles are loss-of-function and cause AD predisposition to mycobacterial disease caused by impaired STAT1-dependent cellular responses to IFN-?. Other loss-of-function STAT1 alleles cause AR predisposition to intracellular bacterial and viral diseases, caused by impaired STAT1-dependent responses to IFN-?/?, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IL-27. In contrast, the 12 AD CMCD-inducing STAT1 mutant alleles described here are gain-of-function and increase STAT1-dependent cellular responses to these cytokines, and to cytokines that predominantly activate STAT3, such as IL-6 and IL-21. All of these mutations affect the coiled-coil domain and impair the nuclear dephosphorylation of activated STAT1, accounting for their gain-of-function and dominance. Stronger cellular responses to the STAT1-dependent IL-17 inhibitors IFN-?/?, IFN-?, and IL-27, and stronger STAT1 activation in response to the STAT3-dependent IL-17 inducers IL-6 and IL-21, hinder the development of T cells producing IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22. Gain-of-function STAT1 alleles therefore cause AD CMCD by impairing IL-17 immunity.
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Meningoencephalitis caused by varicella-zoster virus reactivation in a child with dominant partial interferon-gamma receptor-1 deficiency.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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We describe a previously symptom-free 13-year-old boy with dominant partial interferon-? receptor-1 deficiency and unusual varicella-zoster virus reactivation. This case supports the unsettled notion that some interferon-? R-deficient patients are at enhanced risk for viral disease.
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Canakinumab (ACZ885, a fully human IgG1 anti-IL-1? mAb) induces sustained remission in pediatric patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) represents a spectrum of three auto-inflammatory syndromes, familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease/chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (NOMID/CINCA) with etiology linked to mutations in the NLRP3 gene resulting in elevated interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release. CAPS is a rare hereditary auto-inflammatory disease, which may start early in childhood and requires a life-long treatment. Canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1? antibody, produces sustained selective inhibition of IL-1?. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of canakinumab in the treatment of pediatric CAPS patients.
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Myeloperoxidase is required for neutrophil extracellular trap formation: implications for innate immunity.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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The granule enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in neutrophil antimicrobial responses. However, the severity of immunodeficiency in patients carrying mutations in MPO is variable. Serious microbial infections, especially with Candida species, have been observed in a subset of completely MPO-deficient patients. Here we show that neutrophils from donors who are completely deficient in MPO fail to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), indicating that MPO is required for NET formation. In contrast, neutrophils from partially MPO-deficient donors make NETs, and pharmacological inhibition of MPO only delays and reduces NET formation. Extracellular products of MPO do not rescue NET formation, suggesting that MPO acts cell-autonomously. Finally, NET-dependent inhibition of Candida albicans growth is compromised in MPO-deficient neutrophils. The inability to form NETs may contribute in part to the host defense defects observed in completely MPO-deficient individuals.
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Hematologically important mutations: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (third update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a lack of superoxide production by the leukocyte enzyme NADPH oxidase. Superoxide is used to kill phagocytosed micro-organisms in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages. The leukocyte NADPH oxidase is composed of five subunits, of which the enzymatic component is gp91-phox, also called Nox2. This protein is encoded by the CYBB gene on the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene are found in about 70% of all CGD patients. This article lists all mutations identified in CYBB in the X-linked form of CGD. Moreover, apparently benign polymorphisms in CYBB are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
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Diagnostic approach to the hyper-IgE syndromes: immunologic and clinical key findings to differentiate hyper-IgE syndromes from atopic dermatitis.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) are primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by Staphylococcus aureus abscesses, recurrent pneumonia, increased serum IgE levels, and eczema. The association of heterozygous signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations with autosomal dominant (AD)-HIES allows the differentiation of AD-HIES from disorders associated with eczema and increased serum IgE levels, such as other primary immunodeficiencies and atopic dermatitis.
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Hematologically important mutations: the autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (second update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the components of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme produces superoxide, which is essential in the process of intracellular pathogen killing by phagocytic leukocytes. Four of the five genes involved in CGD are autosomal; these are CYBA, encoding p22-phox, NCF2, encoding p67-phox, NCF1, encoding p47-phox, and NCF4, encoding p40-phox. This article lists all mutations identified in these genes in the autosomal forms of CGD. Moreover, polymorphisms in these genes are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
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B cell-intrinsic signaling through IL-21 receptor and STAT3 is required for establishing long-lived antibody responses in humans.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Engagement of cytokine receptors by specific ligands activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. The exact roles of STATs in human lymphocyte behavior remain incompletely defined. Interleukin (IL)-21 activates STAT1 and STAT3 and has emerged as a potent regulator of B cell differentiation. We have studied patients with inactivating mutations in STAT1 or STAT3 to dissect their contribution to B cell function in vivo and in response to IL-21 in vitro. STAT3 mutations dramatically reduced the number of functional, antigen (Ag)-specific memory B cells and abolished the ability of IL-21 to induce naive B cells to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs). This resulted from impaired activation of the molecular machinery required for PC generation. In contrast, STAT1 deficiency had no effect on memory B cell formation in vivo or IL-21-induced immunoglobulin secretion in vitro. Thus, STAT3 plays a critical role in generating effector B cells from naive precursors in humans. STAT3-activating cytokines such as IL-21 thus underpin Ag-specific humoral immune responses and provide a mechanism for the functional antibody deficit in STAT3-deficient patients.
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Chronic granulomatous disease: the European experience.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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CGD is an immunodeficiency caused by deletions or mutations in genes that encode subunits of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase complex. Normally, assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex in phagosomes of certain phagocytic cells leads to a "respiratory burst", essential for the clearance of phagocytosed micro-organisms. CGD patients lack this mechanism, which leads to life-threatening infections and granuloma formation. However, a clear picture of the clinical course of CGD is hampered by its low prevalence (approximately 1:250,000). Therefore, extensive clinical data from 429 European patients were collected and analyzed. Of these patients 351 were males and 78 were females. X-linked (XL) CGD (gp91(phox) deficient) accounted for 67% of the cases, autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance for 33%. AR-CGD was diagnosed later in life, and the mean survival time was significantly better in AR patients (49.6 years) than in XL CGD (37.8 years), suggesting a milder disease course in AR patients. The disease manifested itself most frequently in the lungs (66% of patients), skin (53%), lymph nodes (50%), gastrointestinal tract (48%) and liver (32%). The most frequently cultured micro-organisms per episode were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Aspergillus spp. (26%), and Salmonella spp. (16%). Surprisingly, Pseudomonas spp. (2%) and Burkholderia cepacia (<1%) were found only sporadically. Lesions induced by inoculation with BCG occurred in 8% of the patients. Only 71% of the patients received antibiotic maintenance therapy, and 53% antifungal prophylaxis. 33% were treated with gamma-interferon. 24 patients (6%) had received a stem cell transplantation. The most prominent reason of death was pneumonia and pulmonary abscess (18/84 cases), septicemia (16/84) and brain abscess (4/84). These data provide further insight in the clinical course of CGD in Europe and hopefully can help to increase awareness and optimize the treatment of these patients.
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Naturally occurring genetic variants of human caspase-1 differ considerably in structure and the ability to activate interleukin-1?.
Hum. Mutat.
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Caspase-1 (Interleukin-1 Converting Enzyme, ICE) is a proinflammatory enzyme that plays pivotal roles in innate immunity and many inflammatory conditions such as periodic fever syndromes and gout. Inflammation is often mediated by enzymatic activation of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. We detected seven naturally occurring human CASP1 variants with different effects on protein structure, expression, and enzymatic activity. Most mutations destabilized the caspase-1 dimer interface as revealed by crystal structure analysis and homology modeling followed by molecular dynamics simulations. All variants demonstrated decreased or absent enzymatic and IL-1? releasing activity in vitro, in a cell transfection model, and as low as 25% of normal ex vivo in a whole blood assay of samples taken from subjects with variant CASP1, a subset of whom suffered from unclassified autoinflammation. We conclude that decreased enzymatic activity of caspase-1 is compatible with normal life and does not prevent moderate and severe autoinflammation.
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P67-phox (NCF2) lacking exons 11 and 12 is functionally active and leads to an extremely late diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).
PLoS ONE
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Two brothers in their fifties presented with a medical history of suspected fungal allergy, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, alveolitis, and invasive aspergillosis and pulmonary fistula, respectively. Eventually, after a delay of 50 years, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was diagnosed in the index patient. We found a new splice mutation in the NCF2 (p67-phox) gene, c.1000 + 2T ? G, that led to several splice products one of which lacked exons 11 and 12. This deletion was in frame and allowed for remarkable residual NADPH oxidase activity as determined by transduction experiments using a retroviral vector. We conclude that p67-phox which lacks the 34 amino acids encoded by the two exons can still exert considerable functional activity. This activity can partially explain the long-term survival of the patients without adequate diagnosis and treatment, but could not prevent progressing lung damage.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.